Urethritis: symptoms, treatment
- Causes of appearance
- Symptoms of urethritis
- Types of urethritis
- Urethritis in women
- Diagnosis of urethritis
- Treatment of urethritis
- Preventive measures
Causes of appearance
Treatment of urethritis begins with the definition of the cause of its occurrence. Only after the cause has been established, the doctor can select an appropriate treatment for the patient.
Urethritis can be of infectious origin. The causative agents of a particular disease get into the body sexually or with the joint use of personal hygiene items.
The non-infectious origin of the disease suggests that urethritis was not acquired through sexual contact. The cause of the disease may be insufficiently well-processed medical instruments, urethral injuries, allergic reactions, etc.
Symptoms of urethritis
One of the first symptoms of the appearance of urethritis is painful urination. Appeal to a specialist is desirable at this stage, since it is likely to prevent further spread of inflammation. If you continue to ignore the unpleasant feelings that arise during urination, the next symptom becomes purulent discharge. In some cases, inflammation of the external orifice of the urethra can be observed.
- With total urethritis, inflammation of the entire urethra occurs. Symptoms may be similar to symptoms of prostatitis. In the absence of timely treatment of the disease, symptoms may disappear by themselves after a while. But then complications will follow.
- Acute urethritis can be determined if there are sharp pains and burning sensation when urinating. Lips of the urethra are painted in a bright red color, there is swelling. There are strong discharge from the urethra.
- After an acute form of the disease, a subacute can occur. Discharge from the urethra can significantly decrease or disappear completely. Urine in subacute urethritis becomes transparent. There may be purulent filaments.
- In the absence of timely treatment, urethritis can become chronic. Patients complain of neurotic phenomena. Small discharge from the urethra is possible. Exacerbations of the disease occur with alcohol, sexual arousal or hypothermia.
Urethritis is sometimes confused with prostatitis. Difficult and painful urination is common in both diseases. That's why it's unacceptable to do self-diagnostics. Also, do not take any independent action to treat the disease.
Patients who decide to consult a specialist, it is often very difficult to make a choice and decide which doctor is best to go to: the venereologist or urologist. To the venereologist it is recommended to address those for whom casual sexual intercourse is not uncommon. If the patient has a regular sexual partner or at the moment there is no partner at all, you can first turn to the urologist.
Types of urethritis
Urethritis is divided into two groups - non-infectious and infectious. The latter variety can be provoked by two groups of microorganisms: nonspecific (E. coli, staphylococcus, etc.) and specific (provoking venereal diseases). Let us consider in more detail the main types of infectious urethritis.
If a nonspecific pathogenic bacterial flora enters the urethra (in most cases this happens with occasional sexual intercourse), bacterial urethritis may occur. The disease also often occurs after prolonged catheterization of the bladder or transurethral endoscopic manipulation. Bacterial urethritis is divided into:
- Primary. Can be acute and chronic. Acute bacterial urethritis usually proceeds in an undefined manner and does not have a strictly defined incubation period. From the urethra, pus and mucus are secreted. There is soreness in the emptying of the bladder, burning and itching in the urethra. Minor edema in the area of the external opening and on the mucous membrane of the urethra is possible. Hemospermia (blood in the semen) and ejaculatory disorders can be observed in those cases when the process involves the spermatic tubercle in the back of the urethra.
- Secondary. It can develop if there is a local inflammatory process with an infectious disease, for example pneumonia. Secondary nonspecific urethritis in most cases proceeds long and latent. Adult patients may complain of soreness when urinating. Minor mucopurulent discharge in the morning is possible. Children, unlike adults, rarely complain about painful urination. There is hyperemia and gluing of the lips of the external opening of the urethra.
In the treatment of bacterial urethritis, it is necessary to take into account the sensitivity of the causative agent to this or that prescription drug, as well as pathogenesis and etiology. If the urethritis passes in parallel with the cystitis, the doctor prescribes a comprehensive treatment that necessarily includes physiotherapy.
