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Stomatitis: photo, symptoms, treatment


Stomatitis is an inflammation of the tissues of the oral cavity, which may be accompanied by malaise, fever, soreness of the inflamed mucosa. In society, it is believed that this disease occurs mainly in childhood, but this opinion is erroneous. Adults often suffer with stomatitis, but among children up to 5-7 years the incidence is several times higher. The reasons for this are imperfect immunity and the habit of pulling foreign objects into your mouth.

Causes of stomatitis

Stomatitis can develop independently or be a complication of other pathologies. Many people with often recurrent stomatitis are identified immunodeficiency states, so reduced immunity - the main predisposing factor to the development of the inflammatory process in the oral cavity.

The causes of stomatitis are different:

  • fungal infection;
  • allergic reaction;
  • a complication of another inflammatory-infectious process, localized in the oropharynx;
  • mechanical injuries, damage to the gums with chipped teeth, dentures, excessively hard food;
  • accumulation of soft and hard dental deposits on the teeth;
  • burn hot drinks, food, aggressive drugs, alcohol;
  • taking medications that reduce the activity of the immune system (corticosteroid drugs);
  • poor quality care of teeth and gums;
  • endocrine disorders and systemic diseases (provoke the development of infectious stomatitis).

What are stomatitis?

Depending on the cause of the development and the depth of tissue damage, stomatitis may be:

  • aphthous;
  • allergic;
  • traumatic;
  • candidal;
  • ulcers;
  • herpetic

Each of these types of stomatitis has its own symptoms and characteristics. But It is worth noting that any inflammation in the oral mucosa requires expert advice. The doctor must understand the causes of the inflammatory reaction, and do everything possible to prevent the spread of the infectious process on the adjacent tissues.

Diagnosis of stomatitis

At the reception, the doctor will determine the type of stomatitis, and further medical tactics will depend on it. The survey may include the following studies:

  • PCR diagnostics (for fungi and herpes infection);
  • bakposev smear from places of inflammation;
  • feces for dysbiosis ;
  • laboratory diagnosis (blood test).

Stomatitis often occurs against a background of weakening of the body’s defenses. Immunity is usually reduced in people in the autumn-winter period, when respiratory viral infections are rampant. Recurrent stomatitis deserves special attention. If he often becomes aggravated, it is worth carefully examining, undergoing ultrasound diagnostics of internal organs, examining the liver, stomach, examining the work of the intestine, assessing the condition of the ENT organs and consulting with an otolaryngologist about the removal of adenoids, cysts, hypertrophied tonsils, which are a source of chronic infection. They just can lead to a decrease in local immunity and frequent exacerbation of stomatitis.

Who is at risk for developing stomatitis?

First, stomatitis most often still develops in childhood. It is difficult to keep an eye on small children: they are always in a hurry somewhere, they are driven by the desire to learn and taste everything. In children's groups, toddlers use the same toys; in the absence of a teacher, they can try food with other people's spoons. All this contributes to the ingress of pathogenic microorganisms in the mouth and infection with stomatitis.

Therefore, in the risk group in the first place - young children (up to 5-7 years). By school, the child usually becomes more responsible, he begins to understand the benefits of hygienic procedures and actively absorbs new information. By this age, the immune system of children begins to fully function, which reduces the risk of developing stomatitis. Proper nutrition, strengthening the immune system, schooling the child to wash hands before eating, timely treatment of caries help to avoid the appearance of inflammatory processes in the oral cavity.

Stomatitis among adults is not uncommon. At risk are people who:

  • use dentures;
  • have chipped teeth;
  • recently suffered complex operations, are in the recovery period;
  • poorly brush their teeth, have carious cavities;
  • suffer from autoimmune pathologies, immunodeficiency disorders;
  • many smoke, abuse alcohol;
  • like to drink hot tea or use overly spicy dishes.

What are the symptoms of stomatitis?

The symptomatology at stomatitis depends on their type and a place of localization of the centers of an inflammation. In most cases, the disease proceeds without fever and is well tolerated by patients. But in childhood, stomatitis may be accompanied by fever, anxiety, tearfulness, and impairment of well-being. The child may refuse to eat, sleep badly. But special treatment gels allow you to quickly remove all unpleasant symptoms and alleviate the condition of the baby.

