Stomatitis: photo, symptoms, treatment
- Causes of stomatitis
- What are stomatitis?
- Diagnosis of stomatitis
- Who is at risk for developing stomatitis?
- What are the symptoms of stomatitis?
- Which doctor is involved in the treatment of stomatitis?
- Treatment of stomatitis
- Stomatitis in pregnancy: treatment features
- Prevention of stomatitis
Stomatitis is an inflammation of the tissues of the oral cavity, which can be accompanied by malaise, fever, soreness of the inflamed mucosa. In society, it is believed that this disease occurs mainly in childhood, but this opinion is erroneous. Stomatitis often affects adults, but among children under 5-7 years of age the incidence is several times higher. The reasons for this - imperfect immunity and the habit of drawing into the mouth foreign objects.
Causes of stomatitis
Stomatitis can develop independently or be a complication of other pathologies. Many people with often recurrent stomatitis are diagnosed with immunodeficient conditions, so a decrease in immunity is the main predisposing factor in the development of the inflammatory process in the oral cavity.
The causes of stomatitis are different:
- Fungal infection;
- allergic reaction;
- Complication of another inflammatory-infectious process, localized in the oropharynx;
- Mechanical injuries, damage to the gums chopped teeth, dentures, excessively stiff food;
- Accumulation of soft and hard dental deposits on the teeth;
- Burn with hot drinks, food, aggressive medicines, alcohol;
- Taking medications that reduce the activity of the immune system (corticosteroids);
- Poor quality care for teeth and gums;
- Endocrine disorders and systemic diseases (provoke the development of infectious stomatitis).
What are stomatitis?
Depending on the cause of development and the depth of tissue damage, stomatitis can occur:
Each of these types of stomatitis has its own symptoms and features. But it is worth noting that any inflammation in the mucosa of the oral cavity requires expert advice. The doctor should understand the reasons that caused the inflammatory reaction, and do everything possible to prevent the spread of the infectious process on the nearby tissue.
Diagnosis of stomatitis
At the reception, the doctor will determine the type of stomatitis, and this will depend on further medical tactics. The survey may include the following studies:
- PCR-diagnostics (for fungi and herpetic infection);
- Bapsodes smear from places of inflammation;
- Feces for dysbiosis ;
- Laboratory diagnostics (blood test).
Stomatitis often occurs against the background of a weakening of the body's defenses. Usually, immunity decreases in people during the autumn-winter period, when respiratory viral infections are rampant. Special attention deserves recurrent stomatitis. If it is often exacerbated, it is worth to carefully examine, undergo ultrasound diagnosis of internal organs, examine the liver, stomach, examine the work of the intestines, assess the condition of the ENT organs and consult with the otolaryngologist on the removal of adenoids, cysts, hypertrophied tonsils, which are the focus of chronic infection. They can lead to a decrease in local immunity and frequent exacerbation of stomatitis.
Who is at risk for developing stomatitis?
First, stomatitis often develops in childhood. It is difficult to keep track of small children: they are constantly in a hurry, they are driven by the desire to learn everything and taste. In children's collectives, kids use the same toys, can at the time of the teacher's absence try food spoons from others. All this contributes to the entry of pathogenic microorganisms into the mouth and infection with stomatitis.
Therefore, in the risk group in the first place - children of young age (up to 5-7 years). By school the child usually becomes more responsible, he begins to understand the benefits of hygiene procedures and actively absorbs new information. By this age, the immune system of children begins to function fully, which helps to reduce the risk of developing stomatitis. Proper nutrition, strengthening of immunity, training a child to wash hands before eating, timely treatment of caries helps to avoid the occurrence of inflammatory processes in the oral cavity.
Among adults, stomatitis is not a rare occurrence. In the risk group, people who:
- Use dentures;
- Have chipped teeth;
- Have recently undergone complex operations, are in the recovery period;
- Poor brushing of teeth, carious cavities;
- Suffer from autoimmune pathologies, immunodeficiency disorders;
- They smoke a lot, abuse alcohol;
- They like to drink hot tea or use excessively spicy dishes.
