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Ringworm: photo, treatment

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Ringworm Ringworm is a highly contagious disease of fungal nature that affects smooth human skin, scalp and nail plates. This pathology is one of the most studied. In medical terminology, it has several names, depending on the type of pathogen that provoked the development of the disease. Most often, clinicians call it dermatomycosis, dermatophytosis, dermatophytosis, as well as trichophytosis and microsporia.

Anthropophilic trichophytosis is a fungal infection transmitted only from person to person. Zoonotic trichophytosis is transmitted to humans from cattle, rodents, etc.

Microsporia is a disease of an anthropophilic and zoonotic nature, transmitted from person to person and from domestic animals.



Causes of tick-boring lichen

Ringworm is an infectious disease that is caused by anthropophilic trichophytons parasitizing on human skin, in the horny epidermal layer and inside the hair, and zooanthropophilic perihofitons living on the skin of animals (cats, dogs, horses, cattle, mice and some wild animals ).

Trichophytosis

This is a very contagious fungal infection affecting the scalp and smooth skin. Its pathogens are imperfect pathogenic mold fungi of the genus Trichophyton, which reproduce asexually. Their disputes are very stable in the external environment. In the hair and fallen crusts, they can retain their virulence for one and a half years. Within 30 minutes, spores are inactivated by exposure to ultraviolet radiation, after 2-3 minutes they die in boiling water, and within 15-20 minutes they are disinfected with disinfectant solutions.

Microsporia

This is a ringworm that affects the skin and hairy areas. Its causative agent is keratophilic mold parasitic fungi belonging to the genus Microsporum, which live on keratinized substrates. Getting on the skin, the pathogen is introduced into the deeper epidermal layers, after which it begins to actively multiply. In the case when the spores of the fungus are located near the mouth of the hair follicle, they, growing, lead to the defeat of the hair, forming around the cover and tightly filling the entire follicular unit.

Risk Factors and Routes of Infection

Ringworm photo The main way of infection with ringworm is contact-household, that is, direct infection with a sick animal or with a sick person is necessary for infection. Fungal infection most often affects children and adolescents from 4 to 15 years of age who have contact with sick animals. Often, the source of infection is infected cats. As a rule, on their face, around the mouth and respiratory tract, as well as on the outer surface of the auricles, alopecia are observed. Less commonly, they can be identified on the paws and on the tail. In these areas, the animal's skin flakes off, and the hair is unevenly broken.

At the same time, infection is possible through household items and personal hygiene items (combs, shaving tools, etc.), as well as cases of infection after contact with the skin of a sick person.

It should be noted that only one contact of the pathogen on the skin is not enough to cause infection. In the absence of skin lesions and in the presence of strong immunity, the risk of developing the disease is practically reduced to zero. If a person strictly adheres to the rules of personal hygiene, the ringworm pathogen that gets on the skin is very quickly removed with soap and water. Also, do not forget that each person must have their own personal comb and towel.

Risk factors for infection with ringworm deprive are considered to be:

  • Skin softening (maceration). This condition occurs due to prolonged contact with water.
  • Violation of the integrity of the skin (the presence of wounds, abrasions, burns, scratches, etc.).
  • Weakened immunity.
  • The presence of skin pathologies.
  • Depression and constant stress.



Forms and symptoms of ringworm

Symptoms of trichophytia

Trichophytosis is a fungal disease of the nature that can be superficial and infiltrative-suppressive.

1. With the development of superficial trichophytia of smooth skin and hair, the patient first appears one lesion 1-2 cm in diameter. It is presented in the form of a red or pink spot with sharp borders and regular rounded outlines, slightly protruding above the level of healthy and intact skin. In this area, the skin is somewhat swollen and hyperemic. It is covered with greyish-white, scaly-like scales, giving the formation a whitish appearance. Further, other lesions appear on the skin. Very often one of them is much larger than the rest. It has irregular shapes and vague boundaries. Each hearth is located in isolation from the other, with no tendency to merge. As the pathological process develops, edema and redness grow, and vesicles, pustules and crusts appear on the periphery of the formation. After some time, the affected center takes the form of a ring. With the defeat of the hair follicles, the hair begins to break off at the root itself, or 2-3 mm from the skin surface.

As a rule, the foci of fungal lesions are located on the trunk, forearms, face and neck (isolated trichophytosis), and they can simultaneously affect the scalp.

2. Infiltrative-suppurative trichophytosis is a disease that is characteristic of rural areas. It is provoked by zoophilic fungi that parasitize animals. Often this form of pathology is a professional disease of livestock breeders.

