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Allergic dermatitis in children


Allergic dermatitis in children Allergic dermatitis is a disease that is very common among children, and it manifests itself most often in the first year of life of a little man. Having noticed redness and rash on the skin of their own crumbs, many mothers are not in a hurry to pay enough attention to the problem - “periodically sprinkles all babies”, “usual diathesis”, “just cinnamon”. Indeed, according to statistics, dermatitis in varying degrees affects 90% of young children. But this does not mean that everything can be taken to chance. In the absence of specialist control, proper treatment and adjustment of certain habits (both food and household), allergic dermatitis is able to become chronic. In some cases, the child does not outgrow this typical childhood illness and is suffering from its periodic exacerbations to the end of life.

Allergic dermatitis - what is it?

The term "allergic dermatitis" refers to a whole group of diseases characterized by the occurrence of inflammatory processes on the skin and developing on the background of an allergic reaction of the body to a particular irritant. The disease is chronic. Its symptoms in very young children (under the age of one year) are popularly referred to in different ways: thrush , soreness, diathesis, etc. However, in fact, allergic dermatitis is very different from all these conditions and requires special attention and control.

It is important to understand that allergic dermatitis is not a skin disease, but a manifestation of problems in the immune system. It is impossible to infect them. This common disease is often accompanied by other dangerous and complicating the life of a small patient state, developing on the background of allergic reactions of the body - bronchial asthma, rhinitis, etc.

What is the cause of atopic dermatitis?

The most common cause of allergic dermatitis in children is completely natural - it is the immaturity of the immune system and the insufficiency of the functions of the digestive system and liver. The newborn, barely hitting from the warm and cozy mother's belly into this vast world, is immediately subjected to attacks of many irritants. To resist these attacks, the body learns gradually.

Not everything that enters the child’s body is properly digested in the gastrointestinal tract and neutralized by the liver. These "undeveloped" substances in a series of complex transformations acquire signs of antigens, and, therefore, start the process of antibody production. This provokes the appearance of skin problems in the form of rashes, inflammations, etc. Over time, the immune system will learn to respond adequately to allergens, but up to a certain age, babies are very susceptible to the occurrence of various kinds of allergic reactions.

Of great importance in the occurrence of allergic dermatitis in children is a hereditary factor. So, if both parents of a child never suffered from such problems, then the risk of developing an illness for him is only about 10%. In the case of the presence in the history of both mother and father, allergic children's dermatitis, their baby will inherit it with a probability of up to 80%.

Increase the risk of developing allergic dermatitis in a child, some of the diseases and pathological conditions in the gastrointestinal tract present in his / her history:

It was also noted that the occurrence of atopic dermatitis in young children is promoted by an unfavorable course of pregnancy: the presence of strong toxicosis in the mother, her illness during the childbearing period and the intake of certain medications, the threat of miscarriage, etc.

What can cause the disease?

Allergic dermatitis can be caused by the following conditions:

  • food allergies;
  • contact allergies;
  • respiratory allergy.

Food allergies - it is from it that, in most cases, allergic dermatitis begins to manifest in children. A nursing mother allowed herself to retreat from the diet and ate strawberries or half an orange, the baby was introduced too early in the supplements to her food, compassionate grandmothers fed her grandson with candy - all this can cause a strong allergic reaction, the result of which will be noticeable on delicate skin. The products that are potential allergens, in particular, include:

  • eggs;
  • whole cow milk;
  • a fish;
  • cereals;
  • Strawberry;
  • citrus and other exotic fruits and vegetables;
  • chocolate, etc.

With some items of this list, kids are best not to acquaint at all until a certain age. Others can be introduced into the diet of a child under one year old (for example, eggs or fish), but this must be done carefully, subject to certain rules:

  • It is not necessary to introduce more than one new dish per week in the lure - this will allow you to track the reaction of the baby’s body to the proposed product.
  • If the child’s immune system responded to the new product too vigorously, you should stop introducing it to the supplement, give the baby a week's rest, and only then offer him another new product; The dish that had an “unsuccessful” debut can be returned only after 1-2 months.
  • A new product is better to offer the baby for the first time at the end of feeding, it is desirable to mix it with the baby’s usual food.
  • It is important to observe the dosage when introducing a new dish into the food: it is recommended to begin with the fourth part of a teaspoon, it is worth gradually increasing the portion.

Well, and, of course, the risk of allergic dermatitis is reduced when breastfeeding a baby. True, in this case, the mother must follow a special diet.

Contact allergy , or contact allergic dermatitis, occurs due to exposure of the allergen directly to the skin of a child. Blisters, rashes and redness while localized precisely in the places of contact of the skin of the baby with an irritant, which can act as:

  • synthetic fabrics from which children's clothing or bedding;
  • infant skin care products;
  • the materials from which the toys are made (or, for example, a pot);
  • washing powders.

