Unpleasant odor from the mouth: causes
- Types of halitosis
- The causes of odor from the mouth
- Occurrence of a smell from a mouth depending on its reason
- Unpleasant smell from the mouth: diagnosis
- Treatment of bad breath
An unpleasant odor from the mouth is quite a frequent phenomenon, which gives a person considerable psychological discomfort. However, often the cause of this condition and consequence lie in violations of the functional activity of the digestive, respiratory and excretory organs. Therefore, it is very important to conduct differential diagnosis of the causes of odor from the mouth and then eliminate them. As a consequence, the smell from the mouth disappears.
In certain situations, the appearance of odor from the mouth (the term - halitosis) is a temporary and normal phenomenon. Usually it develops due to an increase in the activity of saprophytic and opportunistic bacterial flora in the oral cavity. At the same time on the teeth formed raids with a high content of bacteria and nutrients. During the life of microorganisms, hydrogen sulphide gas is produced, which also gives an unpleasant smell to the exhaled air. Activation of bacterial flora of the mouth without pathological processes occurs in several cases:
- Inadequate hygiene of the oral cavity - mainly due to improper or infrequent brushing of teeth, between which remain the remains of food.
- The night increase in the number of microorganisms in the mouth and on the heat surface - at night the amount of saliva (contains lysozyme, which has a harmful effect on bacteria) and its circulation in the mouth decreases, which leads to the appearance of a smell from the mouth in the morning. Morning hygiene procedures allow you to get rid of it.
Normally, halitosis can be a temporary phenomenon due to the use of sharply smelling food (onion, garlic). Exacerbates the situation with the appearance of an unpleasant smell of smoking, since after the last smoked cigarette, the products of burning tobacco and nicotine are released from the lungs with exhaled air for about a day, giving it an unpleasant smell. Also, after drinking alcohol, its release from the blood takes place mostly through the lungs with the exhaled air.
Types of halitosis
Depending on the objectivity of the appearance of bad breath, several types of halitosis are distinguished:
- True halitosis - an unpleasant smell is noticed by surrounding people, is a consequence of pathological processes or has a physiological origin.
- Pseudohalitosis (false halitosis) is characterized by the periodic appearance of a barely perceptible odor from the mouth, to which a person attaches great importance, considering that it smells very unpleasant.
- Galithophobia is a psychological symptom in which a person feels that he has an unpleasant odor from his mouth, without objective confirmation.
The causes of odor from the mouth
Depending on the localization of the pathological process, leading to the development of halitosis, two main groups of causative (etiological) factors - oral and systemic causes.
Oral causes of halitosis
In this case, the appearance of an unpleasant odor from the mouth leads to pathological processes of the oral cavity itself. These include:
- Stomatitis is an inflammatory pathology of the mucous membrane of the mouth caused by bacteria (staphylococcus, streptococcus) or fungi (fungi of the genus Candida).
- Gingivitis is a variant of pathology, in which the inflammatory process is localized to the gingival mucosa.
- The presence of one or more teeth affected by caries with the formation of a cavity in them with a large number of bacteria.
- The development of calculus is dental plaque, which seeps through the salts of minerals (calcium salt) with its hardening and the development of chronic infection in it. More often tartar is the result of gum disease (gingival pockets), which loosely cover the cervical teeth and the spaces between their lateral margins.
- Erection of the tooth 8 molars ("wisdom tooth") with the formation of a hood from the gum - in this place favorable conditions are created for the accumulation of food remnants, bacteria and the development of inflammation. In addition to the appearance of bad breath, often accompanied by pain in the erupting tooth.
- Glossitis is an inflammatory process in the lining of the tongue, which can occur together with gingivitis or stomatitis.
- The pathology of salivary glands, which leads to changes in the chemical and physico-colloidal properties of saliva, it becomes more viscous, viscous and contains little lysozyme, which contributes to the development of bacterial flora in the oral cavity and the appearance of an unpleasant odor.
- The presence of various prostheses or orthopedic structures, between which food and bacteria can accumulate - dental crowns, briquettes in children, bridges almost always promote the development of halitosis.
One of the causes leading to the appearance of bad breath from the mouth is xerostomia - increased dryness of the mucous membrane, due to a decrease in the amount of saliva and increase its viscosity. This can occur after drinking alcohol, expressed emotional stress or stress, and after using certain drugs (some groups of antibiotics, hormones, antihistamines, antiallergic drugs).