With the development of the pathological process in a patient there are pronounced inflammatory phenomena that reach the stage of suppuration. In this case, the fungal infection also affects smooth skin and hair on the head. However, the pathogen can be localized in the mustache and beard. In the stage of suppuration, the lesions take the form of flattened bluish-red nodules with a hilly surface covered with erosions, crusts and scales. In this case, part of the hair just falls out on its own, while the other is easily removed. The mouth of the hair follicles in this form of the disease is filled with pus, which is easily excreted when pressed (jet or drip). Foci that occur on the scalp, some authors compare with honeycombs. Over time, they soften. It should be noted that the development of the process causes the death of the pathogen. In the stage of recovery, a scar is formed at the site of the source of infection. A person after suffering a disease forms a strong immunity, and therefore relapses do not happen.

Symptoms of microsporia

Photo ringworm The duration of the incubation period with microsporia is 3-7 days. When the scalp is covered with hair, large, sharply limited, rounded foci appear, reaching a diameter of 20-30 mm. They are littered with a large number of scales of gray-white color, which stand out against the background of a mild reddening (erythema). Hair located in the outbreak of fungal lesions, break off at a height of 3-5 mm above the skin. They are surrounded by a greyish-white bloom, which is visible even to the naked eye. It should be emphasized that these are the most characteristic signs of microsporia of the scalp.

With the development of a microsporia of smooth skin, inflamed light pink flaky spots with clearly defined borders, reaching 5–20 mm in diameter, appear on the body. Their central part with the growth becomes lighter, and on the periphery there are few papules. Sometimes a new (double or triple) can form in the center of a formed ring, and skin rashes can quickly grow and spread to other areas (especially after water procedures). It should be noted that the fungal infection can spread and the hair on the body.

It is characteristic that the symptoms of anthroponotic and zooanthroponotic microsporia differ little from superficial trichophytia. This form of fungal infection is characterized by more rounded shapes and clear boundaries of lesions. Very often, this disease is accompanied by an increase in the cervical, occipital and parotid lymph nodes.

Ringworm in children

In the case when the fungal infection affects the child, the incubation period lasts 5-7 days. Then on the smooth skin and on the head, in the area of ​​hair growth, the first infectious foci appear. In childhood microsporia and trichophytosis can be localized on almost any parts of the body.

With the development of a mild form of the disease, clearly delineated rounded formations appear on the skin. Their surface is covered with scales, and the periphery of the formation is vesicles or nodules. Often, foci of infection during fusion may form very oddly shaped figures.

If the hairline is affected, roundish lichen spots of various sizes are also detected. When trichophytosis infectious foci are weakly inflamed, have vague boundaries, and also there is peeling in the form of small silvery scales. In the lesions, the hair breaks off “at the root” or at a height of 1-2 mm.

When diagnosing microsporia in a patient, one or two large lesions with clear boundaries are detected. For this form of fungal infection, scaly peeling is characteristic. In this case, the hair completely break off at a height of 6-8 mm. They have the appearance of sheared scissors, hence the name "ringworm." Sometimes a slight itch develops in the affected area.

As a rule, with the development of the disease, the general condition of children is not disturbed.

Many experts point out that recently cases of ringworm among very young children have become more frequent. This is due to infection through strollers that stray cats can climb into.

In the case when a child's immunity is reduced, trichophytosis or microsporia can occur in an infiltrative or suppurative form. With the development of the infiltrative form of the pathological process, infiltration accumulates in the lesions of the lesion, and the lymph nodes adjacent to it become denser and painful.

For the suppurative form is characterized by the formation of dense painful rounded cavities filled with pus, released during squeezing. In this case, the patient has an increase and pain in the regional lymph nodes. The child's body temperature rises and the general condition worsens. After the severe form of ringworm, baldness may remain on the scalp, and on the smooth skin - scars. Mild disease does not leave any traces behind.

Diagnosis of ringworm

In order to correctly establish the diagnosis, the patient is subjected to a thorough examination by a dermatologist, and also he is assigned a bacterioscopic study of material taken from the source of inflammation. In this case, skin scales and hair hemp are examined for the presence of fungal spores.

However, as an auxiliary diagnostic technique for detecting microsporia, a luminescent diagnostics is prescribed, which involves the use of a Wood lamp. Dermatofitia affected hair in the spectrum of ultraviolet rays on a particular wave glow in the dark with an emerald-greenish glow.