What are the symptoms of stomatitis?
Symptomatic for stomatitis depends on their type and location of localization of inflammation. In most cases, the disease occurs without a rise in temperature and is well tolerated by patients. But in childhood, stomatitis can be accompanied by fever, anxiety, tearfulness and a disturbed state of health. The child can refuse to eat, sleep badly. But special therapeutic gels allow you to quickly remove all unpleasant symptoms and ease the baby's condition.
How does allergic stomatitis occur?
Allergic stomatitis occurs against the background of allergies. The increased sensitivity of the body can occur both on food (which occurs most often), and on household chemicals, cosmetics, pollen of plants, pet hair and household dust. On contact with an allergen someone has itching, runny nose, bronchial asthma, a skin rash, but there are people who suffer from allergic stomatitis, and it is one of the symptoms of an exacerbation of chronic allergies.
The main signs of allergic stomatitis:
- Dryness of the oral mucosa;
- Loss of taste;
- Itching, burning in the mouth;
- Unpleasant metallic taste in the mouth;
- Redness, swelling, hemorrhage on the mucosa;
- Discomfort during chewing, pain in the mouth.
With bullous allergic stomatitis in the oral cavity appear vesicles, inside which are filled with transparent contents. After their opening, the red and inflamed mucous membrane, prone to bleed, is exposed. Erosions are covered with characteristic fibrin films. Ulcers are severely painful, pain is aggravated during conversation or eating. Ulcerative defects can merge into one large inflamed area. The stronger the inflammatory process, the worse the patient feels. In some cases, appetite may disappear and body temperature may rise.
The most severe is the ulcerative necrotic form of allergic stomatitis. Mucous is sharply hyperemic, the doctor at survey reveals plural ulcers, which are covered from above with a fibrinous coating, which has a dirty gray shade. Lymphadenitis (increased BTE and lymph nodes) may appear. Also there is increased salivation, there is pain in the mouth during chewing food, often patients complain of headaches.
Symptoms of ulcerative stomatitis
Ulcerative stomatitis proceeds relatively easily. In the oral cavity, there are signs of inflammation: the mucosa turns red, becomes swollen, a burning sensation arises in the gum area. After a few days of such manifestations on the inner side of the cheeks, single ulcers appear on the gums, on top of which there is a white-dirty plaque. Thus patients complain of the raised salivation, a unpleasant smell from a mouth. There may be a fever. With ulcerative stomatitis, sharp soreness is observed, which is intensified when the inflamed areas contact food, teeth and tongue.
Vincent's ulcerative necrotic stomatitis is manifested by extensive inflammation of the oral mucosa with a rapid increase in symptomatology. For a few days the tissues are covered with ulcers with uneven edges, on top of which are dense films of gray-green color. Around them are hyperemic tissues, and ulcers themselves often spread to the tongue. Inflamed foci can merge, affect the deeper layers of the mucosa. If you try to remove the plaque, then under it appears a red bleeding surface.
For Vincent's stomatitis is characterized by an unpleasant putrefactive odor from the mouth, which does not disappear even after cleaning the teeth. Severe course of the disease can lead to severe malaise and swelling of the face. Regional lymph nodes are enlarged, painful. The duration of the disease is not less than 10 days. If you do not treat stomatitis, the necrotic process will spread to a number of located tissues, deep into the bone structures (with the development of osteomyelitis).
In the chronic course of ulcerative stomatitis there can be dangerous complications: rhinitis, otitis, endocarditis, gastroenteritis, loss of teeth, pleurisy . Therefore, do not take lightly to the treatment of stomatitis - when the first signs of the disease immediately contact a specialist and begin to actively treat.
Signs of candidal stomatitis
Candidial stomatitis develops against the background of active reproduction of Candida fungi, which cause the development of thrush. Normally, these microorganisms are part of the microflora of the mouth, intestines and vagina in women, but with the weakening of immunity or the action of other unfavorable factors, they begin to increase their numbers, leading to an acute inflammatory reaction.
