Ureaplasmosis: symptoms and treatment
- Causes of ureaplasmosis
- Symptoms of ureaplasmosis
- Ureaplasmosis and its consequences
- Methods and features of diagnosis of ureaplasmosis
- The main forms of the disease
- Preparing to visit a gynecologist with suspicions of ureaplasmosis
- Treatment of ureaplasmosis
- Ureaplasmosis in pregnant women
- Prophylaxis of ureaplasmosis
- Traditional medicine as an adjunct to the main treatment
The bacterium ureaplasma is a unicellular microbe, constantly found and multiplying in the human body, and is an integral part of its microflora. A deviation considered a disease is only excessive reproduction, exceeding the normal concentration. This same feature is also fundamental for the diagnosis of ureaplasmosis: such a diagnosis will be made only if no other pathologies or inflammatory processes in the genitourinary system are detected.
Causes of ureaplasmosis
Ureaplasma urealyticum - microorganisms that are part of the common bacterial background of the mucous membranes, most often they choose the environment of the vagina, therefore ureaplasmosis affects mainly women. And the statistics of this disease is not comforting: every 3rd girl is born with an unnaturally large amount of these bacteria in the body, getting an infection from her mother. Any factors related to immune system disorders, the use of pharmaceuticals (especially antibacterial drugs), transferred venereal or infectious diseases, can become factors provoking reproduction. In combination with external factors, negative ecological situation or climatic features of the region, the behavior of microorganisms becomes unpredictable, and colonies of bacteria that are not aggressive in the ordinary state begin to develop actively, introducing significant negative changes into the body.
Male ureaplasmosis is less common and less often diagnosed. This is due not only to the peculiarities of the hormonal and bacterial background of the male body, but also to the asymptomatic course of the disease in men. Most often mild malaise, caused by an increase in the density of Ureaplasma urealyticum, men carry on their feet without going to the doctor. Since most of the effects of ureaplasmosis are dangerous for women, it seems that ureaplasmosis in men may not require treatment. This opinion is erroneous, since the male carrier can become a means of spreading the disease for its partners.
Ureaplasmosis is a sexually transmitted disease, therefore, the risk group coincides with the category of potential patients of the dermatovenereal dispensary: persons leading a promiscuous sex life, practicing unprotected sexual intercourse with a frequent change of partners. The second of the most frequent principles of infection is divided into three types:
- defeat of the baby's lungs at the stage of embryo formation;
- intrauterine infection that penetrates to the unborn child through the umbilical cord;
- Infection of the baby while passing through the mucous membrane of the birth canal.
The erroneous opinion that infections of this kind can be infected by airborne or household way has no confirmation. The bacterium is not adapted to existence outside the habitual environment. Even the use of general sanitary and hygienic accessories with the diseased or the carrier is considered safe, as well as being with him in the same pool.
Symptoms of ureaplasmosis
For a long time, the ureaplasma may not signal itself, being inactive for years. Exacerbations are most often associated with internal changes in the body, for example, with pregnancy, or taking hormonal drugs. Symptomatics is similar to many STDs, so you should not try to diagnose yourself. The reason for going to the doctor should be any of the signs of sexually transmitted diseases.
- Excretions, indicating changes in the structure of mucous membranes. Even if the excretions remaining on the laundry do not have odor and color, this is the reason for the tests, as a number of serious diseases begin with such rearrangements of the female genital organs. The appearance of a smell or a greenish hue in the secretions is a symptom of the onset purulent process of the internal genital organs, and it is not in the patient's best interests to hold the disease until this stage: the changes can already be irreversible. The same can be said about the presence in the secretions of blood clots in the intermenstrual period.
- Pain in the lower abdomen, corresponding to the location of the female organs. Like the painful passing of menstruation, pain and a rezign - signal for an urgent call to a doctor, as their appearance is evidence of inflammatory destruction of the tissues of the uterus, appendages or birth canal.
- Burning and itching. Inflammatory process, caused by bacteria, manifests pain sensations or burning sensation. Depending on the affected area, this can be both genital areas and other infection localization, for example, the throat. In the latter case, the disease can be mistaken for angina, since the purulent inclusions on the tonsils are peculiar to this group of infections. Lesions of the reproductive system are accompanied by uncomfortable sensations when urinating.
- Painful sexual intercourse even with excessive lubrication of the vagina.
