Stomatitis: photo, symptoms, treatment
- Causes of stomatitis
- What are stomatitis?
- Diagnosis of stomatitis
- Who is at risk for developing stomatitis?
- What are the symptoms of stomatitis?
- Which doctor is involved in the treatment of stomatitis?
- Treatment of stomatitis
- Stomatitis in pregnancy: features of treatment
- Prevention of stomatitis
Stomatitis is inflammation of the tissues of the oral cavity, which can be accompanied by malaise, fever, soreness of the inflamed mucosa. In society, it is believed that this disease occurs mainly in childhood, but this opinion is erroneous. Stomatitis often affects adults, but among children under 5-7 years of age the incidence is several times higher. The reasons for this - imperfect immunity and the habit of drawing into the mouth foreign objects.
Causes of stomatitis
Stomatitis can develop independently or be a complication of other pathologies. Many people with frequently recurring stomatitis are diagnosed with immunodeficient conditions, so a decrease in immunity is the main predisposing factor in the development of the inflammatory process in the oral cavity.
The causes of stomatitis are different:
- fungal infection;
- allergic reaction;
- complication of another inflammatory-infectious process, localized in the oropharynx;
- mechanical injuries, damage to the gums chopped teeth, dentures, excessively stiff food;
- accumulation on the teeth of soft and hard dental deposits;
- burns with hot drinks, food, aggressive medications, alcohol;
- taking medications that reduce the activity of the immune system (corticosteroids);
- poor quality care for teeth and gums;
- endocrine disorders and systemic diseases (provoke the development of infectious stomatitis).
What are stomatitis?
Depending on the cause of development and the depth of tissue damage, stomatitis can occur:
Each of these types of stomatitis has its own symptoms and characteristics. But it is worth noting that any inflammation in the mucosa of the oral cavity requires expert advice. The doctor should understand the causes that caused the inflammatory reaction, and do everything possible to prevent the spread of the infection process to nearby tissues.
Diagnosis of stomatitis
At the reception, the doctor will determine the type of stomatitis, and further medical tactics will depend on this. The survey may include the following studies:
- PCR-diagnostics (for fungi and herpetic infection);
- bapsodes smear from places of inflammation;
- feces for dysbiosis ;
- laboratory diagnostics (blood test).
Stomatitis often occurs against the background of a weakening of the defenses of the body. Usually, immunity is reduced in people in the autumn-winter period, when respiratory viral infections are rampant. Special attention deserves recurrent stomatitis. If it is often exacerbated, it is worth carefully examining, undergoing ultrasound examination of internal organs, examining the liver, stomach, studying the work of the intestine, evaluating the condition of the ENT organs and consulting the otolaryngologist about the removal of adenoids, cysts, hypertrophied tonsils, which are the focus of chronic infection. They can lead to a decrease in local immunity and frequent exacerbation of stomatitis.
Who is at risk for developing stomatitis?
First, stomatitis often develops in childhood. It is difficult for young children to keep track of: they are constantly in a hurry, they are driven by the desire to learn everything and taste. In children's groups kids use the same toys, they can try food with spoons from others in the absence of a tutor. All this contributes to the entry of pathogenic microorganisms into the mouth and infection with stomatitis.
Therefore, in the risk group in the first place - children of young age (up to 5-7 years). By school the child usually becomes more responsible, he begins to understand the benefits of hygiene procedures and actively absorbs new information. By this age, the immune system of children begins to function fully, which helps reduce the risk of developing stomatitis. Proper nutrition, strengthening of immunity, the instruction of the child to wash hands before eating, timely treatment of caries helps to avoid the occurrence of inflammatory processes in the oral cavity.
Among adults, stomatitis is not a rare occurrence. In the risk group, people who:
- use dentures;
- have chipped teeth;
- have recently undergone complex operations, are in the recovery period;
- poor brushing of teeth, carious cavities;
- suffer from autoimmune pathologies, immunodeficiency disorders;
- they smoke a lot, abuse alcohol;
- they like to drink hot tea or use excessively spicy dishes.
What are the symptoms of stomatitis?