Candidiasis is common among children up to 2-3 years old and elderly people with weakened immunity. The disease proceeds with puffiness, reddening of the oral mucosa, the formation of a characteristic cheesy plaque on the inner side of the cheeks, on the lips and tongue. There are also signs such as burning, itching, pain while chewing food, drinking drinks. In childhood, candidal stomatitis proceeds with bright symptoms: children refuse to eat, and during crying, parents can see white plaque, which literally covers the mucous membrane and the entire tongue.
Symptoms of aphthous stomatitis
The fibrinous form of aphthous stomatitis is characterized by the appearance of rashes (single), which are covered with bloom. Aphths heal 10-14 days after appearance. They occur most often on the mucous lips, on the side of the tongue. Exacerbation of aphthous stomatitis can cause microtraumas of the oral cavity (prostheses, uneven edges of the teeth), a decrease in immunity in the spring or late autumn, recurrence of acute respiratory viral infections, ENT diseases. If you do not carry out treatment and do not pay attention to immunostimulation, then relapses will happen 3-4 times a year.
With necrotic variety of aphthous stomatitis, there are dystrophic changes in the oral mucosa. Necrosis of the tissues of the mouth is often found in people suffering from severe somatic disorders and blood diseases. Aphids in this case are not accompanied by a sharp pain, but go to ulcers, remaining up to 2-4 weeks.
When the ducts of the salivary gland are affected, the saliva is secreted an order of magnitude smaller and grandiose aphthous stomatitis develops. Aphids are painful, can occur against the background of temperature irritation, respiratory-viral diseases, the development of the carious process.
The most severe form of aphthous stomatitis is the deforming form. In this case, profound changes in connective tissue are observed. Ulcerative defects do not heal for a long time, prolapses of the mucous membrane of the soft palate, lips and palatine douches can form.
Signs of herpetic stomatitis
The causative agent of herpetic stomatitis is the herpes virus. On the mucosa there are single or grouped vesicles, inside of which there is transparent contents. After they burst, shallow and painful erosions are exposed.
The disease is characterized by excessive salivation, deterioration in overall well-being, malaise, decreased appetite, nausea, increased submandibular and cervical lymph nodes. In children, herpetic stomatitis occurs with an increase in temperature, a runny nose, a strong reddening of the gums.
The formation of vesicles lasts several days, while the oral mucosa remains severely painful, and the emerging erosions gradually epithelize, leaving no traces. With generalized herpetic infection, the risk of developing dangerous infectious complications increases, especially if the disease occurs during the neonatal period.
Which doctor is involved in the treatment of stomatitis?
In most cases, stomatitis treats dentists, but if other chronic or acute diseases that require correction are identified during the examination, profile specialists are connected to the treatment process. In early childhood, inflammation of the mucous membrane is treated by pediatricians.
Treatment of stomatitis
The tactics of treating stomatitis are selected individually. At the same time, the form of the disease must be taken into account. It is forbidden to take spicy, spicy, cold or excessively hot food for the period of an active inflammatory reaction. Products should be warm, and the food itself - semi-liquid. If you eat hard food, then against the background of damage to the mucosa may attach secondary infections.
For 2-3 weeks of treatment under the prohibition of alcoholic beverages, if possible, refuse from cigarettes. You are advised to restrict motor activity, it is forbidden to overstrain and supercool, even if the disease occurs without a rise in body temperature and severe discomfort. In any form of stomatitis it is useful to use sour-milk foods that improve the intestinal microflora, thereby increasing the immune activity.
With herpetic stomatitis, the main emphasis in the treatment is on taking antiviral drugs. They help to suppress the activity of the herpes virus. In addition, prescribe drugs that eliminate inflammation, vitamins, immunostimulants. Mandatory antiseptic rinsing of the mouth: use recommended solutions that have antiviral activity.
