Urethritis: symptoms, treatment
- Causes of
- Symptoms of urethritis
- Types of Urethritis
- Urethritis in women
- Diagnosis of urethritis
- Urethritis treatment
- Preventive measures
Treatment of urethritis begins with determining the cause of its occurrence. Only after the cause has been established, the doctor can find an adequate treatment for the patient.
Urethritis can be infectious. The causative agents of a disease enter the body sexually or when sharing personal hygiene items.
The non-infectious origin of the disease suggests that urethritis was not obtained sexually. The cause of the disease can be insufficiently well-treated medical instruments, urethral injuries, allergic reactions, etc.
Symptoms of urethritis
Painful urination becomes one of the first symptoms of urethritis. Appeal to a specialist is desirable at this stage, since it is likely to prevent the further spread of inflammation. If you continue to ignore the discomfort that occurs during urination, the next symptom is purulent discharge. In some cases, inflammation of the external opening of the urethra can be observed.
- With total urethritis, inflammation of the entire urethra occurs. Symptoms may be similar to those of prostatitis. In the absence of timely treatment of the disease, the symptoms may disappear by themselves after some time. However, then follow the complications.
- Acute urethritis can be determined by the presence of sharp pains and burning during urination. The lips of the urethra are colored bright red and edema appears. Observed strong discharge from the urethra.
- After the acute form of the disease may occur subacute. Discharge from the urethra can be significantly reduced or disappear altogether. Urine with subacute urethritis becomes transparent. There may be purulent threads.
- In the absence of timely treatment, urethritis can become chronic. Patients complain of neurotic phenomena. There may be a small discharge from the urethra. Exacerbations of the disease occur when drinking alcohol, sexual arousal or hypothermia.
Urethritis is sometimes confused with prostatitis. Difficult and painful urination is characteristic of both diseases. That is why it is unacceptable to engage in self-diagnosis. Also, do not take any independent action to treat the disease.
Patients who decide to consult a specialist are often very difficult to make a choice and decide which doctor is best to go to: a venereologist or a urologist. A venereologist is recommended to apply to those for whom casual sex is not uncommon. If the patient has a permanent sexual partner or at the moment there is no partner at all, you can first turn to a urologist.
Types of Urethritis
Urethritis is divided into two groups - non-infectious and infectious. The latter species can be triggered by two groups of microorganisms: non-specific (E. coli, staphylococcus, etc.) and specific (provoking venereal diseases). Let us consider in more detail the main types of infectious urethritis.
If nonspecific pathogenic bacterial flora enters the urethra (in most cases, this happens with casual sex), bacterial urethritis can occur. The disease also often occurs after prolonged bladder catheterizations or transurethral endoscopic procedures. Bacterial urethritis is divided into:
- Primary. May have acute and chronic forms. Acute bacterial urethritis usually proceeds inexpressibly and does not have a strictly defined incubation period. From the urethra secreted pus and mucus. There is pain when emptying the bladder, burning and itching in the urethra. A slight swelling in the area of the external opening and on the mucous membrane of the urethra is possible. Hemospermia (blood in semen) and ejaculatory disorders can be observed in cases where the seminal tubercle is involved in the back of the urethra.
- Secondary. May develop in the presence of a local inflammatory process in any infectious disease, for example, pneumonia. Secondary non-specific urethritis in most cases is long and latent. Adult patients may complain of pain when urinating. There may be slight mucopurulent discharge in the morning. Children, unlike adults, rarely complain of painful urination. Hyperemia and gluing of the jaws of the external opening of the urethra are observed.
When treating bacterial urethritis, it is necessary to take into account the sensitivity of the pathogen to a particular prescribed drug, as well as pathogenesis and etiology. If urethritis runs in parallel with cystitis, the doctor prescribes a comprehensive treatment, which necessarily includes physical therapy.
If general therapy is not sufficiently effective, local treatment may be prescribed, for example, instillations into the urethra of solutions of collargol, silver, etc.