Common causes of odor from the mouth
To this group of causes are diseases of various organs and systems, one of which manifestations is the appearance of unpleasant odor from the mouth. Such diseases include:
- Pathology of the digestive tract - in the case of development of diseases of the stomach or intestines, the processes of digestion and absorption of food are violated, which is reflected by the appearance of odor from the mouth. Most often this occurs with gastritis with low acidity (inflammation of the gastric mucosa with insufficient synthesis of gastric juice), pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas with a decrease in the production of digestive enzymes), insufficiency of the sphincter between the stomach and esophagus, dysbacteriosis (violation of the ratio of intestinal microflora with an increase in the number of conditionally- pathogenic and putrefactive bacteria).
- Pathology of the liver and bile ducts - hepatitis, cholecystitis (inflammatory process in the gallbladder), cholelithiasis. With these diseases, a bitter feeling in it often joins a bad breath.
- Infectious process in the upper or lower respiratory tract - tracheitis, bronchitis , sometimes pneumonia (pneumonia) with the parallel development of cough or shortness of breath.
- Inflammatory process in organs that are in anatomical proximity to the oral cavity - tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils), sinusitis or frontal inflammation (inflammation in the sinuses of the nose). With the development of such pathological processes, an unpleasant smell also appears when the air is exhaled through the nose.
- Exchange disorders in the body with the accumulation of substances in the blood that are released through the respiratory system and give an unpleasant or sharp smell to the exhaled air - an unpleasant odor of acetone from the mouth occurs with a significant accumulation of ketone compounds in the blood in diabetes mellitus or ketonemia in young children.
- Acute or chronic renal failure is a serious pathological condition of the body, in which the excretion of metabolic products with urine is disturbed. They accumulate in the blood (uremia) and begin to be partially released by the organs of the respiratory system, imparting a characteristic "renal" odor to the exhaled air.
Occurrence of a smell from a mouth depending on its reason
By the nature of the smell and other concomitant symptoms, one can assume the main pathological cause of its appearance:
- A putrid odor with a sensation of pain during eating in the mouth is a sign of an inflammatory process in the oral mucosa, tongue or gums.
- Periodic or toothache on the background of halitosis indicates tooth decay or tartar. In the case of pain in the corner of the mouth - a possible cause of an unpleasant smell is the process of eruption of the "wisdom tooth".
- Halitosis with a feeling of dry mouth and thirst is the result of an insufficient amount of saliva produced or changes in its properties.
- Parallel development of dyspeptic syndrome (belching of air, unstable stools, flatulence) indicates problems in the digestive tract, which provoked an unpleasant odor from the mouth.
- Fish odor with a sensation of bitterness in the mouth - the probable cause is the pathology of the liver or bile ducts. It often develops pain and heaviness in the right hypochondrium.
- A characteristic "kidney" smell from the mouth requires immediate medical attention and examination to exclude the development of renal failure.
- The sharp odor of acetone is also a signal for the possible development of diabetes in an adult or ketonomy in a young child.
Unpleasant smell from the mouth: diagnosis
Objectively assess the smell from the mouth will help another person. There are also special instruments for determining the concentration of various substances (in particular hydrogen sulphide) in the exhaled air. To clarify the causes of halitosis in a medical institution, an additional examination is carried out, which includes:
- Inspection of the oral cavity - with inflammation of the mucosa of its structures, develops hyperemia (redness) and plaques.
- Laboratory blood test for the presence of inflammatory changes in it, increase of glucose level in diabetes mellitus.
- Determination of diuresis (daily amount of excreted urine) and clinical analysis of urine for diagnosis of renal failure.
- Instrumental examination of the organs of the digestive tract, liver and bile ducts - ultrasound, gastroduodenoscopy.
- Radiography of the sinuses of the nose (gimorovy and frontal sinuses) to determine the presence of inflammation in them.
Treatment of bad breath
All therapeutic measures for halitosis are aimed at eliminating the causes of bad breath and include:
- Daily hygiene of the oral cavity and teeth using toothpaste and brush to further clean the tongue surface from raids (the back of the brush has special soft rollers). If orthopedic products or prostheses are present in the oral cavity, it should be hygiene more often with the use of special rinse aid agents that have antiseptic properties (destroy bacteria).
- Use of local antiseptics to combat bacterial inflammation of the oral mucosa.
- Caring for the dentist caries teeth or their stones. In the case of a "wisdom tooth" eruption, the hood is surgically cut from the gum above it.
- Antibiotic therapy with the use of broad-spectrum medicines for the treatment of bacterial inflammatory processes in the oral cavity or paranasal sinuses is carried out only according to the purpose and under the supervision of the doctor.
- Outpatient or inpatient treatment (depending on the severity and severity of the process) of the pathology of the digestive organs, respiration, kidneys, and liver in the case of their diagnosis.
Unpleasant smell from the mouth is not only a psychological or social problem that limits comfortable communication with other people, but it can also be a manifestation of various pathologies. Therefore, it is very important to differentiate the causative factors and eliminate them, leading to its appearance.