Symptoms of ureaplasma in men are similar, but appear in a more flattened form: burning with urination and problems with erectile function.
It must be remembered that the course of ureaplasmosis is not uniform, that is, the disease can die out for a long time, reminding oneself again with increasing physical or emotional loads, reducing the body's resistance or during hormonal changes, for example, during pregnancy.
Ureaplasmosis and its consequences
The seeming frivolity of the disease is deceptive. The consequences of ureaplasma are a number of problems, often causing irreparable harm to health:
- chronic inflammation of the genital system;
- cystitis ;
- pyelonephritis, often chronic;
- urolithiasis in men and women;
- infertility of both one and the second partner;
- erectile dysfunction and prostatitis in men;
- various pathologies of pregnancy, including ectopic development and miscarriages at any time;
- general destruction of the immune system, provoking the development of other diseases.
Methods and features of diagnosis of ureaplasmosis
The diagnosis of ureaplasmosis is complicated by the fact that the bacteria Ureaplasma urealyticum in a healthy body is normal and their very existence does not in any way indicate health problems. The basis for medical intervention will be only the excess of their normal number and their non-standard localization. Often several successive analyzes give significantly different results. In addition, the concentration of bacteria in the body that does not interfere with normal life activity is individual for each person. The first reason to consider an increase in the level of bacterial disease is the patient's complaints about the relevant clinical symptoms, and the confirmation - the data of laboratory analysis. The urologist and gynecologist accordingly carry out the whole complex of analyzes before the final statement of the diagnosis. The first of these is the polymer chain reaction (PCR), the result of which is considered conditional and preliminary, but it is on its results that the further passage of the diagnostic course depends.
One of the reasons why the treatment is not assigned immediately after passing the PCR is its inaccuracy. Even 2-3 weeks after the course of treatment, this method shows the presence of residual ureaplasma in the body. Therefore, it is not used as a control test. But this method is considered the most accurate with a negative result, since it is able to show even a minimal percentage of pathology.
Also, for medical reasons, a serological method or an immunofluorescent method may be prescribed. The latter becomes more and more popular due to the minimal terms of obtaining the results and a relatively small price for the procedure.
The most accurate and basic diagnostic method is sowing - placing biological material in the optimal environment for its development. This method is called cultural. This technique, the material for which is scraping from the walls of the vagina or urethra, urine or prostate secretion, allows not only to determine the presence, localization and concentration of microorganisms, but also to determine their strain as accurately as possible, as well as sensitivity to various groups of antibiotics. This is necessary for the selection of the most effective drug for treatment, which excludes the possibility of getting used to and degenerating the bacteria.
In addition to the analysis for the presence in the samples of Ureaplasma urealyticum itself, the lab technician will necessarily reveal all sexually active bacteria, such as mycoplasmas, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and others. This is necessary for the complex treatment of the whole group of microorganisms, whose action is not only similar to symptoms, but also mutually aggravates each other.
The main forms of the disease
Depending on the nature of the course of the disease, ureaplasmosis can be divided into acute and chronic. The acute form is associated with a large number of symptoms and their apparentness. Treatment of this form is much faster and more effective. Doctors additionally warn patients who are prone to self-treatment, to be convinced of complete healing is also necessary by laboratory methods, and, not focusing only on external clinical symptoms. Muffled acute form is the most frequent cause of neglect of the disease. The untimely treatment and the inadequate dose of the medications taken contribute to the degeneration of this type of disease into a chronic form.
Preparing to visit a gynecologist with suspicions of ureaplasmosis
To maximize the accuracy of the results of the studies, a number of preparations are required before going to the doctor:
- exclude any intimate contacts for 2-3 days;
- During the same period, do not use intimate hygiene products and vaginal pharmaceuticals;
- To exclude cleaning of internal walls of a vagina: syringings and use of swabs;
- for a day to exclude soap, gels from procedures of intimate hygiene;
- Do not conduct such procedures on the day of treatment.
Treatment of ureaplasmosis
Like the whole group of sexual infections, which is characterized by maximum adaptability and the ability to mutate, ureaplasma is treated individually. In the calculation are taken not only the characteristics of the strain and the presence of concomitant diseases, but also the age of the patient. Treatment necessarily includes three main stages:
- normalization of the content of opportunistic organisms in the microflora;
- elimination of the factors provoking their activation;
- restoration of immunity and stimulation of the body's own defense systems.