How is allergic stomatitis?

Allergic stomatitis occurs on the background of allergies. Increased sensitivity of the body can occur both on food (which is most common) and on household chemicals, cosmetics, pollen, pet dander and household dust. In contact with an allergen, someone has bouts of itching, a runny nose, asthma aggravates, skin rash appears, but there are people who suffer from allergic stomatitis, and it is one of the symptoms of chronic allergy exacerbation.
Allergic stomatitis photo
The main signs of allergic stomatitis:

  • dry oral mucosa;
  • loss of taste;
  • itching, burning in the mouth;
  • unpleasant metallic taste in the mouth;
  • redness, swelling, hemorrhages on the mucous membrane;
  • discomfort during chewing, pain in the mouth.

In case of bullous allergic stomatitis, vesicles appear in the oral cavity, inside of which are filled with transparent contents. After opening them, a red and inflamed mucous membrane, prone to bleeding, is exposed. Erosion is covered by characteristic fibrin films. The ulcers are sharply painful, the pain intensifies during a conversation or meal. Ulcers can merge into one large inflamed area. The stronger the inflammatory process, the worse the patient feels. In some cases, the appetite may disappear and the body temperature rises.

The most severe is necrotic form of allergic stomatitis. The mucosa is sharply hyperemic, the doctor during the examination reveals multiple ulcerations, which are covered with a fibrinous coating, which has a dirty gray tint. Lymphadenitis may occur (an increase in the ear and submandibular lymph nodes). There is also increased drooling, pain in the mouth while chewing food, often patients complain of headaches.

Symptoms of ulcerative stomatitis

Ulcerative stomatitis is relatively easy. There are signs of inflammation in the oral cavity: the mucous becomes red, becomes edematous, burning occurs in the gum area. After a few days of such manifestations on the inside of the cheeks, single ulcers appear on the gums, on top of which there is a white and dirty patina. In this case, patients complain of increased salivation, bad breath. Fever may occur. In case of ulcerative stomatitis, a sharp pain is observed, which is aggravated at the moment of contact of the inflamed areas with food, teeth and tongue.

Ulcer-necrotic stomatitis of Vincent is manifested by extensive inflammation of the oral mucosa with a rapid increase in symptoms. For several days, the tissues are covered with ulcers with jagged edges, on top of which are thick gray-green films. Hyperemic tissues are located around them, and ulcers themselves often spread to the tongue. Inflamed lesions may merge, affecting deeper layers of the mucous membrane. If you try to remove the plaque, then under it will appear a red bleeding surface.

Vincent stomatitis is characterized by an unpleasant putrid breath, which does not disappear even after brushing your teeth. Severe illness can lead to severe malaise and swelling of the face. Regional lymph nodes are enlarged, painful. The duration of the disease is at least 10 days. If stomatitis is not treated, the necrotic process will spread to adjacent tissues, deep down, down to the bone structures (with the development of osteomyelitis).

In chronic course of ulcerative stomatitis, dangerous complications can occur: rhinitis, otitis, endocarditis, gastroenteritis, tooth loss, pleurisy . Therefore, do not take lightly to the treatment of stomatitis - when the first signs of the disease appear, immediately contact a specialist and begin active treatment.

Signs of candidal stomatitis

Candida stomatitis photo Candida stomatitis develops against the background of active reproduction of Candida fungi, which cause the development of thrush. Normally, these microorganisms are part of the microflora of the mouth, intestines and vagina in women, but when immunity is weakened or other adverse factors are affected, they begin to increase their numbers, leading to an acute inflammatory reaction.

Candida stomatitis is often found among children under 2–3 years of age and elderly people with weakened immune systems. The disease proceeds with swelling, redness of the oral mucosa, the formation of a characteristic cheesy plaque on the inside of the cheeks, on the lips and tongue. Also, there are signs such as burning, itching, pain while chewing food, drinking beverages. In childhood, candidal stomatitis occurs with vivid symptoms: children refuse to eat, and during crying, parents can see white patina, which literally completely covers the mucous membrane and the entire tongue.

