Herniation of the lumbosacral spine
- The main causes of the development of pathology
- Symptoms of a hernia of the lumbosacral spine
- Diagnosis of the disease
- Treatment of a hernia of the lumbosacral spine
- Prevention of disease
Hernias are the most common pathologies of the spine. As a rule, the herniation of the lumbar and lumbosacral section is most often observed in patients, which is caused by increased stress on this part of the spine, injuries, lifting weights and other factors. The disease can occur in people of any gender, but women are susceptible to the development of hernia of the lumbosacral division much more than men, as they have to bear and give birth to children, which at times increases the risk of development of pathologies of the spine.
The main causes of the development of pathology
According to medical statistics, herniation of the lumbar and lumbosacral areas occur equally often, as in people who lead a very active lifestyle, and in people who move little and do not subject the spine to increased physical exertion. In both cases, the blood supply to the tissues, ligaments and muscles that surround the vertebral column is impaired. Thus, the main reason for the development of degenerative-dystrophic disorders in the lumbar spine is a disruption of the nutrition of the cartilaginous tissue of the intervertebral discs. Against the background of metabolic disorders, sclerotic changes begin to develop, the uniformity of the cartilaginous structure is damaged, which leads to the formation of a hernia.
Predisposing factors of pathology formation are:
- Obtained injuries of the spine;
- Bruising or damage to the spine discs - most often it happens in people professionally involved in sports;
- Inactive way of life - as a result of hypodynamia, the muscular corset of the back and lumbar region becomes weak and does not cope with the slightest loads;
- Lifting weights;
- Pregnancy in women - as the period of pregnancy and growth of the uterus increases, the load on the lumbar spine significantly increases, which can become a prerequisite for the disturbance of nutrition of certain parts of the spinal column;
- Congenital malformations of the bony or muscular apparatus;
- Harmful habits - these include not only alcohol and smoking, but also the abuse of black coffee. As a result of the influence of bad habits on the human body, blood circulation is disturbed, narrow blood vessels contract, which can lead to inadequate nutrition of the tissues of certain parts of the spinal column.
Symptoms of a hernia of the lumbosacral spine
Clinical manifestations of hernia of the lumbosacral section largely depend on the severity of the disease. As the pathology progresses, the patient complains of the appearance of such symptoms:
- Constant aching pain in the lumbar region with irradiation in the sacrum of the coccyx;
- Stiffness of movements - any sharp change in the position of the body delivers an intolerable pain to the patient;
- Inflammation of the sciatic nerve (sciatica);
- Increased pain and reduced mobility with the slightest load;
- Increased muscle tone of the lower limbs;
- Hypotrophy and total muscle atrophy on one side.
Diagnosis of the disease
If the above symptoms appear, the patient should consult an orthopedic surgeon. The doctor will conduct a thorough examination of the spinal column visually, assign detailed blood tests and X-ray examination. Recently, very informative methods for detecting hernias are CT and MRI methods, with which the doctor can diagnose this pathology at the initial stage of its development and manage conservative methods of treatment.
Treatment of a hernia of the lumbosacral spine
The method of treatment of the hernia of the waist and lumbosacral section largely depends on the severity of the disease and is determined by the doctor strictly individually for each individual patient.
At the initial stage of development, patients are prescribed a manual hernia treatment. An osteopath specialist helps the patient to release compressed intervertebral discs and to relieve muscle tension in the back and lumbar spine. Sometimes the patient is prescribed a complex and acupuncture sessions.
Drug medications are prescribed only when it is necessary to stop the pain syndrome, reduce muscle tone, and remove the inflammatory process. To this end, the patient is prescribed drugs from the group of analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and muscle relaxants. In some cases, with severe disease, the doctor can prescribe hormonal drugs that quickly remove the inflammatory process in the affected vertebrae and stop the pain syndrome. Independently use hormone therapy is strictly prohibited, as the dose and duration of admission can only be determined by a doctor.
In addition to drug treatment and manual therapy, physical therapy and light massage of the lumbar zone have an excellent effect. It is important to understand that not all physical exercises can be performed with a hernia of the lumbar and lumbosacral area, as this can lead to worsening of the patient's condition and will require surgical intervention.
According to the medical statistics, the herniation of the lumbar spine is resorted to in operative treatment only in the most extreme cases and then, in the presence of serious indications for the operation:
- Absence of the effect of conservative methods of treatment, which were conducted for at least 3 months;
- Infringement of roots of a spinal cord;
- Infringement of the root of the "horse" tail;
- Paralysis and paresis of the pelvic organs as a result of pinching of nerve endings;
- Hernia of the lumbar region, characterized by protrusion of more than 7 mm.
Many patients are very afraid of surgical interventions, but these fears are not justified. Modern medicine allows you to remove herniated lumbar spine with endoscopic operations, which significantly reduces the risk of complications in the postoperative period and does not require the use of general anesthesia. Surgical instruments are inserted through natural orifices of the vertebrae, and the whole course of the operation is controlled by means of special equipment.
Operative treatment of a hernia of the lumbar region is also carried out according to the modern method of Raz. A catheter is inserted into the spine under the control of the X-ray, and medications are delivered directly to the lesion center through the catheter. In addition, pathological fluid from the intervertebral space is excreted through the catheter, as a result of which the patient does not feel pain and discomfort at the site of the lesion.
With the timely treatment of the patient to the doctor and adequate treatment, a complete cure of the hernia occurs. Full recovery still depends on the patient's age: people under 50 years of age practically guarantee a cure, after 50 years it all depends on the individual characteristics of the organism.
Therapeutic physical exercises are selected and compiled by the doctor for each individual patient strictly on an individual basis. Do not exercise in the acute phase of the disease and are recommended only after the aggravation subsides.
Prevention of disease
In order to avoid the development of a hernia of the lumbar and lumbosacral zone, it is necessary to follow simple recommendations:
- Do not lift weights.
- Balanced and fully fed.
- During pregnancy wear a special supporting bandage.
- When forced sedentary work more often get up and do an easy workout.
- Perform morning exercises and simple physical exercises.
- When there is pain in the lower back, immediately consult a doctor!