Dust allergy is a fairly common problem that can lead to serious illnesses. Consider how it can be caused, how to avoid it and how to deal with it.
What is the culprit of this disease - house dust? It is a mixture of a wide variety of microscopic particles, including the finest fibers of linen and clothing, pet hair, scales of human epithelium, food particles, bacteria, fungal spores and microscopic dust mites, called saprophytes. These creatures feed on dead skin particles. If we consider that each year each person loses about 2 kg, it becomes clear, due to which saprophytes live in our apartments. In 1 of their house dust there are about 300 pieces. Their metabolic products cause allergic reactions in the body, including bronchial asthma.
In addition to home there are other types of dust - book, building, wood. In some patients, only certain types of allergy cause it, in others, the reaction develops with the appearance of any.
Symptoms of dust allergies
Symptoms of dust allergies can be very diverse. It usually develops immediately after contact with the allergen. But sometimes a painful reaction manifests itself only after a few hours. This is typical for those cases where the patient is in contact with the allergen constantly.
The main manifestations of dust allergies are as follows:
- allergic rhinitis, accompanied by sneezing, clear nasal discharge, tearing, itching, and burning sensation in the nasopharynx;
- allergic conjunctivitis , which is manifested by redness of the eyes, burning and itching in them;
- bronchial asthma, which is the most formidable manifestation of allergy, appears after dust gets into the respiratory tract by dry cough, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing.
These symptoms resemble the manifestations of pollinosis (pollen allergy), but are distinguished by a lack of a seasonal nature.
Prevention and treatment
If the above symptoms appear, you should contact an allergist who will prescribe treatment and help eliminate them. But the most important thing is to avoid contact with the allergen, that is, household dust, otherwise the most expensive drugs will not bring any positive effect.
The solution to this problem requires a lot of effort. The following measures are usually needed:
- daily wet cleaning;
- replacement of fabric curtains for blinds;
- replacement of textile upholstery for upholstered furniture on leather;
- change of bed linen every 3-4 days;
- the use of air purifiers and humidifiers.
It is clear that it is impossible to completely avoid contact with dust. When the symptoms have already manifested, the use of drugs is recommended that help relieve and stop them. Quickly and reliably reduces the appearance of allergic rhinitis nasal spray Alergodil, which can be used by adults and children over 6 years old.
If more serious symptoms appear, antihistamines are prescribed - Erius, Zyrtec, related to 3rd generation drugs. They have no significant side effects, do not cause drowsiness and do not require lifestyle changes.
For even more severe manifestations, short courses of corticosteroids are used.
All allergies are also recommended specific immunotherapy. Its principle is the introduction into the body of small doses of the allergen, which then increases. Thus, resistance to it is gradually formed. This process can last up to five years. The method is quite expensive and unacceptable when there is an allergy to several substances at once.
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