Symptomatic therapy for herpetic stomatitis is required in childhood, if the body temperature rises (prescribe antipyretic drugs), anesthetic gels and ointments. Rinsing of the mouth is a prerequisite for the treatment of any form of stomatitis. Locally, antiseptics help to reduce the activity of microorganisms, wash out pathogenic microflora along with infected saliva, improve well-being and accelerate recovery.
If on a background of stomatitis the body temperature rises, then in addition to febrifugals it is useful to drink more vitamin drinks (warm herbal decoctions, weak tea with linden, honey). When fungal forms of stomatitis it is useful to rinse the mouth with a weak solution of soda. Chlorhexidine is effective in aphthous, traumatic stomatitis. On viruses, this antiseptic has little effect.
With aphthous stomatitis, prone to recurrence, it is necessary to exclude allergenic foods (chocolate, citrus fruits, strawberries) from the diet and food that can injure an already inflamed mucosa. Afts are treated with anti-inflammatory dental gels with an analgesic effect (eg, holisalom). Recommended mouthwashes with special antiseptics or herbal decoctions. For the rapid epithelialization of tissues after the abatement of an acute inflammatory reaction, regenerating agents are prescribed.
Vincent's ulcerative-necrotic stomatitis is treated with antibiotics, which are often prescribed in injections. Additionally, the use of metronidazole in tablets may be recommended. Such potent remedies are necessary, since this kind of stomatitis without effective treatment often leads to dangerous infectious complications. When Vincent's stomatitis is prescribed also antihistamines.
Antibacterial agents are used for candidal infection of the oral mucosa. It is very important to choose the right treatment that will affect the cause of inflammation. This is the only way to minimize the risk of recurrence of stomatitis and the occurrence of secondary infections.
Stomatitis in pregnancy: treatment features
Pregnancy is a difficult period for every woman. Against the background of hormonal changes in the body and increased stress on internal organs and systems, immunity decreases. So conceived by nature: the suppression of immune activity is necessary in order for the embryo to attach itself to the endometrium and begin to actively develop. At this time, the risk of thrush, stomatitis, influenza and other infectious and inflammatory processes is significantly increased.
Hundreds of microbes and viruses are trying to attack the weakened organism of a pregnant woman. The difficulties of treating stomatitis in this interesting situation are associated with the inability to use many medications. You must remember that every medication is potentially dangerous. Many manufacturers do not indicate in the annotation to the drug that it has not undergone clinical trials and may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. Therefore, self-medication with stomatitis during pregnancy is unacceptable. The doctor will prescribe funds that can be used to eliminate local manifestations of the disease.
It is important to pay attention to strengthening immunity. Immunostimulating agents, vitamins are prescribed. This allows you to reduce the frequency of relapses of stomatitis in the future. Locally mucous is treated with anti-inflammatory, antifungal formulations, antibacterial drugs may be prescribed, but only locally. When choosing a particular substance, the doctor is guided first of all by the interests of the future child. If the benefit of treatment for a woman exceeds the risk for the fetus, and the use of medication is an urgent need, then the doctor allows the woman to use this or that remedy.
Prevention of stomatitis
How can you prevent the development of stomatitis? First of all, you need to monitor oral hygiene:
- Brush your teeth at least 2 times a day;
- Regularly visit the dentist and promptly treat carious teeth;
- Remove 1-2 times a year accumulated tartar ;
- Use only high-quality dentures made only in dental laboratory;
- Use irrigators, which effectively wash away food particles and microbial raids from hard-to-reach places;
- Timely replace rotten dental crowns with new ones, remove non-viable teeth.
Strengthen immunity by using multivitamin complexes. In the diet should be present fresh vegetables, fruits, greens. Try not to injure the delicate mucous with hard products - bread, breadcrumbs, fruits, nuts.
If your child often has stomatitis on the background of bad habits (thumb sucking, non-observance of personal hygiene principles) and low immunity, try to teach him how to properly care for his teeth and not take dirty hands or foreign objects into his mouth.
- Stomatitis in children: symptoms and treatment
- Aphthous stomatitis in children and adults
- Herpetic stomatitis: treatment