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Bad breath: causes

Content:

Bad breath is a rather frequent phenomenon that gives a person considerable psychological discomfort. However, often the cause of this condition and the consequences lie in violations of the functional activity of the digestive organs, respiration and excretion. Therefore, it is very important to conduct a differential diagnosis of the causes of breath odor and their subsequent elimination. As a result, the smell from the mouth will disappear.

Bad breath In certain situations, the appearance of bad breath (the term halitosis) is temporary and normal. It usually develops as a result of increased activity of saprophytic and conditionally pathogenic bacterial flora in the oral cavity. In this case, the teeth are formed raids with a high content of bacteria and nutrients. During the life of microorganisms, hydrogen sulfide gas is produced, which gives an unpleasant smell to exhaled air. Activation of the oral bacterial flora without pathological processes occurs in several cases:

  • Lack of oral hygiene - mainly due to improper or infrequent brushing of teeth, between which remains of food.
  • Night increase in the number of microorganisms in the oral cavity and on the hot surface - at night the amount of saliva (contains lysozyme, which has a destructive effect on bacteria) and its circulation in the mouth decrease, which leads to the smell from the mouth in the morning. Morning hygiene procedures can get rid of it.

Normally, halitosis can be temporary due to the use of sharp-smelling food (onions, garlic). The situation with the appearance of the unpleasant smell of smoking aggravates, because after the last cigarette you smoked, the products of tobacco burning and nicotine are released from the lungs for about a day from the lungs with exhaled air, giving it an unpleasant smell. Also, after drinking alcohol, its excretion from the blood occurs to a greater extent through the lungs with exhaled air.



Types of halitosis

Depending on the objectivity of the appearance of bad breath, there are several types of halitosis:

  • True halitosis - an unpleasant smell is noticed by people around, is a consequence of pathological processes or has a physiological origin.
  • Pseudo-halitosis (false halitosis) is characterized by the periodic appearance of a barely perceptible odor from the mouth, to which a person attaches great importance, considering that he smells very unpleasant.
  • Halitophobia is a psychological symptom in which a person feels that he has bad breath, without objective confirmation.

Psychological aspects of the apparent presence of breath from the mouth require an objective exclusion of true halitosis, followed by consultation and psychotherapy from a psychologist.

Causes of bad breath

Depending on the localization of the pathological process leading to the development of halitosis, there are 2 main groups of causal (etiological) factors - oral and systemic causes.

Oral causes of halitosis

In this case, pathological processes of the oral cavity itself lead to the appearance of bad breath. These include:

  • Stomatitis is an inflammatory pathology of the oral mucosa caused by bacteria (staphylococcus, streptococcus) or fungi (fungi of the genus Candida).
  • Gingivitis is a variant of the pathology in which the inflammatory process is localized on the mucous membrane of the gums.
  • The presence of one or more teeth affected by caries with the formation of a cavity in them with a large number of bacteria.
  • The development of tartar - dental plaque, which seeps with salts of minerals (calcium salt) with its hardening and the development of chronic infection in it. More often, tartar is the result of pathology of the gums (gum pockets), which loosely cover the necks of the teeth and the spaces between their lateral edges.
  • The eruption of the molar tooth 8 (“wisdom tooth”) with the formation of a hood from the gums - in this place favorable conditions are created for the accumulation of food debris, bacteria and the development of inflammation. In addition to the appearance of bad breath, it is often accompanied by pain in the area of ​​the tooth erupting.
  • Glossitis is an inflammatory process in the lining of the tongue that can occur together with gingivitis or stomatitis.
  • Pathology of the salivary glands, leading to changes in the chemical and physico-colloidal properties of saliva - it becomes more viscous, viscous and contains little lysozyme, which contributes to the development of bacterial flora in the oral cavity and the appearance of an unpleasant odor.
  • The presence of various prostheses or orthopedic structures, between which food debris and bacteria can accumulate - dental crowns, briquettes in children, bridges almost always contribute to the development of halitosis.

One of the reasons leading to bad breath is xerostomia - increased dryness of the mucous membrane, due to a decrease in the amount of saliva and an increase in its viscosity. This can occur after drinking alcohol, expressed emotional stress or stress, as well as after the use of certain drugs (some groups of antibiotics, hormonal drugs, antihistamine antiallergic drugs).

Common causes of bad breath

This group of causes includes diseases of various organs and systems, one of the manifestations of which is the appearance of bad breath. Such diseases include:

  • Pathology of the digestive tract - in the case of the development of diseases of the stomach or intestines, the processes of digestion and absorption of food are disturbed, which is reflected by the smell of mouth. Most often it occurs during gastritis with low acidity (inflammation of the gastric mucosa with insufficient synthesis of gastric juice), pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas with a decrease in the production of digestive enzymes), sphincter insufficiency between the stomach and the esophagus, dysbiosis (violation of intestinal microflora ratio with an increase in pathogenic and putrefactive bacteria).
  • Pathology of the liver and biliary tract - hepatitis, cholecystitis (inflammatory process in the gallbladder), cholelithiasis. With these diseases, the feeling of bitterness in it often joins the unpleasant smell from the mouth.
  • Infectious process in the upper or lower respiratory tract - tracheitis, bronchitis , sometimes pneumonia (pneumonia) with parallel development of cough or shortness of breath.
  • The inflammatory process in the organs that are in the anatomical proximity to the oral cavity - tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils), sinusitis, or frontal sinusitis (an inflammatory process in the bone sinuses). With the development of such pathological processes, an unpleasant smell also appears when air is exhaled through the nose.
  • Metabolic disorders in the body with the accumulation of substances in the blood, which are excreted through the respiratory system and give an unpleasant or sharp smell to the exhaled air - the unpleasant smell of acetone from the mouth occurs when there is a significant accumulation of ketone compounds in the blood in diabetes or ketonemia in young children.
  • Acute or chronic renal failure is a serious pathological condition of the body in which the excretion of metabolic products with urine is disturbed. They accumulate in the blood (uremia) and begin to be partially excreted by the organs of the respiratory system, giving the characteristic "renal" smell to exhaled air.