Therefore, it is worth buying baby toys and clothes made from safe materials, it is not recommended to abuse bathing supplies (even special children's gels can be used no more than 2 times a week), it is better to use baby powders for washing clothes, and it is advisable to rinse your baby’s things in boiled water ( especially if he is prone to allergies).

Respiratory allergy develops when the irritant enters the baby’s body through the nose — by inhalation of the smallest particles of hair and skin of pets, dust, insect repellents, aerosols, etc. If this route of allergens occurs, parents will be required to take tough measures, such as wet cleaning several times a day, or an adjoining cat in good hands.

There are a number of factors that can provoke an exacerbation of atopic dermatitis in children:

  • Unfavorable ecology - high content of toxic substances in the air emitted by plants, transport, etc., high-intensity electromagnetic field (typical of large cities), increased radiation background, an excess of products “stuffed” with chemicals.
  • Passive smoking.
  • Stress, nervous strain.
  • Excessive physical exertion that causes excessive sweating.
  • Seasonal (especially abrupt) weather changes, as a result of which the immune system becomes more vulnerable.

Symptoms of atopic dermatitis in children

Allergic dermatitis in children photo As for the symptoms of atopic dermatitis, they can be very diverse. Symptoms most often depend on the age of the patient:

  • Young children - in patients of this most numerous group (starting from the neonatal period and up to 2 years), the skin manifestations of atopic dermatitis look like weeping or dry and scaly hyperemic skin areas, usually localized on the face (cheeks, areas behind the ears, etc.) ) and crooked limbs; Often, the symptoms also extend to the scalp, torso, etc.
  • Children under 12 years old - these patients usually suffer from a rash on the neck and elbows and knees. Symptoms are manifested through swelling, redness of the skin, the appearance of erosions, crusts, plaques and scratches on it.
  • Adolescents and adults (persons aged 12 to 18 years) - in representatives of this group, visible manifestations of allergic dermatitis appear on the face, in the decollete area, in the elbow bends, on the neck and hands. During this period, the areas of eruption of the rash can both decrease (or disappear altogether, which happens in most cases, especially among young men) and increase.

A common symptom for all age groups of atopic dermatitis is severe itching. Most small children cannot sleep and eat because of him, they become very capricious, they constantly cry. Older patients begin to comb rashes before wounds, which increases the risk of complications such as penetration into the body through these "open gates" of infection. The following symptoms indicate that this has happened:

  • fever;
  • pustules on the skin;
  • persistent skin wetness.

Allergic dermatitis: how is this diagnosis made?

Today, it is possible to determine a child's tendency to the occurrence of atopic dermatitis before the onset of symptoms of the disease using skin tests. Especially such a diagnosis is desirable for children from a risk group. It is also a mandatory examination of people undergoing, by the nature of their activity, they are forced to come into contact with various chemical substances. The value of this technique lies in the fact that it can be used to identify possible allergens to which the body of a particular person will react with allergic dermatitis. To determine these stimuli in another way is very difficult, because each of us is faced daily with a huge amount of potentially hazardous substances - how can we understand which of them caused the reaction.

The procedure itself takes place as follows: solutions of a certain amount of substances and water (sterile) are injected under the patient's skin. Redness, swelling or inflammation occurs at the sites where the allergen is administered. If a particular substance does not cause an allergic response, the skin in this area remains clean.

Such skin tests can be carried out only in the period of remission of the disease. If there is an exacerbation of allergic dermatitis, the allergen doctor tries to identify the results of a patient survey - in order to improve the condition of the patient, this irritant should be removed from his life as soon as possible.

In general, it is impossible to engage in the treatment of atopic dermatitis on your own, especially if we are talking about children. After all, its symptoms may hide a completely different disease that requires special treatment. Therefore, at the first signs of illness in a child, it must be shown to a pediatrician.

Treatment of allergic dermatitis in children

Treatment of allergic dermatitis in children should be complex and be accompanied by constant monitoring of the condition of the young patient until the moment he “outgrows” his illness. In particular, you may need the help of not only an allergist, but also a dermatologist, a gastroenterologist, a nutritionist, a neurologist.

The very first step in the treatment of allergic dermatitis in the acute stage is the early elimination of contact with the allergen. Then you need to remove the painful symptoms - first of all, the unbearable itching, because of which young children cannot even sleep properly. The following drugs are commonly used for this purpose:

  • Claritin;
  • Tavegil;
  • Claritidin;
  • Zyrtec;
  • Telfast, etc.

It is worth noting that the new generation of antihistamines do not cause side effects in the form of drowsiness or attention disorder.

In order to detoxify the body, in some cases, in the treatment of allergic dermatitis, activated charcoal is shown.

As for the topical treatment of skin manifestations of allergic dermatitis, in the case of their bright severity and significant prevalence, hormone ointments such as are used:

  • Sinaflana;
  • Akrmiderm;
  • Celestoderm and others.

If the symptoms of atopic dermatitis do not appear too intense, you can get by with non-hormonal agents, such as:

  • Fenistil (gel);
  • Cream Vitamin F 99;
  • Keratolan Ointment;
  • Radevit, etc.

