Streptoderma: symptoms, treatment
- Microbiological characteristic
- Features streptoderma
- Symptoms of streptoderma
- Impetigo Streptococcal
- Treatment of streptoderma
Streptoderma is an extensive group of skin infections caused by various types of streptococcus. There is a predominant lesion of the skin itself, without involvement of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles (as opposed to a staph infection).
The most common variant of the classification of streptococci in accordance with their antigenic structure. About 20 groups of streptococci are called Latin letters. The danger for humans is Streptococcus group A, B and D.
All streptococci in the field of view of the light microscope have the form of a tape (necklace) red (gram-negative strains) or blue (gram-positive strains). All streptococci do not form spores, but some strains have a capsule, which creates considerable difficulties for antibiotic therapy.
Most streptococci have significant biochemical activity, and also synthesize a large number of aggression factors, which ultimately causes a variety of clinical manifestations of the disease (from skin lesions to severe septic state).
Still the most informative in the diagnosis of streptococcal infection is bacterioscopic (microscopic) and bacteriological methods. As a biological material for microbiological research, a discharge from the elements of the rash in streptoderma is used (sometimes a smear is an imprint).
Almost all types of streptococcus are not demanding on cultivation conditions, therefore classical nutrient media (basic) can be used. Only some representatives of streptococcus group B require strict adherence to the temperature regime and the presence of certain biochemical components of the nutrient medium. According to the results of the bacteriological method (cultural, tinctorial and biochemical properties), a conclusion can be made about the particular strain of streptococcus that caused the disease, and also established sensitivity to certain antibacterial drugs.
It should be understood that streptococci surround a person almost everywhere. They are present on their own mucous membranes, in the air and soils, on the surfaces of everyday objects and clothing. It is impossible to completely destroy this group of microorganisms, besides this is not necessary.
Streptoderma is more susceptible to young children (more tender skin, an insufficient level of immunological reactivity); women (especially in the period of hormonal changes), people of old and old age (weakened by chronic diseases, with insufficient trophism of the skin).
Streptococcal infection develops only in the presence of predisposing factors, namely:
- Severe somatic pathology (diabetes mellitus, diseases of the stomach (hypo-or anacid gastritis ). A correlative relationship was found between the decrease in acidity and the occurrence of pyodermite).
- Pathology of the nervous system (neurosis, depression).
- The imbalance of nutrition (starvation, lack of proteins and trace elements, the predominance of all types of carbohydrates).
- The presence of local foci of infection, which leads to sensitization of the human body ( dental caries , chronic rhinitis and tonsillitis ). The organism is intoxicated with bacterial toxins and tissue autolysis products from the outbreaks into the general circulation.
- Diseases of the endocrine system.
- Changing the immune status - reducing the specific and non-specific immunobiological reactivity of the body, the violation of the T-system of lymphocytes (reducing their number and inhibition of functional activity).
Often, such a contingent of persons has contact with the so-called carrier of streptococcus. This is a person whose mucous membrane contains an aggressive strain of streptococcus, which does not harm the host and does not cause clinical manifestations of the disease. But such a person represents a danger (as a source of infection) to others, especially if he is an employee of a children's school or preschool institution, a food enterprise, or a medical professional. The following types of infection are also most typical:
- minor injuries (cuts and scratches);
- prolonged mechanical stress (shoes not in size, tight clothing);
- prolonged exposure to low or high temperature;
- lack of proper hygienic skin care;
- various pruritic dermatosis ( eczema , scabies , neurodermatitis ), as itching facilitates the introduction of streptococci into the skin.
Symptoms of streptoderma
The most common variant of streptococcal infection is streptoderma (superficial skin lesion), deeper skin lesions (abscess, phlegmon, carbuncle) are often encountered, the worst and worst case is general blood infection with streptococcus (sepsis).
There are the following options for streptoderma:
1. Impetigo streptococcal:
- impetigo bullosa;
- impetigo slit;
- streptococcal cheilitis;
- simple lichen ;
- surface felon (tournamentol);
- streptococcal diaper rash;
- postoperative syphiloid;
2. Ecthyma ordinary.
At the heart of all variants of streptoderma lies such an element of the skin rash as conflict. It is a flabby bladder filled with transparent serous contents, which has a tendency to peripheral growth.