The causative agent of the disease are gonococci that enter the body during sexual intercourse. In addition, infection can occur through common objects, such as a towel.
Treatment of gonorrheal urethritis is carried out by the venereologist. Recently, the disease has been treated with cephalosporins, as it was noted that gonococci have become less susceptible to traditional penicillin. After the end of treatment, it is necessary to test the patient for the presence of gonococci in his body. The patient is made the so-called provocation, which is repeated at regular intervals. Gonorrheal urethritis does not leave immunity. That is why there is the possibility of re-infection.
This type of urethritis is very rare. The disease may result from lesions of the urethra by yeast. In most cases, the appearance of the disease becomes a consequence of long-term antibiotic therapy. In addition, candidiotic urethritis can be infected through sexual contact. A variety of the disease can be almost asymptomatic. Whitish discharge from the urethra, itching and burning are possible. If the patient takes antibiotics when making a diagnosis, the doctor cancels them and replaces them with antifungal drugs.
Most often, the occurrence of the disease contributes to the urethroconjunctivitis virus. The virus tends to multiply in the epithelial cells of the cervix, vagina, urethra and conjunctiva. When this occurs, the inflammation of the corresponding organ.
Sexually transmitted infection is possible. The course of this type of disease is usually sluggish. Viral urethritis may be accompanied by damage to the joints. There may be some difficulties with treatment. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are usually combined with corticosteroid hormones.
This type of urethritis is distinguished by white frothy discharge from the urethra. There may be a slight itch. The development of the disease begins 5-15 days after infection. Chronic trichomonas urethritis may be complicated by trichomonas prostatitis. Complication is observed in 15-20% of cases. To prevent re-infection, both partners are treated at the same time. If necessary, you can repeat the course.
Urethritis in women
Contrary to popular belief that only men are ill with urethritis, the disease can often be found in women. However, given the fact that the urethra in the female body is much shorter than the male urethra, the inflammation in women can be asymptomatic and painless. In this regard, the patient does not have the opportunity to consult a doctor in a timely manner, which can lead to the chronic form. It is easiest to self-detect gonococcal urethritis, since it is accompanied by sharp pains and purulent discharge from the urethra.
If the patient did not turn to a specialist in time, she begins to have cystitis , that is, an inflammation of the bladder. The symptoms of both diseases are so similar that urethritis can be mistaken for cystitis, since the main symptom is the frequent urge to urinate. The causes of urethritis in women can be:
- genital infections;
- errors in the diet;
- gynecological diseases.
The less common causes of urethritis include:
- Medical intervention. When performing cystoscopy and catheterization, an insufficiently competent doctor can damage the walls of the urethra or carry an infection, which contributes to the development of the disease.
- Irradiation. This reason is rare. However, radiation sickness can actually lead to cystitis or urethritis.
- Urolithiasis disease. When crystals and sand formed in the kidneys pass through the urethra, they damage the walls of the urethra. The urethra becomes very vulnerable.
Urethritis in women, as well as in men, has complications. In addition to cystitis, pyelonephritis becomes one of the main complications. In addition, chronic urethritis in the absence of the necessary treatment can lead to the deformity of the urethra, its narrowing. Deformation complicates the process of urination.
Treatment of urethritis in women involves 3 main steps:
- At the first stage it is necessary to remove the inflammation of the urethra;
- At the second stage, the normal microflora of the vagina should be restored, especially if urethritis was caused by genital infection;
- At the third stage, all necessary measures are taken to restore the immune system. Increased resistance makes the body less susceptible to various kinds of infections.
Prevention of urethritis in women has its own characteristics:
- problems with stool need to be resolved - constipation and diarrhea;
- a combination of anal and vaginal intercourse, as well as casual sex, should be avoided;
- A visit to the gynecologist should be regular, regardless of the presence of symptoms.
