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Allergy in children


Allergy in children Allergies in children - this problem is familiar to many people. And in recent years, the number of children with allergies has steadily increased. Even newborns are at risk. This is partly due to the constantly deteriorating environment and the composition of current food products, replete with preservatives and dyes. Not surprisingly, more and more people are already born with a tendency to allergies. That is why it is so important to learn as much as possible about the illness from which no child today is insured.

Any substance from outside can trigger an immune response. However, normally the body must distinguish between hazardous and non-hazardous substances. When the immune system is imperfect, the body reacts to harmless proteins as dangerous, and, accordingly, triggers the so-called defense mechanisms, which manifest themselves through specific symptoms. As a rule, the disease is hereditary. If one of the parents suffers with allergies, the risk of its development in a child is about 30%. And in the case when both mom and dad are allergic, their son or daughter will inherit the disease with a 60% chance.

The main features of childhood allergies

Children are not small adults, respectively, and all processes in their bodies have their own characteristics. This also applies to allergic reactions. So, consider the characteristics of childhood allergies:

  • the reversibility of most pathological processes - especially for young children, who have every chance to fully heal and forget about the insidious illness once and for all subject to refusal of self-treatment and timely treatment to doctors;
  • increased risk of anaphylactic shock - as you know, all processes in a child’s body occur at a higher rate than in adults;
  • skin rashes are mainly localized precisely in places of contact with the allergen;
  • high probability of the appearance of purulent skin lesions - children's skin is more friable, its protective forces are still small: all this is a prerequisite for the addition of a bacterial infection;
  • high probability of the so-called cross-allergy, when intolerance of one product leads to the occurrence of allergies to other products;
  • Children’s allergies are usually much brighter than adults.

Common types of allergies in children

Food allergies

This species is most common. Usually food allergies provoke such reasons as:

  • intestinal dysbiosis ;
  • the abuse of the mother during pregnancy by products that cause her allergies;
  • early introduction of complementary foods;
  • late attachment to the chest;
  • introduction to the diet of the child ahead of time of some products: nuts, sweets, etc.

With food allergies, the reaction can occur on any food product, especially if it contains a high content of histamine or substances that are not useful to the body, such as preservatives, dyes, flavors and stabilizers. The most common allergies to cow's milk, some types of vegetables and fruits, egg white, fish.
Allergy to animals

Many parents mistakenly assume that it is the animal's coat that is causing the reaction and hope to avoid trouble with acquiring, for example, short-haired pets or those with no hair at all. However, in fact, the allergen is also found in saliva, dead epithelial cells and urine of pets. That is why, before you take a responsible step and have a cat or a dog, you need to check all households for allergies, so that then you do not have to quickly attach the animal, which managed to become loved.

Allergy to pollen of flowering plants

The so-called pollinosis is usually manifested after the child is 8 years old. This pathological reaction of the body to the pollen of some plants is characterized by seasonality. Unpleasant symptoms begin to bother during the flowering of certain herbs and trees. Actually, therefore, as a rule, it is not difficult to identify the "culprit".

House dust allergy

This type of allergy is also quite common among children. It is a pathological and very violent reaction of the body to the release of tiny dust mites. The diameter of the sources of the allergen does not exceed 0.3 mm. They inhabit our homes in huge quantities, and even regular wet cleaning is not able to completely rid them of their homes.

Allergy to medications

A type of allergy that is very dangerous for children and can lead to the development of anaphylactic shock, which, in turn, sometimes causes a fatal outcome. Penicillin and its derivatives usually act as allergens. However, the reaction may occur on drugs of any other group.

Allergy to insect bites

This type of disease is characterized by the hypersensitivity of the child to insect venom. Wasps, bees, hornets, mosquitoes or ants can be the culprits of the pathological reaction. As a rule, the symptoms appear immediately, and the same life-threatening anaphylactic shock can be a complication.

Cold allergy

In the full sense of the word, this condition cannot be called allergy. The so-called cold allergy is manifested through tearing, the occurrence of rashes and redness with a sharp decrease in air temperature. After the child returns to heat, all these symptoms disappear on their own after some time has passed.
Helminth intoxication

As the name implies, the factor provoking this condition is the presence of parasites in the children's organism. As a result, a pseudo-allergy occurs with symptoms characteristic of a true allergy. That is why, at the first suspicion of the appearance of allergy, the child must be tested for worms.