The first stage, as a rule, is based on the appointment of a course of antibacterial drugs. To choose their concrete type it is necessary to the attending physician, as to many kinds of preparations separate strains are insensitive. For example, treatment with a common penicillin series will not give a result. Most often for adults patients are used funds from the group of tetracycline antibiotics, as the most comprehensively solving the problem. For the treatment of children, erythromycin can be used, as the safest of antibiotics. However, a more accurate picture will show a crop for sensitivity to AB.
Identify with specific means for the second and third stage of recovery is not difficult: these are standard recommendations for the organization of a full-fledged healthy diet and a healthy lifestyle. To restore the microflora will help foods rich in bifidobacteria, additional preparations of dietary supplements will help to choose the attending physician.
Ureaplasmosis in pregnant women
Women in the "interesting situation" - the most frequent category of patients undergoing treatment for ureaplasmosis. This is due to the peculiarities of the restructuring of the organism, which is preparing for childbirth and exhausted by the embryo that is being formed. The altered environment of the mucous membranes of the pregnant woman is the most favorable field for the multiplication of many pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria, including ureaplasma. The danger of the consequences of infection of the future mother is not only the infection of the fetus, which occurs in more than 50% of cases, but also in the lowest probability of communicating the fetus before birth. The most common result of advanced ureaplasmosis is miscarriage.
The complexity of treatment for ureaplasmosis in pregnant women is the impossibility of using antibiotics after the 22nd week. After this period, such drugs adversely affect the development of the fetus. In late terms, all procedures are aimed only at preventive measures and measures to preserve the fetus. That is why the doctors of the women's consultation insist on the preliminary study of microflora in the planned pregnancy and the mandatory delivery of all tests at the earliest possible dates.
In the early stages of pregnancy, treatment and recovery of the pregnant woman after ureaplasmosis is less associated with side effects, both for the woman herself and for the fetus. There is evidence that after passing a course of such treatment, the microflora of the body is restored artificially.
Prophylaxis of ureaplasmosis
Preventative measures not only warn the disease, but also help to eliminate recurrent infection. The main factors to avoid the problem are:
- constancy of intimate relationships and sexual partners;
- regular preventive examinations and the delivery of analyzes by both sexual partners;
- use of contraceptives;
- hygiene measures after unprotected sex acts and oral sex;
- general strengthening of immunity and rejection of bad habits.
Traditional medicine as an adjunct to the main treatment
As with most STDs, many infected feel shy to go to a medical facility, fearing publicity and negative reaction of others. It is this that has generated so many requests for independent and popular methods of treating the disease. Doctors warn about the consequences of amateur therapies: the infection not only can be transformed into a chronic form, but also become resistant to certain types of medications, which will complicate further medical care. Folk methods make sense only in cases when it is impossible to conduct full-fledged therapy with antibiotics or as an auxiliary.
1. The use of garlic for the treatment of many types of diseases, based on the activity of microorganisms, has been known for a long time. In the treatment of STDs, in particular ureaplasmosis, garlic is included in various recipes:
- for dampings and douches apply "garlic water", which is infused during the day on cleaned but not chopped denticles for 6-10 hours;
- the simple addition of fresh garlic to food has a positive effect not only on the microflora, but also on the state of the immune system;
- alcoholic infusion of garlic, diluted to 10%, is used for douching of the vagina and oral cavity, rather than diluted for ingestion of 1 teaspoonful 3 times a day.
2. With itching and burning for bathing, decoction of the oak bark is used, this remedy removes discomfort and helps to kill bacteria.
3. Adding carotenoids to the diet helps to normalize the bacterial environment. The most accessible sources of this substance in the middle band are carrots and sea buckthorn oil. The latter can be used not only inside, but also for impregnation of vaginal tampons.
4. A number of medicinal herbs, which for a long time in folk medicine were called feminine, also gives a positive result for the treatment of ureaplasmosis. It is a wintergreen, a hogweed, a goldenrod, a winter hamster. They are used both for compilation of tea collections, and for external use.
5. One of the most effective natural remedies is tea tree oil. Its volatile structure allows use, as in aromatic lamps, and for addition to baths for washing. The only condition of use is the careful observance of the prescriptions of the annotation on the concentration of the drug, since the concentrated form, if ingested, can cause allergic reactions.
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