It happens that allergic dermatitis in a child is accompanied by the appearance of erosions on the skin - weeping inflamed areas. The treatment will include the imposition of wet-drying dressings, impregnated with an antiseptic.

Often, allergic dermatitis as a result of the addition of a secondary infection is complicated by the appearance of pustules and vesicles. These bubbles are opened under sterile conditions and are treated with brilliant green or blue (not with iodine, they can only smear the edges of the wound).

Quite often, the treatment of allergic dermatitis is accompanied by the treatment of various kinds of dysfunctions and pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract organs with the help of such drugs as Festal, Panzinorm, Creon, Pancreatin, etc. If a failure in the immune system is caused by intestinal dysbiosis, the young patient needs to receive prebiotics (Linex, Probifor), as well as the inclusion in the diet in sufficient quantities of fermented milk products.

In case of confirmation of the bacterial nature of skin infection, antibiotic treatment is indicated in the form of:

  • solutions - Miramistin, Fucaceptol, etc .;
  • Ointments - Levomekol, Baktoban, Dioxide ointment, erythromycin ointment, etc.

In any case, drug therapy in each case is selected by a doctor. Self-medication of allergic dermatitis in children is fraught with serious consequences.

Also in the treatment of atopic dermatitis, vitamin therapy is effective (primarily, vitamins B6 and B15), immunomodulating therapy and phytotherapy.

In addition to drug treatment, manifestations of allergic dermatitis are struggling with the help of physiotherapy:

  • during the exacerbation of the disease effective carbon baths, electric, magnetic field treatment;
  • During remission, mud cure and balneotherapy provide a good effect.

Diet and lifestyle

The life of a child with atopic dermatitis has its own characteristics. Firstly, it should be protected, if possible, from contact with identified or potential allergens. Therefore, these children, in the first place, showed a special diet.

It is recommended to exclude the following products from the diet of a small patient:

  • red vegetables, berries, juices, fruits;
  • seafood;
  • citrus;
  • greenery;
  • cereals;
  • eggs;
  • whole cow milk;
  • preservatives;
  • smoked meat;
  • sauces;
  • emulsifiers;
  • fried foods;
  • chocolate;
  • honey;
  • cocoa;
  • carbonated drinks.

And if the child is breastfed, the diet should be followed by his mother.

The diet of a person prone to allergic dermatitis should consist of products such as:

  • boiled beef;
  • dairy products;
  • cereals - porridge, rice, buckwheat;
  • cucumbers;
  • bran (or whole grain) bread;
  • apple compote;
  • green apples;
  • bio-yoghurts (without additives);
  • boiled potatoes.

It is forbidden to overfeed children suffering from allergic dermatitis. Food of such patients should be fractional and frequent.

For children with atopic dermatitis, there are special rules for swimming:

  • Bathing is best done in settled or filtered water.
  • The duration of the baths should not exceed 20 minutes.
  • In the period of remission it is allowed to use special hypoallergenic bath products.
  • During the period of exacerbation, bathing is desirable and even necessary, but without soap and gels.
  • In the period of exacerbation after bathing, you can not rub the skin with a towel - just wet the body slightly, and then lubricate the skin with bepantenol.
  • Children with allergies are not allowed to swim in chlorinated water pools.

In order to avoid excessive sweating of a child with allergic dermatitis, which can aggravate the situation, it is recommended to always wear it according to the weather and keep the temperature in the nursery at a temperature no higher than 21 degrees. During the period of exacerbation of the disease, the baby should change his clothes and bedding as often as possible. These measures will help avoid complications such as the addition of a secondary infection.

There are a number of rules that must be observed in the case of exposure of the child to allergic dermatitis:

  • If there is a young patient with allergic dermatitis in the house, smoking in this room is prohibited.
  • Parents of such a child need more often than usual to carry out wet cleaning - dust is the strongest allergen.
  • It is important to keep an eye on the toys of the kid: remove all soft toys from the room, which are excellent “dust collectors”, as well as plastic toys with a smell; the remaining toys must be washed periodically with soap and water.
  • Рекомендуется оберегать кожу малыша от контакта с синтетическими тканями и бытовой химией.
  • Одежду ребенку нужно выбирать из натуральных тканей (лучше всего из хлопка) и свободного покроя.
  • Комнату ребенка (особенно аллергика) запрещено загромождать компьютерами, телевизорами и другой бытовой техникой.
  • Использовать для стирки детского белья нужно именно детские стиральные порошки.
  • Во время обострения болезни ребенку рекомендуется обильное питье — так токсины быстрее выведутся из организма.

Профилактика аллергического дерматита

The best prevention of allergic dermatitis is a long breastfeeding of the baby (of course, provided that the mother adheres to the diet during lactation). It is important to follow the rules of complementary foods, ensure the child a normal mode, strengthen his immunity through hardening, proper nutrition, stimulation of motor activity.

| 8 May 2015 | | 292 | Allergology
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