Allergies in children: symptoms

Allergy symptoms in children are directly dependent on the type of disease. For example, food allergies are usually manifested by skin rashes, pollinosis - respiratory problems, and, for example, allergies to cats can be the cause of the manifestation of respiratory and skin symptoms.

Respiratory allergic disorders in children may be as follows:

  • itchy nose;
  • a runny nose that is not characteristic of an acute respiratory disease (colorless discharge from the nose that does not go more than 10 days and is not accompanied by other cold symptoms);
  • frequent sneezing;
  • nasal congestion.

All these symptoms, left without proper attention, can later turn into allergic asthma or bronchitis — quite serious complications that can eventually take on a chronic form.

Skin manifestations of allergies in children are most often as follows:

  • rash;
  • blisters;
  • swelling;
  • hyperemia;
  • "hives".

Rashes can spread throughout the body, but most often they are located on the cheeks and chin, back, forearms, buttocks and abdomen. Complications of these untreated signs of allergy are non-healing, moist skin and eczema.

Digestive problems in children with allergies declare themselves through:

  • vomiting;
  • colic;
  • bloating;
  • belching;
  • dyspeptic disorders.

There are also a number of so-called atypical allergy symptoms in children. For example, in rare cases, signs of the disease may include:

  • fever;
  • nosebleeds;
  • headaches;
  • anemia;
  • joint damage, etc.

How is allergy diagnosed?

At the first sign of allergy, parents should immediately contact a local pediatrician. The specialist will examine the small patient, find out his hereditary predisposition to the disease, will conduct a survey in order to identify applicants for the role of the allergen.
The following procedures may be required to make an accurate diagnosis:

  • tests for worms to exclude helminthic invasion, often the cause of pseudo-allergic reactions;
  • blood test - to determine the level of eosinophils (exceeding the norm indicates the development of an allergic reaction);
  • skin tests are performed only during the remission period and detect food allergens;
  • open sample - the introduction of an allergen into the body in order to study its response (a response is possible in the form of shock, therefore this study is carried out exclusively in stationary conditions).

Allergy in children: treatment

The main treatment for allergies is to avoid contact with the allergen. If the child is allergic to animals, you will have to give your beloved cat in good hands, and in the case of food allergies you will need a special diet. That is, before treating this disease, it is necessary to establish its root cause.

Well, and, of course, in the acute phase of the development of allergies can not do without drug therapy. Modern drugs (antihistamines, sorbents, special ointments and creams) effectively remove toxins from the body, reduce the intensity of the symptoms of reactions, relieve swelling, and fight skin rashes and irritations.

There is also a long-lasting, but rather effective method of treating allergies in children, when an allergen is gradually introduced into the child’s body in small doses. Over time, a peculiar addiction occurs, the intensity of the reactions decreases or they disappear altogether.

How to prevent allergies in children?

Allergies can seriously complicate the life of a little man and even put her at risk. The treatment is often long and very difficult. And, of course, it is desirable to prevent this disease, especially since it is not so difficult to reduce the risk of developing allergies - it is enough to follow some simple rules:

  • There is a time for everything: it is very important to introduce certain foods into the baby’s diet on time, without anticipating events;
  • regular wet cleaning - especially for the baby’s room, because children’s allergies to dust are very common;
  • the correct situation in the children's room - no heavy curtains, carpets with a long nap and mountains of soft toys, because all this is a great "dust collectors";
  • optimal humidity of the air in the child's room - using a humidifier or at least frequent airing of the room can reduce the likelihood of dust or animal allergies;
  • general strengthening of the child’s immunity - hardening, proper regimen, healthy eating, etc .;
  • observance by the mother during pregnancy and especially breastfeeding of a special diet.

The life of a child with allergies, of course, has its own characteristics. Parents of such children need to be especially attentive to their children. But with timely treatment to the doctor and the implementation of all recommendations and prescriptions, children's allergies are completely curable in most cases.

| 14 December 2014 | | 374 | Allergology