Stomatitis in children: symptoms and treatment
- Types of disease
- Causes of the disease
- Symptoms of stomatitis in children
- Classification by severity
- Prevalence of the disease
- Diagnosis of the disease
- Treatment of stomatitis in children
- Recommendations for parents
- Prognosis of the disease
- Prevention of stomatitis in children
There are many misconceptions about the causes of stomatitis in children. The most common of these is that the disease develops as a complication after an acute respiratory infection, an influenza infection.
Experts emphasize that stomatitis can arise as a consequence of ARVI, but not as a complication of the disease, but as a result of reducing the overall protective functions of the body.
Immunity of the oral cavity falls due to the constant drying of the mucous membranes during an infectious disease, as there is a decrease in salivation during this period. When penetrating into the parched mouth of a pathogenic infection, the body can not resist the attack and the inflammatory process begins.
The child behaves restlessly, often cries, refuses food and even water, does not sleep well. It is possible that the body temperature rises to a high level.
Attention! Do not self-medicate! It is impossible to establish a diagnosis independently. A qualified pediatrician with a large work experience should appoint a competent therapy. Often parents treat stomatitis with antibiotics, which only aggravate the situation and further contribute to a decrease in immunity. The appointment of antibiotics for any rise in temperature in a child, including with stomatitis, is a common mistake by parents.
Types of disease
There are many kinds of disease. The most common forms of stomatitis:
Afta is a localized area of the mucous membrane of the mouth in the form of foci of inflammation of small size - ulcers of a rounded shape, having a bright red rim and a yellowish-gray coating. This kind of stomatitis is not contagious.
Herpetic stomatitis - transmitted from child to child through toys, dishes, etc. and most often occurs in young children. The causative agent is one of the types of the herpes virus.
If the child is often diagnosed with this kind of stomatitis, it is necessary to conduct laboratory-diagnostic measures and get advice from a doctor. The most common cause of this type of disease is an acute shortage of iron in the body of the child or insufficient digestion.
Causes of the disease
The development of the disease is due to several factors.
The disease can develop as a result of mechanical damage to the mucosa:
- when biting the inner surfaces of the cheeks, for example, when the child is asleep;
- after thermal burns, for example, hot food or a drink.
Due to excessive overdrying of the oral mucosa, which is a favorable environment for activating the activity of pathogenic viruses, viral forms of the disease develop.
Herpes form is caused by the herpes virus (the first type), which has nothing to do with genital herpes (the second type). These two types of herpes are often mistakenly identified.
The causes of non-herpetic form of stomatitis (aphthous) are not exactly established. Among the provocative factors are:
- genetic predisposition;
- immunity disorders;
- psycho-emotional overload;
- deficiency of nutrients, iron, vitamin B12 in the child's body.
Symptoms of stomatitis in children
The general symptomatology that can be observed in any form of the disease includes:
- the appearance of sores in the mouth, the size, foci and color of which can vary greatly depending on the type of stomatitis;
- change in the behavior of the child - tearfulness, irritability, deterioration of sleep and appetite.
Symptoms of herpetic stomatitis
- the simultaneous appearance of aft of almost the same size and configuration on the mucous membrane of the mouth at once in several places;
- wave-like course of the disease, manifested in the initial period by the precipitation of painful sores, a sharp increase in body temperature. Then the temperature stabilizes and the general condition of the child improves. A few days later a relapse develops - new rashes appear, and the temperature rises;
- swelling of the gums;
- bad breath.
Symptoms of aphthous stomatitis in children
A few days before the development of the disease there is a characteristic symptom, the so-called geographical language. The tongue is covered with small bubbles. After a day or two, the next period of the disease occurs: aphthae on the mucous membrane of the mouth and an increase in body temperature. The child complains of burning in the mouth, refuses food and water.
Often, in addition to the bubbles, a white color is observed on the tongue.
Attention! The amount of aft on the oral mucosa with aphthous form of stomatitis is much less than in herpetic. Usually pours out no more than one or two or five or six ulcers. For the herpetic form is characterized by a large number of ulcers, which covered the entire mouth of the child.
Classification by severity
Severity of symptoms allows you to classify any type of disease.
It is accepted to divide the following forms of the disease:
- light, in which there is no intoxication of the body and a pronounced symptomatology;
- moderate, at which the rashes on the mucosa of the mouth are numerous and the general health of the child worsens;
- severe, which significantly increased body temperature, pronounced general intoxication and diagnosed multiple rashes.
Prevalence of the disease
There is a prevalence of a certain type of disease, depending on the age of the child.
Children aged 1-2 years . Most often, candidal stomatitis is diagnosed, which can be repeated every month, and herpetic stomatitis
Children from six years old . Allergic or aphthous stomatitis is diagnosed.
The bacterial form of stomatitis is typical for children and schoolchildren, since the cause of its occurrence is most often a mechanical trauma of the mucous membrane of the mouth or a thermal burn, as well as a violation of personal hygiene rules and the consumption of unwashed fruits and vegetables.
In children, especially young children, the mucous membrane of the mouth is very tender and easily traumatized. The immune system in this period is only being formed, because it can not cope with the attacks of pathogens from the outside. Saliva is an excellent factor for powerful protection against pathogens, but in young children, saliva does not yet have strong antiseptic properties.
Diagnosis of the disease
The diagnosis is made by a doctor after an external examination of the child. Only a doctor can identify stomatitis and determine its type. There are many inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity, these are glossitis, and gingivitis, and periodontitis. Each disease has its own symptomatology and its own method of therapy.
In the chronic form of the disease, there is a need for additional laboratory-diagnostic measures.
- immunological and other studies.
For laboratory tests, swabs and scrapings from the mucous membrane and blood are taken.