Symptomatic for stomatitis depends on their type and location of localization of inflammation. In most cases, the disease occurs without fever and is well tolerated by patients. But in childhood, stomatitis can be accompanied by fever, anxiety, tearfulness and a disturbed state of health. The child can refuse to eat, sleep badly. But special therapeutic gels allow you to quickly remove all unpleasant symptoms and ease the baby's condition.
How does allergic stomatitis occur?
Allergic stomatitis occurs against the background of allergies. The increased sensitivity of the body can occur both on food (which occurs most often), and on household chemicals, cosmetics, pollen of plants, pet hair and household dust. When you come into contact with an allergen, someone has attacks of itching, a runny nose, bronchial asthma exacerbating, a skin rash appears, but there are people who suffer from allergic stomatitis, and it is one of the symptoms of an exacerbation of chronic allergies.
The main signs of allergic stomatitis:
- dryness of the oral mucosa;
- loss of taste;
- itching, burning in the mouth;
- unpleasant metallic taste in the mouth;
- redness, swelling, hemorrhage on the mucosa;
- discomfort during chewing, pain in the mouth.
With bullous allergic stomatitis in the oral cavity appear vesicles, inside which are filled with transparent contents. After their opening, the red and inflamed mucous membrane, prone to bleed, is exposed. Erosions are covered with characteristic fibrin films. Ulcers are severely painful, pain intensifies during conversation or eating. Ulcerative defects can merge into one large inflamed area. The stronger the inflammatory process, the worse the patient feels. In some cases, appetite may disappear and the body temperature may rise.
The most severe is the ulcerative necrotic form of allergic stomatitis. The mucous membrane is sharply hyperemic, the doctor, when examined, reveals multiple ulcers, which are covered from above with a fibrinous coating, which has a dirty gray shade. Lymphadenitis (increased BTE and lymph nodes) may appear. Also there is increased salivation, there is pain in the mouth during chewing food, often patients complain of headaches.
Symptoms of ulcerative stomatitis
Ulcerative stomatitis proceeds relatively easily. In the oral cavity, there are signs of inflammation: the mucosa turns red, becomes swollen, a burning sensation arises in the gum area. After a few days of such manifestations on the inner side of the cheeks, single ulcers appear on the gums, on top of which there is a white-dirty plaque. Thus patients complain of the raised salivation, a unpleasant smell from a mouth. There may be a fever. With ulcerative stomatitis, a sharp soreness is observed, which is intensified at the time of contact of the inflamed areas with food, teeth and tongue.
Vincent's ulcerative necrotic stomatitis is manifested by extensive inflammation of the oral mucosa with a rapid increase in symptomatology. For a few days the tissues are covered with ulcers with uneven edges, on top of which are dense films of gray-green color. Around them are hyperemic tissues, and ulcers themselves often spread to the tongue. Inflamed foci may merge, affect deeper layers of the mucous membrane. If you try to remove the plaque, then under it appears a red bleeding surface.
For Vincent's stomatitis is characterized by an unpleasant putrefactive odor from the mouth, which does not disappear even after cleaning the teeth. Severe course of the disease can lead to severe malaise and swelling of the face. Regional lymph nodes are enlarged, painful. The duration of the disease is not less than 10 days. If you do not treat stomatitis, the necrotic process will spread to a number of located tissues, deep into the bone structures (with the development of osteomyelitis).
In the chronic course of ulcerative stomatitis there can be dangerous complications: rhinitis, otitis, endocarditis, gastroenteritis, tooth loss, pleurisy . Therefore, do not take lightly to the treatment of stomatitis - at the appearance of the first signs of the disease immediately contact a specialist and begin to actively treat.
Signs of candidiasis stomatitis
Candidial stomatitis develops on the background of active reproduction of Candida fungi, which cause the development of thrush. Normally, these microorganisms are part of the microflora of the oral cavity, intestines and vagina in women, but with the weakening of immunity or the action of other unfavorable factors, they begin to increase their numbers, leading to an acute inflammatory reaction.