It should be emphasized that, despite the fact that the Wood's lamp is widespread and very easy to use, it is not sufficiently informative for accurate diagnosis and reveals only 50% of the total number of infections. Therefore, to confirm or exclude microsporia, additional culture is carried out on nutrient media.

In the case when ringworm affects the scalp, it is necessarily differentiated from alopecia (limited alopecia) or favous (another type of fungal hair infection).

When detecting ringworm on the body, it must be differentiated from psoriasis, eczema or lichen planus.

Deep ringworm should be distinguished from phlegmon, staphylococcal sycosis or ostiofolliculitis (staphylococcal impetigo).

Ringworm treatment

In the case when the fungal infection affects smooth skin, patients are prescribed external antifungal drugs, as well as an alcohol solution of iodine, sulfuric and sulfuric tar or sulfur-salicylic ointment. With the development of a pronounced inflammatory process, administration of combined preparations containing hormones is indicated.

If a bacterial infection joins the fungal infection, the use of drugs with a combined, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antiallergic effect is recommended. For deep forms of the disease, agents containing dimexide are used.

With the defeat of gun hair and scalp, the hair is shaved off, after which antifungal therapy is carried out using etiotropic drugs of systemic action. In this case, the most commonly prescribed antifungal antibiotic is griseofulvin. It should be noted that the treatment should take place under the control of a fluorescent lamp.

Vitamin therapy is given in parallel to weakened patients, and immunostimulants are prescribed.

Preventing ringworm

The main goal of preventing the development of ringworm is the timely detection and treatment of patients with signs of some form of ringworm. In institutions should be carried out regular medical examinations. A sick child (if one is identified) must necessarily be isolated from the team, and also quickly and efficiently disinfected his things.

Further, it is necessary to examine all people who have been in contact with the diseased ringworm, and, if necessary, prescribe treatment.

At the same time, it is very important to regularly inspect domestic animals and, in identifying pathological foci in them, conduct the necessary medical procedures.


| 12th April 2014 | | 10 519 | Skin diseases
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Carolyn Kosin: It is contagious if you take a black light and look at it little sparkle green if you see those little specs of a green you are contagious cover it with nail polish and sometimes if you put two or three coats and pull it off once a day the ringworm actually comes out with a nail polish wrap it up in a tissue and throw it away and reapply the nail polish always keep it on there because if you scratch around it you can spread it to other places in your body and other people basically saying it just flies everywhere it's like lint and you can't see it unless you have a black light and so

MEL PASSION: It is easy to say that we must see qualified dermatologist When we do see one.... She or he will only give CREAMS ...AND MORE CREAMS!!!!! NO RECOMMEND OF ORAL ANTI FUNGAL PILLS!!! Dermatologists nowadays... DO NOT EVEN BOTHER TO SEE THE PATIENT!! THEY STARED AT THEIR LAP TOPS..... WITH PATIENT SITTING RIGHT IN FRONT OF HIM OR HER!!!! WHAT KIND OF DOCTORS OUR SOCIETY IS CHURNING... NOWADAYS???? IT IS LAP TOP DOCTORS!!!!!!!! NOT PATIENT DOCTOR!!! ¡

K. Mill: I have tiny white spores or filaments coming out of my pores especially when wet!!! I can feel them sprouting. What kind of fungus is this??? Please any advice 😔😔

iona stovall: Everyone do a candida cleanse...i promise it will work. You cant expect change when u attack the symptoms only. You have to attack it from the inside.

Elmer Palacios: Wow doctor you really explain everything really well I like that I have the same kind of fungus on my body just like the one you showing in the video it was pretty sad I went to see the dermatologist in United States I live in Illinois and my dermatologist said I had to deal with this the rest of my life with th and I refuse to accept what he told me but thank you for your help I will look for a different doctor thank you ma'am.👍

Swapna Sharma: Mam,but am having these fungal infection on my face... for last 2 yrs.i showed to homeopath doctor nd he told to use dermiford nd gave liquid medicine. Its jab tak lagati thi thik rheta tha but ab maine wo use krna chorr diya nd pure face me hogya he ..bcoz bohot din use krne k badh v hojata he....nd bohot jalta v he..😢 pls help me nd recommend me something didi.pls😢

Aaron Arizmendi: Is it possible to have a fungal rash (torso) that never itches or causes any discomfort but evolved to look circular like ringworm? Also, what is reasonable in terms of how long it takes to get rid of with anti-fungal treatment? I'm on my third anti-fungal cream (prescribed by derm) but it's still there.... (1 month later).

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