If general therapy is not effective enough, local treatment can be prescribed, for example, instillations in the urethra of solutions of collargol, silver, etc.
The causative agent of the disease are gonococci that enter the body during intercourse. In addition, infection can occur through common objects, for example, a towel.
Treatment of gonorrheic urethritis is performed by a venereologist. Recently, the disease is treated with cephalosporins, since it was noted that gonococci became less susceptible to traditional penicillin. After the end of treatment it is necessary to test the patient for the presence in his body of gonococci. The patient is made so-called provocation, which is repeated at regular intervals. Gonorrheal urethritis does not leave immunity. That is why there is a chance of re-infection.
This variety of urethritis is very rare. The disease can occur as a result of the defeat of the urethra by yeast fungi. In most cases, the appearance of the disease is the result of prolonged antibacterial therapy. In addition, candidamycotic urethritis can be infected by sexual contact. The variety of the disease can occur almost asymptomatically. Possible whitish discharge from the urethra, itching and burning. If the patient takes antibiotics when making the diagnosis, the doctor abolishes them and replaces them with antifungal drugs.
Most often, the disease is caused by the virus of urethro-conjunctivitis. The virus has the ability to multiply in the epithelial cells of the cervix, vagina, urethra and conjunctiva. This causes inflammation of the body concerned.
Transmission of infection is possible sexually. The course of this type of disease, as a rule, is sluggish. Viral urethritis can be accompanied by joint damage. There may be some difficulties with the treatment. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are usually combined with corticosteroid hormones.
This type of urethritis is distinguished by white foamy discharge from the urethra. There may be slight itching. The development of the disease begins 5-15 days after infection. Chronic trichomoniasis urethritis can be complicated by trichomoniasis prostatitis. Complication is observed in 15-20% of cases. To prevent re-infection, both partners are treated simultaneously. If necessary, you can hold a second course.
Urethritis in women
Contrary to popular belief that only men are affected by urethritis, the disease can often be found in women. However, given the fact that the urethra in the female body is much shorter than the male urethra, inflammation in women can be asymptomatic and painless. In this regard, the patient does not have the opportunity to call a doctor in a timely manner, which can lead to chronic illness. It is easiest to detect gonococcal urethritis on its own, as it is accompanied by sharp pains and purulent secretions from the urethra.
If the patient does not consult a specialist on time, she starts cystitis , that is, inflammation of the bladder. Symptoms of both diseases are so similar that urethritis can be taken for cystitis, because the main symptom is the frequent urge to urinate. The causes of urethritis in women can be:
- Sexual infections;
- inaccuracies in the diet;
- gynecological diseases.
To less common causes of urethritis can be attributed:
- Medical intervention. In the conduct of cystoscopy and catheterization, an insufficiently competent doctor can damage the walls of the urethra or infect an infection, which contributes to the development of the disease.
- Irradiation. This cause is rare. However, radiation sickness can indeed lead to cystitis or urethritis.
- Urolithiasis disease. When the crystals and sand formed in the kidneys pass through the urethra, they damage the walls of the urethra. The urethra becomes very vulnerable.
Urethritis in women, as well as in men, has complications. In addition to cystitis, one of the main complications is pyelonephritis. In addition, chronic urethritis in the absence of the necessary treatment can lead to deformation of the urethra, its narrowing. Deformation complicates the process of urination.
Treatment of urethritis in women involves 3 main stages:
- At the first stage, it is necessary to remove the inflammation of the urethra;
- In the second stage, the normal vaginal microflora should be restored, especially if the urethritis was caused by sexual infection;
- At the third stage, all necessary measures are taken to restore the immune system. Increased resistance makes the body less susceptible to various kinds of infections.
Preventive maintenance of a urethritis at women has the features:
- it is necessary to eliminate problems with the stool - constipation and diarrhea;
- should be avoided a combination of anal and vaginal intercourse, as well as casual sexual intercourse;
- a visit to a gynecologist should be regular, regardless of the presence of symptoms.
