Cervical cancer is a type of malignant tumor, most commonly found in women who have reached the age of 35-60 years. In recent years, there is a tendency to "rejuvenate" the disease.
Specialists identified two types of this tumor: adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (diagnosed in almost 90% of cases). It is known that cervical cancer is not formed from scratch, but develops against the background of various precancerous conditions that may be present in the body for several years. About their presence a woman may not guess. Therefore, it is extremely important to undergo annual medical examinations by a gynecologist.
Causes of Cervical Cancer
The causes of cervical cancer are quite diverse:
- early sex life (mostly up to 16 years old, when the mucous membrane of the uterus is most susceptible to the negative effects of various factors);
- a large number of abortions, multiple births (more than five);
- early birth (under 18);
- excessively active sex life, having several partners at the same time;
- the presence of genital infections, refusal to treat them;
- non-compliance with intimate hygiene;
- long-term use of birth control pills;
- damage to the body due to difficult prolonged labor;
- trauma lining the uterus mucous membrane as a result of inept surgical intervention.
It is believed that more often than others, women whose sexual partner has the manhood of impressive size are susceptible to cancer. From the point of view of medicine, it is unjustified, but a man during sexual intercourse can actually injure the female genital organs, in particular, the cervix immediately behind the vagina. Therefore, this theory is quite the place to be.
Diseases that can provoke the degeneration of healthy cells lining the cervical epithelium into malignant ones include dysplasia of its mucous membrane, erosion, leukoplakia. They are considered to be precancerous. Dysplasia is the pathological change in the cells lining the entrance to the uterus epithelium. Such changes occur for the woman's body imperceptibly, but can be detected during a regular visit to the gynecologist. Cervical erosion - the appearance of small ulcers on its mucosa - is very common, even in young girls. A separate type of erosion - congenital - does not require treatment, as it passes on its own. Leukoplakia represents the keratinization of the upper epithelial layer lining the uterine mucosa, manifested as white plaques of various sizes.
The presence of the herpes virus and human papilloma are also dangerous to the health of women. The degeneration of normal cells into tumor cells occurs under the influence of adverse factors, in particular bacteria and viruses that enter the body from the outside. Frequent change of partners, unprotected sex have a real threat not only for health, but also for the life of every woman.
An important role in the development of the disease is played by the human papillomavirus , which is transmitted through unprotected sexual contact with a carrier. In total, more than seventy viruses are known, united under one common name. The greatest danger to women's health is only a few of them. Some of these viruses provoke various warts and condylomas on mucous membranes on human skin, others affect mucous membrane cells, leading to their mutations.
Symptoms of cervical cancer
Cervical cancer is manifested by the following symptoms:
- unreasonable at first glance uterine bleeding between menstruation, which may be abundant or weakly reaching, smearing, lasting for several days. By the way, the causes of bleeding in the middle of the cycle can be: attachment of the embryo to the uterine wall at the time of conception, ovulation, erosion;
- uterine bleeding, opening during intercourse or after its completion, pain during intercourse. The same may indicate the presence of erosion. A distinctive feature of cancer in this case is that the bleeding can also open at the time of the medical examination when the instrument is inserted into the vagina;
- abdominal pain, abundant white vaginal discharge, which in the latter stages of the disease acquire a specific putrid odor;
- the occurrence of heat for no particular reason, fatigue and lethargy of the body;
- sharp weight loss.
It should be said that these symptoms are characteristic of many diseases of the female reproductive system, so when they occur, do not panic and sit, waiting for the worst. It is best to consult a gynecologist and pass the appropriate examination. At the initial stage of development, cancer is safely treated in all patients, while their childbearing function can be maintained.
Unfortunately, the first symptoms of uterine cancer can appear only when the tumor has spread far beyond the organ. In such a case, its treatment is extremely difficult.
In the later stages of cervical cancer manifests itself:
- swelling of the external genital organs, limbs (when squeezing their blood vessels);
- violation of the process of urination due to compression of the ureters. It is also possible a decrease in renal function, with the result that anuria gradually develops;
- constipation associated with the germination of a cancer in the intestinal area;
- blood in the urine;
- excessive sweating, frequent dizziness.
Complications of cervical cancer can be many. This is the accession of a secondary infection (often leading the patient to death), the opening of internal bleeding, the formation of fistulas between the uterus and the intestines, impaired urination, etc. Even in the absence of complications, the likelihood of death is great. Mortality from a malignant tumor of the cervix is high and is inferior according to statistics only to the onset of death from a breast tumor.
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