Symptoms of aphthous stomatitis

Aphthous stomatitis photo Fibrinous form of aphthous stomatitis is characterized by the appearance of rashes (single), which are covered with bloom. Aphthae heal in 10-14 days after the appearance. They occur most often on the mucous lips, on the side of the tongue. Exacerbation of aphthous stomatitis can cause microtraumas of the oral cavity (prostheses, jagged teeth), reduced immunity in the spring or late fall, recurrences of ARVI, ENT diseases. If you do not carry out treatment and do not pay attention to immunostimulation, then relapses will occur 3-4 times a year.

With a necrotic variety of aphthous stomatitis, dystrophic changes appear in the oral mucosa. Necrosis of oral tissues is often found in people suffering from severe somatic disorders and blood diseases. Aphthae in this case are not accompanied by a sharp pain, but go into ulcers, persisting up to 2-4 weeks.

With the defeat of the ducts of the salivary gland of saliva stands out an order of magnitude less and develops grand aphthous stomatitis. Aphthae painful, can occur against the background of temperature irritation, respiratory viral diseases, the development of carious process.

The most severe form of aphthous stomatitis is the deforming form. At the same time, profound changes in the connective tissue are observed. Ulcerative defects do not heal for a long time, growths of the mucous membrane of the soft palate, lips and palatines can be formed.

Signs of herpetic stomatitis

Herpetic stomatitis photo The causative agent of herpetic stomatitis is the herpes virus. On the mucosa appear single or grouped bubbles, inside of which there is a transparent content. After they burst, shallow and painful erosion is exposed.

The disease is characterized by increased salivation, deterioration of general well-being, malaise, decreased appetite, nausea, enlarged submandibular and cervical lymph nodes. In children, herpetic stomatitis proceeds with fever, runny nose, severe redness of the gums.

The formation of vesicles lasts several days, while the oral mucosa remains sharply painful, and the erosions that appear are gradually epithelial, leaving no traces. When generalized herpes infection increases the risk of developing dangerous infectious complications, especially if the disease occurs in the neonatal period.

Which doctor treats stomatitis?

In most cases, stomatitis is treated by dentists, but if in the process of examination other chronic or acute diseases that require correction are detected, then specialized specialists are involved in the treatment process. In early childhood pediatricians treat inflammation of the mucous membranes.

Stomatitis treatment

Tactics of treatment of stomatitis is selected individually. In this case, the form of the disease is necessarily taken into account For the period of an active inflammatory reaction it is forbidden to take spicy, spicy, cold or excessively hot food. Food should be warm, and the food itself - semi-liquid. If you eat hard food, then secondary infections can join the mucosal damage.

For 2-3 weeks of treatment under the ban alcoholic beverages, if possible, give up cigarettes. It is recommended that you limit the motor activity, it is forbidden to overwork and overcool, even if the disease proceeds without fever and pronounced discomfort. In any form of stomatitis, it is helpful to consume dairy foods that heal the intestinal microflora, thus increasing immune activity.

In case of herpetic stomatitis, the main focus of treatment is on the reception of antiviral drugs. They help suppress the activity of the herpes virus. Additionally prescribe drugs that eliminate inflammation, vitamins, immunostimulants. Mandatory antiseptic rinsing of the mouth: it is recommended to use solutions that have antiviral activity.

Symptomatic therapy for herpetic stomatitis is required in children if high body temperature rises (antipyretic agents are prescribed), anesthetic gels and ointments. Mouth rinses are indispensable for treating any form of stomatitis. Topically, antiseptics help reduce the activity of microorganisms, wash out pathogens along with infected saliva, improve well-being and accelerate recovery.

If, against the background of stomatitis, the body temperature rises, then, in addition to antipyretic drugs, it is useful to drink more vitamin drinks (warm herbal teas, weak tea with linden, honey). For fungal forms of stomatitis, it is helpful to rinse your mouth with a weak soda solution. Chlorhexidine is effective in aphthous, traumatic stomatitis. This antiseptic has a weak effect on viruses.