Diagnosis of urethritis
At the first stage, a specialist needs to identify the cause of urethritis. To do this, you need to find pathogens. However, if there is no pus from the urethra, it is not easy to establish the cause of the onset of the disease. Thermal, chemical and physical provocative tests are used to extract pus. The easiest is the chemical method: the patient takes the medicine, and then begins an abundant release of pus. Thermal and mechanical methods are more complex and painful. To get pus, the mucous membrane of the urethra is irritated with a thin metal probe (physical method) or thermal effects (thermal method).
Further investigation of the secretions can be carried out in two ways: bacterioscopic or bacteriological. The first method of research involves studying the smear under a microscope. If the causative agent was not established, a bacteriological method is used. Discharge from the urethra is placed on a nutrient medium. In the case of a positive result, entire colonies of bacteria will grow on the nutrient medium.
There are more modern methods of detecting pathogens. Many medical centers use a polymerase chain reaction. This method of investigation implies the isolation of the DNA of the urethritis pathogen from any biological fluid of the patient.
Patients who have ever received pelvic injuries can prescribe an x-ray of the urethra. With the help of contrast radiography, defects in the walls of the urethra can be detected. In addition, uretroscopy is widely used for research, in which a special optical device is inserted into the urethra.
Treatment of urethritis
In most cases, antibiotics are used to treat urethritis. To achieve the best results, it is necessary to take into account the antibioticogram data. This means that before appointing a patient to antibiotics, the doctor must determine how high the patient's sensitivity to the prescribed medication. The antibiotic is carried out a few days after the patient was diagnosed. During these days, the patient also should not remain without medical assistance. The patient can temporarily prescribe antibiotics from the penicillin group, that is, broad-spectrum antibiotics. Currently, semi-synthetic penicillins are widely used. This group of drugs has a stronger effect on the pathogen, while being resistant to the human biological environment. If this group of drugs is ineffective, the patient may be prescribed more effective antibiotics. It is also possible to prescribe antiseptic drugs for washing the urethra. For this procedure, decasane or more traditional furacillin is used. Flushing should only be carried out by a specialist.
In order not to distort the picture of the disease, the patient should not engage in self-medication and take medicine before the doctor makes a diagnosis. Use of folk recipes for the treatment of urethritis is possible only after consultation with a specialist. Some methods of traditional medicine, for example, diuretic teas, help significantly speed up the healing process.
When undergoing treatment for urethritis, the patient should follow a diet that implies the rejection of products that increase the secretion of the mucous urethra. These products, in the first place, include spicy seasonings and spices.
It should be remembered that rehabilitation (psychological) after urethritis may be required not by the patient himself, but by his partner. Often, when identifying the urethritis partners in ignorance begin to blame each other for treason. After the patient was diagnosed, you can visit the doctor together. The specialist will explain to the partner of the patient that the presence of inflammation of the urethra does not indicate a man's unfaithfulness.
Untimely treatment of urethritis can lead to numerous complications, the most frequent of which is inflammation of the kidneys, the prostate or the bladder. According to recent studies, there is a link between inflammation of the urethra and the appearance of testicular tumors. Treat complications caused by urethritis is much more difficult than the disease itself.
The likelihood of the disease can be minimized by following some simple rules.
- First of all, casual connections should be avoided.
- Compliance with personal hygiene rules also reduces the likelihood of infection.
- Abandonment of bad habits: smoking and excessive consumption of spirits.
- Regular preventive supervision at the urologist.
- Compliance with diet: do not abuse spicy, pickled, salty foods.
- Timely treatment of infectious diseases of the urogenital system.
- Avoid supercooling of the body.
The greatest risk of getting sick is men suffering from inflammation of the pancreas, intestines, gall bladder and some other internal organs. The probability of infection is also great for those who often suffer from angina.
- Cystitis: symptoms, treatment
- Frequent urination in women: causes
- Pain when urinating: causes
- Burning with urination in men: causes, treatment
- Burning with urination in women: causes, treatment
- Urethritis in women: symptoms and treatment
- Frequent urination in men: causes, treatment