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Urethritis in women


Urethritis in women

Urethritis in women

Urethritis is a fairly common urological pathology that occurs in both men and women. This disease is characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the urethra and is accompanied by pain during urination and characteristic discharge from the urethra.

Types of urethritis in women

Urethritis is a disease that most often occurs as a result of an infectious pathogen entering the urethra. At the same time, clinicians are aware of the development of non-infectious urethritis. These include allergic, traumatic (urethritis, arising after catheterization), congestive, exchangeable, as well as inflammation caused by pathologies of the urethra. However, it is immediately necessary to clarify that urethritis that are not associated with infection are very rare. At the same time, inflammatory processes in the urethra, developed due to bacterial, fungal or viral infections, in clinical practice are divided into two large groups: specific and nonspecific.

Specific urethritis

This form of pathology is found in women suffering from a sexually transmitted disease ( gonorrhea , chlamydia , trichomoniasis, mycoplasmosis , gardenonerellosis, ureaplasmosis ). It should be noted that in the female body can simultaneously be several different infectious pathogens. As a rule, a specific urethritis in women makes itself felt after sexual contact. However, in some cases, the disease does not develop immediately, but after the incubation period, which can last from several hours to several days, and with the long-term course of the disease, the exacerbation of the pathological process can occur at almost any time.

Non-specific urethritis

Nonspecific urethritis is an inflammation of the urethra that occurs as a result of penetration of conditionally pathogenic microflora into the urethra. This may be staphylococcus, streptococcus, Proteus, E. coli, various fungal organisms, and so on. This form of pathology can also develop after sexual contact as a result of a massive reflux of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms that occur directly during the period of mating. As a rule, this situation is constantly observed, however, in women with a well-functioning immune system, inflammation does not occur, but as soon as the body defenses are weakened, unpleasant symptoms can occur immediately.

Factors triggering the development of urethritis in women

According to the authoritative opinion of specialists, most often the development of urethritis in women arises due to a violation of the microflora of the vagina, that is, in the presence of bacterial vaginitis. This condition is characterized by the presence in the vagina of a large number of uncharacteristic (conditionally pathogenic) microflora, which under certain conditions can activate and cause inflammation. The following factors can provoke the development of urethritis:

  1. Single or permanent supercooling.
  2. Urolithiasis (trauma of the urethra passing through it with sand or stones).
  3. Injuries to the vulva.
  4. Heavy physical exertion.
  5. High sexual activity and the simultaneous presence of multiple sexual partners.
  6. Irregular sex life.
  7. Delayed urination and inadequate water intake.
  8. Medical manipulations (catheterization, gynecological examination, taking smears from the urethra, etc.).
  9. Errors in the diet (abuse of sour, salty, spicy, pickled food).
  10. Abuse of alcoholic beverages.
  11. Various allergic reactions.
  12. Congestion in the pelvic area.
  13. Urethral stricture (narrowing of the urethra).

Symptoms of urethritis in women

The most characteristic symptoms of urethritis include cramps, pain, and burning sensation that develop during urination (especially at the very beginning). Sometimes purulent or mucopurulent discharge appears from the urethra. However, this symptom in women is not always detected (due to the anatomical features of the structure of the urogenital system). In urological practice, such a disease as a female urethritis is usually divided into three stages. It should be noted that the duration of each of them can vary, depending on the general condition of the woman’s body. Stage I is characterized by periodic exacerbations, which are quite rare and may have various manifestations (from minor to very severe). As a rule, this condition passes very quickly, without causing much concern to the woman. Therefore, if the patient turns to a doctor, then she is recommended light antibacterial drugs that can quickly relieve inflammation. At stage II urethritis in women there is an increase in exacerbations, and antibacterial drugs each time all the worse and worse. Therefore, to eliminate the inflammatory process in the urethra, the patient is forced to resort to stronger antibiotics. At the same time, in the interval between exacerbations, no pathological symptoms in a woman are observed. The third stage of urethritis is the most difficult period during which there is practically no remission. The patient constantly complains of pain in the urethra, antibacterial drugs practically do not bring the expected relief, and sometimes can cause the development of exacerbation.

