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Blood from the nose: the reasons for what to do


Blood from the nose causes Bleeding from the nasal cavity (epistaxis) is a manifestation of the pathology of the nose. It also develops due to diseases of the cardiovascular system. There are cases of congenital susceptibility to nasal bleeding, which develop in a person throughout life. Nosebleeds for various reasons may develop in 60% of all people, and in men they develop more often than in women. According to statistics, in children the blood from the nose is much more common than in adults.

Why does the child often bleed from the nose? How is the diagnosis of nasal bleeding and what are the treatments? We will look at the answers to these questions below.

Features of the anatomical structure of the nasal cavity

The nasal cavity is an anatomical structure, which is surrounded by bony walls, has a bone and cartilage septum and is lined with mucous membrane. The nasal cavity communicates with the environment through the nostrils, behind it connects to the oropharynx. The main physiological function of the nasal cavity is to warm and moisturize the inhaled air, therefore its mucosa is rich in venous and arterial vascular plexuses, which are located close to the surface. It is vascularization that warms the air, but the superficial arrangement of the vessels often leads to damage to their walls and the development of bleeding. Most nasal bleeding (over 90%) develops from the anterior part of the nasal cavity, in which there are many vascular plexuses (Kisselbach plexus). In the remaining 5-10% of cases from the back of the nasal cavity.

Blood from the nose: causes

Nosebleeds develop when one of the vessels supplying its mucosa is damaged. 2 groups of factors lead to such damage - local and systemic causal factors.

Factors associated with the nasal cavity

This group of causes includes various damaging factors that act on the vessel directly in the nasal cavity, and damage it. These factors include:

  • Injury - most often, various injuries to the face area lead to injury to the nose, which can be accompanied by a fracture of its septum with the development of marked bleeding. In childhood, the habit of picking at the nose with a finger or other objects (pencil, pen) leads to injuries of the nasal mucosa.
  • Foreign bodies of the nasal cavity - the cause of bleeding from the nasal cavity in children under the age of 6-7 years who have a habit of pulling various small objects into the mouth or nasal cavity.
  • The inflammatory process of the nasal mucosa (rhinitis) or its sinuses ( antritis , sinusitis ) - inflammation weakens the walls of blood vessels, making them more fragile. Acute respiratory viral infection, allergic rhinitis, bacteria (streptococci, staphylococci, E. coli) can lead to the development of the inflammatory process.
  • Congenital anatomical defects of the vessels of the nasal cavity - pathological expansion of areas of blood vessels, from which bleeding periodically develops (telangiectasia).
  • Malignant or benign neoplasms of the nose that develop from the mucous membrane (carcinoma).
  • Surgical intervention on the tissues of the nose and its cavity - correction of the nasal septum, rhinoplasty, nasal bleeding can develop within a few days after surgery.
  • Prolonged use of a nasal spray for therapeutic purposes — primarily the development of bleeding, is caused by the use of a spray containing anti-inflammatory hormonal agents (glucocorticoids) that cause atrophy (thinning) of the nasal mucosa.
  • Bleeding from the nose as a complication after the use of a nasal oxygen catheter - the passage of air through the nose, with a significant concentration of oxygen in it, leads to damage to the walls of blood vessels, followed by bleeding.
  • Inhalation of cold air with low relative humidity leads to overdrying of the nasal mucosa and an increase in the fragility of its vessels.
  • Barotrauma - a sharp change in atmospheric pressure causes damage to the vessels of the nasal cavity and eardrum.
  • Inhalation of drugs through the nose - most often, when cocaine is inhaled, chronic inflammation and atrophy of the nasal mucosa develop.

All these etiological factors lead to nasal bleeding of varying intensity. With repeated exposure to damaging factors, the intensity of bleeding becomes greater.

Diseases causing nasal bleeding

This group of factors leads to impaired hemostasis (blood clotting), changes in blood pressure in the vessels or a decrease in the strength of their walls, which is manifested by the appearance of nasal bleeding. These system factors include:

  • Hypertension - increased systemic blood pressure can cause damage to the arterioles of the nasal cavity and bleeding. Especially pronounced bleeding can be in hypertensive crisis - a condition characterized by a sharp and significant increase in blood pressure. In this case, bleeding and other localization may develop, the most dangerous of which is cerebral hemorrhage (stroke).
  • Acute or chronic heart failure, leading to blood stasis in the vessels of the nasal cavity and periodic bleeding.
  • Acceptance of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that reduce blood clotting.
  • Systematic use of alcohol, which is a vascular toxin and leads to a weakening of the walls of the arteries and veins of the nasal cavity.
  • Inadequate intake of vitamin C in the body is one of the main reasons for reducing the strength of blood vessels and increasing their fragility with the development of bleeding.
  • Blood coagulation disorders due to vitamin K deficiency in the body (the main compound involved in the synthesis and activation of blood clotting factors).
  • Systemic inflammatory pathology of the connective tissue is a congenital autoimmune condition, leading to inflammation of the vascular walls and a decrease in their strength.
  • Blood pathology, which is accompanied by a decrease in blood clotting - hemoblastosis, thrombocytopenic purpura, anemia.
  • Pathology of the vascular wall, accompanied by an increase in its fragility - systemic diseases, accompanied by the postponement of cholesterol in the arterial vessels.

The danger of most systemic causative factors in the development of nasal bleeding lies in the possible exit of the cut from the vascular bed and other localization. The most dangerous and life-threatening are bleeding into internal organs (brain, liver).