In aphthous stomatitis, which is prone to recur, allergenic foods (chocolate, citrus fruits, strawberries) and food that can injure an already inflamed mucous membrane should be excluded from the diet. Aphthae are treated with anti-inflammatory dental gels with an anesthetic effect (for example, cholisal). Recommended mouthwash with special antiseptics or decoction of medicinal herbs. For rapid epithelialization of tissues after subsiding of the acute inflammatory reaction, regenerating agents are prescribed.

Necrotizing stomatitis of Vincent is treated with antibiotics, which are most often prescribed in injections. Additionally, you can recommend the use of metronidazole tablets. Such potent drugs are necessary because this type of stomatitis without effective treatment often leads to dangerous infectious complications. When stomatitis Vincent prescribed also antihistamines.

In candidal lesions of the oral mucosa using antifungal agents. It is very important to select the correct treatment that will affect the cause of the inflammation. This is the only way to minimize the risk of recurrence of stomatitis and the occurrence of secondary infections.

Stomatitis during pregnancy: features of treatment

Pregnancy is a difficult period for every woman. Against the background of hormonal adjustment of the body and increased stress on the internal organs and systems, immunity is reduced. It is so conceived by nature: the suppression of immune activity is necessary so that the embryo attaches to the endometrium and begins to actively develop. At this time, the risk of developing thrush, stomatitis, flu and other infectious and inflammatory processes increases significantly.

Hundreds of microbes and viruses are trying to attack the weakened body of a pregnant woman. The difficulties of treating stomatitis in this interesting situation are associated with the impossibility of using many drugs. You must remember that every medicine is potentially dangerous. Многие производители не указывают в аннотации к препарату то, что он не проходил клинические испытания и может обладать тератогенным действием на плод. Поэтому самолечение при стоматите во время беременности недопустимо. Доктор назначит средства, которые можно использовать для устранения местных проявлений болезни.

Важно уделить внимание укреплению иммунитета. Назначаются иммуностимулирующие средства, витамины. Это позволяет снизить частоту рецидивов стоматита в дальнейшем. Местно слизистую обрабатывают противовоспалительными, антигрибковыми составами, могут назначаться антибактериальные препараты, но только местно. При выборе того или иного вещества доктор руководствуется в первую очередь интересами будущего ребенка. Если польза лечения для женщины превышает риск для плода, и в использовании медикаментов есть острая необходимость, то доктор разрешает женщине применять то или иное средство.

Профилактика стоматита

Как можно предупредить развитие стоматита? В первую очередь нужно следить за гигиеной полости рта:

  • чистите зубы не реже 2-х раз в день;
  • регулярно посещайте стоматолога и своевременно лечите кариозные зубы;
  • удаляйте 1-2 раза в год накопившийся зубной камень ;
  • используйте только качественные зубные протезы, изготовленные только в условиях зуботехнической лаборатории;
  • пользуйтесь ирригаторами, которые эффективно вымывают из труднодоступных мест частички пищи и микробный налет;
  • своевременно заменяйте прогнившие зубные коронки на новые, удаляйте нежизнеспособные зубы.

Укрепляйте иммунитет, употребляя курсами поливитаминные комплексы. В рационе питания должны присутствовать свежие овощи, фрукты, зелень. Старайтесь не травмировать нежную слизистую жесткими продуктами — хлебом, сухарями, фруктами, орехами.

Если ваш ребенок часто болеет стоматитом на фоне вредных привычек (сосание пальца, несоблюдение принципов личной гигиены) и низкого иммунитета, постарайтесь научить его правильно ухаживать за зубами и не брать в рот грязные руки или посторонние предметы.

20 Май 2015 | 3 531 | Uncategorized
  • | Galina Vanenik | 10 November 2015

    I had two sores in my mouth. Friend showed, says stomatitis. Is it really he? So what to do? to the doctor or what?

  • | Irina | November 19, 2015

    To the doctor would seem to make an accurate diagnosis. My son recently got out too (he is thirteen years old), so he four times in a day he rinsed my mouth with a dentist, in order to get rid of pain and cure stomatitis. The disease is painful, of course, but you can cure it. The main thing is to find the cause and get rid of it.

Leave your feedback

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Chilly78765: Mine just keep coming back after few days:( sometimes if I'm lucky I get a whole week of pain free eating, brushing and talking

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