Candidiasis is common among children up to 2-3 years old and elderly people with weakened immunity. The disease occurs with swelling, reddening of the oral mucosa, the formation of a characteristic cheesy plaque on the inside of the cheeks, on the lips and tongue. Also there are such signs as burning, itching, pain while chewing food, drinking drinks. In childhood, candidal stomatitis proceeds with bright symptoms: children refuse to eat, and during crying, parents can see white plaque, which literally covers the mucous membrane and the entire tongue.
Symptoms of aphthous stomatitis
The fibrinous form of aphthous stomatitis is characterized by the appearance of rashes (single), which are covered with plaque. Aphths heal 10-14 days after appearance. They occur most often on the mucous lips, on the side of the tongue. Exacerbation of aphthous stomatitis can cause microtraumas of the oral cavity (prostheses, uneven edges of the teeth), a decrease in immunity in the spring or late autumn, recurrence of acute respiratory viral infections, and ENT diseases. If you do not carry out treatment and do not pay attention to immunostimulation, then relapses will happen 3-4 times a year.
With necrotic variety of aphthous stomatitis, dystrophic changes occur in the oral mucosa. Necrosis of tissues of the oral cavity is often found in people suffering from severe somatic disorders and blood diseases. Aphids in this case are not accompanied by a sharp pain, but go to ulcers, remaining up to 2-4 weeks.
When the ducts of the salivary gland are affected, the saliva is secreted an order of magnitude smaller and grandeurous aphthous stomatitis develops. Aphids are painful, can occur against the background of temperature irritation, respiratory-viral diseases, the development of the carious process.
The most severe form of aphthous stomatitis is the deforming form. In this case, profound changes in connective tissue are observed. Ulcerative defects do not heal for a long time, prolapses of the mucous membrane of the soft palate, lips and palatine douches can form.
Signs of herpetic stomatitis
The causative agent of herpetic stomatitis is the herpes virus. On the mucosa there are single or grouped vesicles, inside of which there is transparent contents. After they burst, shallow and painful erosions are exposed.
The disease is characterized by increased salivation, deterioration in overall well-being, malaise, decreased appetite, nausea, an increase in submandibular and cervical lymph nodes. In children, herpetic stomatitis occurs with fever, a runny nose, a strong reddening of the gums.
The formation of vesicles lasts several days, while the oral mucosa remains sharply painful, and the emerging erosions gradually epithelize, leaving no traces. With generalized herpetic infection, the risk of developing dangerous infectious complications increases, especially if the disease occurs during the neonatal period.
Which doctor is involved in the treatment of stomatitis?
In most cases, stomatitis treats dentists, but if other chronic or acute diseases that require correction are identified during the examination, profile specialists are connected to the treatment process. In early childhood, inflammation of the mucous membrane is treated by pediatricians.
Treatment of stomatitis
The tactics of treating stomatitis are selected individually. At the same time, the form of the disease must be taken into account. It is forbidden to take spicy, spicy, cold or excessively hot food for the period of an active inflammatory reaction. Products should be warm, and the food itself - semi-liquid. If you eat hard food, then against the background of damage to the mucosa may attach secondary infections.
For 2-3 weeks of treatment under the prohibition of alcoholic beverages, if possible, refuse from cigarettes. You are advised to limit movement activity, it is forbidden to overstrain and supercool, even if the disease occurs without a rise in body temperature and severe discomfort. In any form of stomatitis it is useful to use sour-milk foods that improve the intestinal microflora, thus increasing the immune activity.
With herpetic stomatitis, the main emphasis in the treatment is on taking antiviral drugs. They help to suppress the activity of the herpes virus. In addition, prescribe drugs that eliminate inflammation, vitamins, immunostimulants. Obligatory antiseptic rinsing of the mouth: use recommended solutions that have antiviral activity.
Symptomatic therapy for herpetic stomatitis is required in childhood, if the body temperature rises (prescribe antipyretic drugs), analgesic gels and ointments. Rinsing of the mouth is a prerequisite for the treatment of any form of stomatitis. Locally, antiseptics help to reduce the activity of microorganisms, wash out the pathogenic microflora along with infected saliva, improve well-being and accelerate recovery.