Diagnosis of urethritis
At the first stage, the specialist needs to identify the cause of urethritis. For this you need to find pathogens. However, if pus is not excreted from the urethra, it will not be easy to establish the cause of the disease. Thermal, chemical and physical provocative tests are used to extract pus. The chemical method is considered to be the easiest: the patient takes the medicine, after which a copious discharge of pus begins. Thermal and mechanical methods are more complex and painful. To get pus, the urethral mucosa is irritated by a thin metal probe (physical method) or temperature effects (thermal method).
Further investigation of secretions can be carried out in two ways: bacterioscopic or bacteriological. The first method of research involves the study of smears under the microscope. If it was not possible to establish the pathogen, the bacteriological method is applied. Discharge from the urethra is placed on a nutrient medium. In case of a positive result, whole colonies of bacteria will grow in the nutrient medium.
There are more modern methods of detecting pathogens. Many medical centers use a polymerase chain reaction. This method of research involves the isolation of the urethritis pathogen from any patient's biological fluid.
Patients who have ever received injuries of the pelvic organs may be given an x-ray of the urethra. With the help of contrast X-ray, you can detect defects in the walls of the urethra. In addition, urethroscopy is widely used for research, in which a special optical device is inserted into the urethra.
In most cases, antibiotics are used to treat urethritis. To achieve the best results, it is necessary to take into account the data of antibiograms. This means that before prescribing antibiotics to the patient, the doctor must determine how high the patient's sensitivity to the prescribed medication is. An antibiogram is performed a few days after the patient has been diagnosed. During these days, the patient should also not be left without medical assistance. The patient may be temporarily prescribed antibiotics from the penicillin group, that is, broad-spectrum antibiotics. Currently, semi-synthetic penicillins are widely used. This group of drugs has a stronger effect on the pathogen, while being resistant to the human biological environment. If this group of drugs is ineffective, the patient may be prescribed more effective antibiotics. It is also possible the appointment of antiseptic drugs for washing the urethra. For this procedure is used decassin or more traditional furatsillin. Washing should be carried out only by a specialist.
In order not to distort the picture of the disease, the patient should not self-medicate and take medicine before the doctor makes a diagnosis. It is possible to use popular recipes for treatment of urethritis only after consulting with a specialist. Some methods of traditional medicine, such as diuretic teas, help to significantly speed up the healing process.
Undergoing treatment for urethritis, the patient must follow a diet, which implies the rejection of products that increase the secretion of the mucous membrane of the urethra. These products, in the first place, include spicy seasonings and spices.
It should be remembered that rehabilitation (psychological) after urethritis may be required not for the patient himself, but for his partner. Often, when identifying urethritis partners unknowingly begin to blame each other for treason. After the patient has been diagnosed, you can visit the doctor together. The specialist will explain to the patient's partner that the presence of inflammation of the urethra is not indicative of the infidelity of the man.
Late treatment of urethritis can lead to numerous complications, the most frequent of which is inflammation of the kidneys, prostate or bladder. According to recent studies, there is a link between inflammation of the urethra and the appearance of testicular tumors. Treating complications caused by urethritis is much more complicated than the disease itself.
The probability of occurrence of the disease can be minimized if you follow some simple rules.
- First of all, you should avoid random links.
- Personal hygiene also reduces the chance of infection.
- Refusal of bad habits: smoking and excessive use of strong alcoholic drinks.
- Regular preventive observation at the urologist.
- Dieting: do not abuse spicy, pickled, salty foods.
- Timely treatment of infectious diseases of the genitourinary system.
- Avoid hypothermia.
Men who suffer from inflammation of the pancreas, intestines, gall bladder and some other internal organs are most at risk of getting sick. There is a high probability of infection in those who often suffer from angina.
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- Frequent urination in women: causes
- Pain when urinating: causes
- Burning urination in men: causes, treatment
- Burning urination in women: causes, treatment
- Urethritis in women: symptoms and treatment
- Frequent urination in men: causes, treatment