If the child is diagnosed with chronic candidal stomatitis, it is necessary to conduct a laboratory blood glucose test and visit a pediatric endocrinologist.
With persistent chronic aphthous stomatitis, consultation with an experienced pediatric gastroenterologist, allergist and immunologist is necessary. In such cases, doctors prescribe additional studies:
- analysis of feces for eggs worm;
- tests for dysbiosis ;
- ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity organs.
Treatment of stomatitis in children
Treatment of herpetic stomatitis
The main way to treat stomatitis in a child is taking special antiviral drugs (acyclovir, viferon in candles, viferon-ointment). At the heart of the disease is the herpes virus, which can not be disposed of forever, but it is possible, through a well-planned treatment, to suppress its activity. Immunostimulants are also recommended, because weakened immunity gives the disease progress.
Particular attention is paid to antiseptic rinses. Locally it is necessary to get rid of the virus, to remove the inflammatory reaction and to remove painful sensations. Anesthetics help to reduce painful manifestations, restore appetite and improve the mood of the baby. Use anesthetic in the form of a spray. Many dentists recommend rinsing the mouth with chlorhexidine.
But there are also combined antiseptics, which not only destroy viruses, but also anesthetize. It is good, when similar means possess also anti-inflammatory effect, and not only antiseptic. If a child with stomatitis greatly increases body temperature, be sure to give the crumb antipyretic agents. Against the background of hyperthermia in childhood, convulsions can begin at any moment.
During illness the child needs a semi-postal regime. Refuse from walks and outdoor games. Remember that stomatitis is an infectious disease characterized by high contagiousness (it can be transmitted to others, especially weakened children and the elderly). Give the sick child a separate towel, his cutlery, try to reduce his contact with other family members.
With a recurrent course of herpetic stomatitis, it is necessary to consult an immunologist. Serious immunomodulators are prescribed, which increase the defenses of the body and activate antiviral activity. Do not self-medicate and never give children medication without consulting the pediatrician. You can not know how the baby's organism will react to this or that remedy. At any stomatitis it is recommended to give the child vitamin preparations which the children's doctor should appoint.
Treatment of aphthous stomatitis in children
Treatment of aphthous stomatitis is prescribed by a doctor. At the same time, the causes of the disease development are taken into account. If the aphthae appeared as a result of traumatizing the mucosa on the sharp edges of carious defects, then it is necessary to cure tooth decay and grind your teeth. Local aphthae can be treated with anesthetics, anti-inflammatory drugs. To improve the state of the oral cavity toothpastes with enzymes, vitamins and trace elements will allow. They can be used for several months to achieve a local immunostimulatory effect. If you suspect allergies, exclude from the baby's diet products that most often cause an aggravation of the allergic reaction (strawberries, citrus fruits, chocolate).
With aphthous stomatitis, children are often found to have staphylococcus aureus. This microbe lives in the tartar, inside the carious cavities. Therefore, the child must show the dentist who will professionally conduct the sanation of the oral cavity, eliminate all available dental deposits, heal carious defects.
Recommendations for parents
It is necessary to immediately consult a pediatrician:
- In case of child's refusal of food and difficulty in swallowing;
- at an elevated body temperature;
- with worsening of sleep;
- with increased irritability, tearfulness and any changes in behavior;
- in case of ulcers and plaque in the mouth.
Therapy of stomatitis in children is carried out only after an external examination of the child by a doctor and an anamnesis. Selection of treatment depends on the form of the disease. Self-medication is unacceptable and will only exacerbate the situation.
In order to recover faster, it is necessary:
- observe a sparing diet - eliminate solid foods that contribute to irritation of ulcers and exacerbation of the inflammatory process in the oral cavity, not to give the child sour and spicy dishes and too hot food and drinks;
- conduct thorough oral hygiene - rinse the mouth daily with antiseptic products prescribed by a doctor and conduct careful cleaning of teeth and tongue with a toothbrush with soft bristles;
- when the body temperature rises to high values, give antipyretics.
As effective means for rinsing the mouth use: chlorhexidine, furatsilin, broths of chamomile and calendula. There are also pharmacy antiseptic aerosols, which are appointed by the attending physician. But one means for rinsing is often not enough. Comprehensive medical measures are necessary to prevent the recurrence of relapses.
Attention! Aerosols can not be used for children under one year of age. For young children, gels that relieve itching are recommended, and are also used when the first teeth are erupted in infants.
Prognosis of the disease
With strict observance by the parents of the appointment of the doctor, the symptomatology of the disease disappears 10-15 days after the onset of the disease. This applies to any kind of stomatitis. Do not interrupt treatment at the first improvement in the general condition of the child. Medical measures should be brought to the end.
Prevention of stomatitis in children
Preventive measures of stomatitis in children do not present difficulties and require only discipline of parents. It is necessary to ensure that the child does not injure the oral cavity. From the earliest age it is necessary to accustom the child to the correct and constant hygienic care of the oral cavity. Reduce the risk of developing the disease in children under one year of life uncomplicated manipulations: regular disinfection of nipples, feeding bottles, toys. The breastfeeding mother should perform a careful treatment of the mammary glands before each feeding, do not lick the nipples and spoons of the baby.
Since the eruption of the first teeth in the baby's parents are required to regularly undergo examinations at the children's dentist. Teeth cleaning should be carried out only by specially designed toothpaste for children, which are designed to improve local immunity.
If the child wears briquettes, special preventive measures should be followed, using modern means for cleaning - irrigators.
The general preventive measures include the timely treatment of any acute and chronic diseases in the child and the therapy of concomitant pathology.
- Stomatitis: photos, symptoms, treatment of stomatitis
- Aphthous stomatitis in children and adults
- Herpetic stomatitis: treatment