If on a background of stomatitis the body temperature rises, then in addition to febrifugals it is useful to drink more vitamin drinks (warm herbal decoctions, weak tea with linden, honey). When fungal forms of stomatitis it is useful to rinse the mouth with a weak solution of soda. Chlorhexidine is effective in aphthous, traumatic stomatitis. On viruses, this antiseptic has little effect.
With aphthous stomatitis, prone to recurrence, it is necessary to exclude allergenic foods (chocolate, citrus fruits, strawberries) from the diet and food that can injure an already inflamed mucosa. Afts are treated with anti-inflammatory dental gels with an analgesic effect (eg, holisalom). Recommended mouthwashes with special antiseptics or decoctions of medicinal herbs. For the rapid epithelialization of tissues after the abatement of an acute inflammatory reaction, regenerating agents are prescribed.
Vincent's ulcerative necrotic stomatitis is treated with antibiotics, which are often prescribed in injections. Additionally, the use of metronidazole in tablets may be recommended. Such potent remedies are necessary, since this variety of stomatitis without effective treatment often leads to dangerous infectious complications. With Vincent's stomatitis, antihistamines are also prescribed.
Antibacterial agents are used for candidiasis lesions of the oral mucosa. It is very important to choose the right treatment that will affect the cause of inflammation. This is the only way to minimize the risk of recurrence of stomatitis and the occurrence of secondary infections.
Stomatitis in pregnancy: features of treatment
Pregnancy is a difficult period for every woman. Against the background of hormonal changes in the body and increased stress on internal organs and systems, immunity decreases. So conceived by nature: the suppression of immune activity is necessary in order for the embryo to attach itself to the endometrium and begin to actively develop. At this time, the risk of thrush, stomatitis, influenza and other infectious and inflammatory processes is significantly increased.
Hundreds of germs and viruses are trying to attack the weakened body of a pregnant woman. The difficulties of treating stomatitis in this interesting situation are associated with the inability to use many medications. You must remember that every medication is potentially dangerous. Многие производители не указывают в аннотации к препарату то, что он не проходил клинические испытания и может обладать тератогенным действием на плод. Поэтому самолечение при стоматите во время беременности недопустимо. Доктор назначит средства, которые можно использовать для устранения местных проявлений болезни.
Важно уделить внимание укреплению иммунитета. Назначаются иммуностимулирующие средства, витамины. Это позволяет снизить частоту рецидивов стоматита в дальнейшем. Местно слизистую обрабатывают противовоспалительными, антигрибковыми составами, могут назначаться антибактериальные препараты, но только местно. При выборе того или иного вещества доктор руководствуется в первую очередь интересами будущего ребенка. Если польза лечения для женщины превышает риск для плода, и в использовании медикаментов есть острая необходимость, то доктор разрешает женщине применять то или иное средство.
Как можно предупредить развитие стоматита? В первую очередь нужно следить за гигиеной полости рта:
- чистите зубы не реже 2-х раз в день;
- регулярно посещайте стоматолога и своевременно лечите кариозные зубы;
- удаляйте 1-2 раза в год накопившийся зубной камень ;
- используйте только качественные зубные протезы, изготовленные только в условиях зуботехнической лаборатории;
- пользуйтесь ирригаторами, которые эффективно вымывают из труднодоступных мест частички пищи и микробный налет;
- своевременно заменяйте прогнившие зубные коронки на новые, удаляйте нежизнеспособные зубы.
Укрепляйте иммунитет, употребляя курсами поливитаминные комплексы. В рационе питания должны присутствовать свежие овощи, фрукты, зелень. Старайтесь не травмировать нежную слизистую жесткими продуктами — хлебом, сухарями, фруктами, орехами.
If your child often has stomatitis on the background of bad habits (finger sucking, non-observance of personal hygiene principles) and low immunity, try to teach him how to properly care for his teeth and not take dirty hands or foreign objects into his mouth.
- Stomatitis in children: symptoms and treatment
- Aphthous stomatitis in children and adults
- Herpetic stomatitis: treatment