Most of the common causative factors in the development of halitosis are serious diseases that require diagnosis and proper, immediate remedial measures.

The manifestation of bad breath, depending on its cause

By the nature of the smell and other related symptoms, we can suggest the main pathological reason for its appearance:

  • A putrid odor with a sensation of pain when eating in the mouth is a sign of an inflammatory process in the oral mucosa, tongue or gums.
  • Periodic or toothache with halitosis indicates tooth decay or tartar. In the case of pain in the corner of the mouth - a possible cause of an unpleasant smell can be the process of eruption of the "wisdom tooth".
  • Halitosis with a dry mouth and thirst is the result of an insufficient amount of saliva produced or a change in its properties.
  • The parallel development of dyspeptic syndrome (belching with air, unstable stool, flatulence) indicates problems in the digestive tract that have caused unpleasant smell from the mouth.
  • Fishy smell with a feeling of bitterness in the mouth - the probable cause is the pathology of the liver or biliary tract. At the same time, pain and heaviness in the right hypochondrium often develop.
  • The characteristic "kidney" smell from the mouth requires an immediate appeal for medical help and examination to rule out the development of kidney failure.
  • The strong smell of acetone is also a signal for the possible development of diabetes in an adult or ketonemia in a young child.

Such characteristic manifestations of halitosis allow to suspect the main cause of its development, but diagnosis is necessary for its accurate determination.

Bad breath: diagnosis

Objectively assess the smell from the mouth will help another person. There are also special devices for determining the concentration of various substances (in particular hydrogen sulfide) in exhaled air. To clarify the causes of halitosis in the conditions of a medical institution, an additional examination is carried out, which includes:

  • Examination of the oral cavity - with inflammation of the mucous membranes of its structures, hyperemia (redness) and plaque develops.
  • Laboratory study of blood for the presence of inflammatory changes in it, increase glucose levels in diabetes.
  • Determination of diuresis (daily amount of urine excreted) and clinical analysis of urine for the diagnosis of renal failure.
  • Instrumental examination of the digestive tract, liver and biliary tract - ultrasound, gastroduodenoscopy.
  • Radiography of the sinuses (maxillary and frontal sinuses) to determine the presence of inflammation in them.

Conducting additional research will help to establish the exact cause of halitosis and begin adequate measures aimed at its elimination.

Treatment of bad breath

All therapeutic interventions for halitosis are aimed at eliminating the causes of bad breath and include:

  • Daily oral and dental hygiene using toothpaste and brush to further clean the surface of the tongue from plaque (the back of the brush has special soft rollers). If there are orthopedic products or prostheses in the oral cavity, its hygiene should be carried out more often with the use of special rinsing agents with antiseptic properties (they destroy bacteria).
  • The use of local antiseptics to combat bacterial inflammation of the oral mucosa.
  • Treatment at the dentist carious teeth or their stones. In the case of the eruption of the “wisdom tooth”, surgical removal of the hood from the gums is performed.
  • Antibiotic therapy with the use of broad-spectrum drugs for the treatment of bacterial inflammatory processes in the oral cavity or the paranasal sinuses - is carried out only as directed and under the supervision of a physician.
  • Outpatient or inpatient treatment (depending on the severity and severity of the process) pathologies of the digestive system, respiration, kidneys, liver in case of their diagnosis.

Bad breath is not only a psychological or social problem that limits comfortable communication with other people, but can also be a manifestation of various pathologies. Therefore, it is very important to differentiate causal factors and eliminate them, which led to its appearance.


    | 10 August 2015 | | 587 | Symptom Handbook
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    • | Albina | November 12, 2015

      She began to feel a slight bad breath. What could be the reason? Stomach? Or are there other reasons?

    • | Anna | November 12, 2015

      Albina, maybe the stomach, and maybe teeth. I would go to the dentist first.

    • | Vasilisa the Beautiful | November 12, 2015

      I had this. The dentist did not find any visible reasons, it’s just the bacteria that we have in everyone’s mouth.

    Leave your feedback


    Brooks Alice: I used to be embarrassed about my breath. I literally didn`t want to leave my house because it was very bad. After trying my dental practitioner told me, it just worked for a few hours. Now I was able to achieve a fresher as well as clean breath. My life back is finally normal again due to this bad breath method *BadBreathCure.4YourHelp. Com* (remove space and open the website)

    Michelle One: There's got to be something else that causes bad breath... I keep my mouth very very clean, I'm constantly brushing, flossing, and mouth wash with listerine, and I don't have tonsil stones.. I just got back from the dentist and he said my mouth is very clean.. no cavities.. nothing needed to be done.. my gums are healthy.. why does my breath still stink.. Its ruining my life. It's the worst in the world. Because for many who have bad breath.. its mainly because they aren't keeping good care. And if they did they wouldn't have bad breath... and me in the other hand... I take very very great care of my mouth.. I tongue scrap, and I don't smoke.. I just don't understand... pls help??? How can someone still have bad breath.. even after brushing, and flossing, and mouthwash, and tongue scraping.. it makes no sense whatsoever. I need a miracle.

    Quinn Kelly: i have braces and a retainer and I brush my teeth and tongue and use mints but i have a feeling it’s just the retainer making things worse

    calibomber209: what about when we exhale through the nose and it smells like garbage? my mouth is not smelly but when i breath out it smell horrid.

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