Impetigo got its name from the Latin designation - a rapidly evolving process. Impetigo Streptococcal (also known as Fox or Contact). The most typical localization is the limbs, face, and the lateral surfaces of the body. On the surface of the skin, a reddish tint is formed, which quickly enough transforms into a bubble (flicken). At the beginning of the conflict, it is tense, then it becomes flabby, filled with transparent serous (less often hemorrhagic) contents. Usually several conflicts are formed, separated from one another, they rarely merge. Within a few weeks, the conflict is reversed, collapses and forms a crust. In place of the peel can form a scar.
Bullosa impetigo is distinguished by its large skin defect and preferential localization on the extremities. The integrity of the conflict in this case does not persist for long, a sufficiently extensive erosion is formed, which heals for a long time. Around the erosion sometimes remains remnants of the conflict.
Slit-like impetigo is distinguished by its characteristic localization. These are the corners of the mouth (the so-called jade), the edges of the palpebral fissure and the wings of the nose. The actual conflict quickly loses its integrity, a crack or erosion is formed. The crust covering the skin defect does not last long, as there is constant maceration. Zayed can exist indefinitely, there is a tendency to infect others through common utensils and other household items.
Simple versicolor is distinguished by the fact that dry elements are formed, and not wet flakten. Papular foci occurring on the face, body, less often on the limbs, rather dense, covered with scales. After the reverse development of the rash elements, a lighter coloring of the skin in these areas is noted, which gave the name to this type of streptococcal infection.
Tourniol (okolonogtevaya flikten) is formed only around the nail plate as a result of chronic injury (production or living conditions), in the presence of burrs, impaired trophism in metabolic syndrome, diabetes. Flittles surround the nail plate. The affected finger swells up, becomes sharply painful, acquires a bluish-purple hue. Turniol is prone to peripheral growth, can provoke purulent fusion and rejection of the nail plate.
Streptococcal diaper rash is formed in natural skin folds in people with obesity (under the abdomen, on the buttocks), in women - under the mammary glands. The resulting numerous conflicts merge with the formation of extensive weeping erosion. Children of the skin rash are usually marked. Erosion does not heal for a long time, deep cracks are formed, which cause a lot of inconvenience and pain to a person.
Ecthyma vulgaris (fulgard) is a rather extensive and deep skin defect. Observed in weakened people. Formed a very large flabby conflict with spiny or purulent content. Flicken easily spontaneously opened, transforming into an ulcer. The ulcer filled with a purulent secret, is poorly healed - usually by secondary intention. A rough scar is formed. Possible peripheral growth flikteny.
Treatment of streptoderma
Therapy for streptoderma includes a local effect, directly on the lesions of the skin lesion, and general, involving the stimulation of immune defense and the general reactivity of the human body.
The complex effect on the entire human body includes:
- normalization of work and rest;
- balanced nutrition, enriched with proteins, microelements and vitamins;
- Observance of all items of personal hygiene (regular shower at room temperature, change of underwear and clothes, frequent changes with bed linen, use of individual dishes and hygiene items);
- treatment of somatic associated diseases in order to stabilize the remission period;
- if necessary, taking herbal-based sedatives (motherwort, valerian).
The impact on the microbial agent involves the appointment of antibiotics. It should be remembered that the independent choice of antibacterial agent may not have the desired effect. Among some strains of streptococci, resistance to penicillin and cephalosporin group preparations is quite common. Therefore, the drugs of choice should be fluoroquinolones, penicillins (protected), macrolides and aminoglycosides. It is necessary to observe the average duration of the course of antibiotic therapy - at least 10 days - to prevent the recurrence of the disease.
Topical treatment is aimed at debridement of skin rash elements, prevention of spread to healthy skin areas, as well as healing by primary or secondary tension. For this, various ointments and gels containing antibacterial component, decongestants and cell division stimulating components can be used. Often, drying means are used to more quickly transform the conflict into a crust, for example, brilliant green solution, fukartsin, methylene blue, potassium permanganate solution. It is strictly prohibited to powder chalk or talc, apply lotions and wet compresses.
Strengthening immune defenses can be achieved with immunomodulators:
- plant adaptogens (aloe, echinacea, eleutherococcus);
- preparations based on the thymus gland (timogen, thymalin, timohexin);
- cytokine preparations - substances that normalize the process of inflammation (leucomax, leukinterferon, roncoleukin);
- chemicals, one of the side effects of which is immunostimulation (levamisole).
In the treatment of any variant of streptoderma, any physiotherapeutic procedure is strictly contraindicated - this will contribute to the spread of infection and worsening of the condition of the sick person.
It should be understood that only an integrated approach to treatment and the strict implementation of all medical recommendations will help to quickly and effectively cope with manifestations of streptoderma.
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