Treatment of urethritis in women

Urethritis is a urological pathology, but the causes that provoke the development of the inflammatory process are often referred to the gynecology section. Therefore, the treatment of this disease is assigned to the urogynecologist. This is a specialist, equally possessing both specialties, that is, dealing with both gynecological and urological diseases. Treatment of urethritis in women should be carried out simultaneously in several directions. First of all, it should be aimed at restoring the normal properties of the mucous membrane of the urethra. This is especially important in cases where the patient is diagnosed with chronic urethritis, and the inflammatory process is no longer directly related to the penetration of the infection into the urethra. The second important task is to restore the normal microflora of the vagina. The fact is that the presence of opportunistic microorganisms in the genital tract of a woman will constantly provoke the development of urethritis, since pathogens can freely penetrate from the vagina into the urethra. In this case, the treatment is prescribed purely individually and requires a certain time. Finally, in order to get rid of urethritis, a woman needs to restore a weakened local and general immunity. It should be noted that the strengthening of local and general immunity is carried out in various ways, and the immunomodulators in each case are also assigned individually. Initially, in the process of treating chronic urethritis, a woman undergoes a course of microflora restoration, and instillations of the urethra are performed (washing the urethra with drugs). Also during this period, systemic antibacterial therapy is necessary. In the treatment of urethritis, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial vaginal suppositories and tampons, as well as paraffin and mud applications have proven themselves well. Due to such procedures, expansion of nearby blood vessels occurs, local blood circulation increases, and metabolic processes are normalized. If necessary (in the case of preservation of the painful symptoms), the patient is assigned to extinguish (burning of the mucous membrane) the urethra. This procedure is justified in the case when in the mucous membrane of the urethra under the influence of incessant inflammatory process irreversible changes occur, and therefore, all therapeutic measures do not have the desired effect. After cauterization, a new layer of mucous membrane is formed. As a means for cauterization in clinical practice, a special concentrated chemical is used. This procedure requires local anesthesia without the use of injections. After cauterization, a scab forms at the site of the inflamed area, and after it is rejected, a new tissue grows, and all the negative symptoms disappear. On average, a full course of treatment for cystitis is 2-3 weeks. At this time, it is strictly forbidden to consume alcoholic beverages and products that provoke the development of a pathological condition and weaken the effect of drugs, and it is not recommended to have sexual contacts. Upon completion of the main course of treatment, a woman can be prescribed an additional therapeutic course, which lasts 1-2 weeks, after 3 months. Patients who have been diagnosed with chronic cystitis , for maximum effect, should undergo several such courses within a year.

Traditional methods of treatment of urethritis in women

To eliminate the symptoms of inflammation of the urethra, folk healers recommend daily to use freshly squeezed carrot, lingonberry or cranberry juice. In the treatment of this pathology, parsley, beet and celery have proven themselves very well. These foods should be included in the daily diet. However, women who suffer from urethritis, doctors advise to prepare a therapeutic tool, which includes parsley (80 g). It should be crushed and pour milk. Then send for an hour in a preheated oven and simmer until the liquid evaporates twice. Strain the remaining liquid and take a tablespoon during the day (at intervals of 60 minutes). Such treatment should be carried out until the complete elimination of the painful symptoms. Also very effective in the treatment of cystitis is black currant. From the berries of this anti-inflammatory and diuretic plant, traditional healers advise you to prepare decoctions and take 50-100 ml per day. It should be noted that traditional methods of treatment do not act immediately, sometimes it may take 20 or even 30 days to achieve the effect. Therefore, this treatment is best done in conjunction with traditional techniques.

Prevention of urethritis in women

In order to prevent the development of this pathology, it is necessary to minimize the impact of adverse factors that may cause a weakening of the immune forces of the body. First of all, it is necessary to strictly follow the rules of personal hygiene, to protect yourself from stress and hypothermia. You also need to be very careful during casual sexual intercourse and, in order to avoid STDs, be sure to use personal protective equipment. At the same time, it is necessary to eat properly and regularly, allocate a sufficient amount of time for sleep, quickly eliminate the symptoms of diarrhea or constipation, and monitor your condition with antibiotic treatment. Women with recurrent cystitis, during sexual contacts, are advised not to use contraceptive drugs that destroy spermatozoa (spermicides), since these substances also destroy lactobacilli, which are representatives of the normal vaginal microflora and produce hydrogen peroxide, which prevents activation of pathogenic microflora. But if a woman refuses to change the usual method of contraception, then after the completion of sexual intercourse she is recommended to use antibacterial drugs for the purpose of prevention (once, as well as when clinical symptoms occur).

| January 1, 2015 | | 3,761 | Diseases in women