Symptoms of nosebleeds

The development of nosebleeds is hard to miss. It is usually accompanied by the release of blood from one or both nostrils. In case of development of bleeding from the posterior nasal cavity, blood accumulates in the throat and does not come out. In this case, it is more difficult to suspect bleeding from the nose. Using clinical symptoms to determine the cause of the development of nasal bleeding is almost impossible.

Often comes from the nose: diagnosis

Diagnostic measures for nosebleeds are aimed at identifying the causes of its development. For this, various methods of instrumental and laboratory diagnostics are used, which include:

  • A blood test is a basic method of laboratory diagnosis, which allows to determine the presence of inflammation in the body or blood diseases (anemia, hemoblastosis).
  • Rhinoscopy is a method of visual examination of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity using a special optical rhinoscope device. This method allows you to diagnose local causes of nasal bleeding. In parallel, a biopsy is performed to diagnose malignant or benign neoplasms - an in vivo collection of mucosal tissue for laboratory histological examination.
  • Blood pressure measurement for the diagnosis of hypertension or hypertensive crisis.
  • Conducting hemogram - a laboratory study of the main indicators of blood clotting.
  • Radiography of the nasal cavity and sinuses (sinuses) is a technique to determine gross violations of the anatomical integrity of the basic structures of the nose.
  • Computed or magnetic resonance imaging - a modern method of scanning layers of the human body. When conducting such a scan of the nasal cavity, it even defines minor structural or anatomical changes - tumors, volumetric neoplasms, telangiectasias, which can be a local cause of nasal bleeding.

The volume and types of diagnostic examinations are selected by the doctor on the basis of the data of complaints, frequency and severity of nosebleeds.

What to do if the nose bleeds?

In case of development of bleeding from the nasal cavity, first of all measures are taken to stop it. Activities that relate to first aid in stopping bleeding from the nose include:

  • A person with nose bleeding is seated on a chair with the head bent forward — this will prevent blood from entering the nasopharynx, larynx, and trachea.
  • Ensuring the flow of fresh air - open the window, unbutton the collar.
  • Using local cold on the nose area, which enhances the formation of a blood clot to stop bleeding - a gauze cloth moistened with cold water or a small bag of ice is applied to the nose. In case of injury of the nose with a noticeable change in its shape and contours, the application of cold must be carried out very carefully.
  • The use of vasoconstrictor agents - at the stage of rendering first aid to the nose, you can drip funds from the nasal congestion, which constrict the vessels and help to stop the bleeding (Rinazolin, Naphthyzin, Sanorin). These tools can not be used for children under the age of 12 years.
  • Pressing the nasal passage (nostrils) to the nasal septum to squeeze the vessels is performed for the time required for the formation of a thrombus in the damaged vessel (7-10 minutes).
  • Anterior tamponade of the nose - used when bleeding from the anterior section of the nasal cavity, a small turunda of gauze napkin, which is inserted into the nostril, tampons the anterior section of the nasal cavity. This leads to clamping of blood vessels and stop bleeding.

If you can’t stop the bleeding yourself

In the absence of the effect of pre-medical events, stop the bleeding is carried out in a clinic or ENT hospital by a doctor. For this, he uses several techniques, the choice of which depends on the intensity and localization of bleeding. These include:

  • Anterior tamponade of the nose - a special clamp doctor enters into the anterior section of the nasal cavity sterile gauze turunda dipped in a hemostatic solution (a means of stimulating thrombosis).
  • Rear nasal tamponade - the introduction of gauze turunda in the posterior nasal cavity from the nasopharynx, is a more complex procedure that the doctor performs under visual control using a rhinoscope.
  • Surgery endoscopic surgery - using a special micro-instrumentation, the surgeon performs dressing and suturing of the vessel, the damage of which is the cause of nosebleeds. This method of stopping bleeding is carried out in a special operating room, with a pronounced diffuse outflow of blood from an injured large vessel.

If necessary, the doctor may also prescribe hemostatic drugs of systemic action in the form of an injection or intravenous drip administration (aminocaproic acid, etamzilat).

Frequent repetition of episodes of bleeding from the nasal cavity, increasing its intensity, require additional examination and the removal of the underlying cause. Then, adequate treatment of the underlying disease, which has become a local or systemic cause of nasal bleeding, is carried out.

    | 9 August 2015 | | 361 | ENT diseases
    Leave your feedback

    Yep Yep: This does not help for me cause when I pinch my nose ( and I'm pinching it in the right place) more blood just comes out

    Erika :.: Just took my child. To her pediatrician because of a nasty nose bleed in the morning he recommended Vaseline also, about to give it a tey

    kerpouse: i read somewhere on the internet that vaseline and coconut oil could cause pneumonia due to some particles going to the lungs

    Grand Maître Gilberto: Most of the time when someone have frequent nosebleed, it can not be stop this way because the cause is more profond in the nasal cavity, it have been cause by an implant putted inside the brain by estraterrestrial beeings.

    The Darker: Home remedies for nose bleeding - https://thedarker0508.blogspot.com/2019/07/10-effective-home-remedies-to-stop-nose.html

    •Felton Dawn•: How to stop nosebleeds : Make sure No dry air goes into. Your nose Pinch the soft part of yours nose ( not too hard ). Put some pressure on your Nosebleed. With your Tissue - Cloth - Ect. And NEVER Tilt your head back or it would go into your Stomach and Your stomach would Not like that I don’t know if this would work

    killua zoldyck: https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.houstonchronicle.com/life/amp/Why-you-should-not-put-petroleum-jelly-in-your-12958695.php GUYS REPORT THE VIDEO i placed vasline in my nose couple of hours ago and my lungs are already reacting please be careful these videos need to be shut down