- Causes of the disease
- Symptoms of Raynaud's Syndrome
- Diagnosis of Raynaud's Syndrome
- Treating Raynaud's Disease
- Non-traditional approach to the treatment of Raynaud's disease
- Prevention of disease
Raynaud's disease is called a pathological disorder in the work of the autonomic nervous system, characterized by the appearance of trophic disorders and painful sensations in the area of fingertips.
Causes of the disease
Physicians can not name the exact reasons for the development of Raynaud's disease. It is known that a woman is prone to this pathology 5 times more than men. It is believed that the disease occurs as a result of a spasm of small vessels - the capillaries. Most often, this spasm is due to the general hypothermia of the body.
In countries with a cold climate, the disease is more common than in the southern regions. Rhein's disease is much less likely to provoke pathologies such as diabetes mellitus, lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis , spine diseases. Sometimes, predisposing factors to the development of Raynaud's syndrome may be professional factors, for example, vibration or persistent mental and emotional stress.
If we are talking about an independent disease, then the doctors diagnose "Raynaud's disease", and when this pathology is accompanied by other disorders in the body listed above, then the "Reynaud syndrome" is spoken about. In both cases, the features of the course of the disease and its clinical symptoms are almost identical.
Remember that Raynaud's disease can not be neglected and ignored by her clinic. This can lead to chronic circulatory disorders in the limbs, which often results in gangrene and subsequent amputation of the fingers.
Symptoms of Raynaud's Syndrome
Most often, the disease develops in female individuals in the second decade of life. In medicine, cases were described when Raynaud's disease was diagnosed in children 10-12 years, about half of such cases were due to hereditary predisposition. In some cases, the disease can develop after suffering severe stress. If Raynaud's disease develops in people older than 25 who have not had any problems with blood circulation before, this fact is often caused by the patient's concomitant disease. In rare cases, the disease can develop in people older than 50 years. As a rule, it occurs against a background of serious hormonal failures, constant stresses and diseases of the endocrine system.
Sometimes Raynaud's disease can arise due to the influence on the human body of a complex of factors - hypothermia, stress, endocrine system diseases. The probability of influence of the hereditary factor is only 5%.
One of the earliest clinical symptoms of Raynaud's syndrome is the increased chilliness of the fingertips. As the disease progresses, numbness of the fingers and loss of phalange sensitivity are added to the chilliness. These disorders can be observed in the form of seizures and completely disappear after a time. Most often, the fingertips are involved in the pathological process, more rarely the ear lobes, the tip of the nose and the tips of the fingers of the lower limbs. The attack can last from several minutes to several hours. All these symptoms are most typical for the first stage of Raynaud's disease.
The second stage of the disease is characterized by complaints of the patient to sudden attacks of suffocation, which can lead to trophic tissue disorders - puffiness of the fingers and their increased vulnerability.
The disease is slowly progressing, however, in any stage of Raynaud's syndrome, an involution (reverse pathology) is possible, which occurs against the background of pregnancy, menopause, change of residence and climate of the country.
The frequency of disorders in the work of the nervous system in Reynaud's disease reaches 60% of cases. Patients complain about:
- a constant headache,
- feeling of heaviness in the temples,
- pain in the lower back and extremities.
Some patients have severe migraine attacks. In 10% of cases, Raynaud's disease is accompanied by an increase in blood pressure. Some patients during the attack have pain in the heart, which are not displayed on the electrocardiogram and are of a functional nature.
Despite the numerous complaints of patients on hypersensitivity of the extremities to cold effects, sensitivity disorders in patients with idiopathic form of Raynaud's syndrome are very rare.
Numerous examinations of patients with idiopathic form of the disease showed normal patency of the blood vessels of the limbs, and therefore it is difficult to explain where this sense of gravity and tingling attacks in the fingertips area of the patient came from. During the examination of small blood vessels, only a small tone was diagnosed in these patients.
Diagnosis of Raynaud's Syndrome
When examining a patient with a suspicion of Raynaud's syndrome, it is first necessary to establish whether blushing and reducing the sensitivity of the fingertips are normal physiological responses. For this purpose, a special study is carried out - they affect the patient's skin with different cold temperatures. It is permissible paling of the extremities and decrease in the sensitivity of the fingers. However, after warming the patient, all these phenomena pass, and the skin on the limbs becomes a normal shade, without areas of cyanosis. In patients with true Raynaud's disease, the reverse development of vasospasm lasts longer, while there is a presence of cyanosis in some places of the fingertips.
It is most difficult to differentiate the idiopathic form of the disease from the secondary Raynaud's syndrome. Back in 1932, scientists formulated 5 main criteria for diagnosing the idiopathic form of Raynaud's disease:
- the duration of the disease is at least 2 years;
- the patient has no diseases that could provoke Raynaud's syndrome;
- the patient has a strict symmetry of vascular and tropho- paralytic symptoms;
- the person has no signs of gangrene on the skin of the limbs;
- a person has an occasional blanching of fingertips and a decrease in the sensitivity of the limbs under the influence of cold or stress.
However, if the disease continues in the patient for more than 2 years, the physician must exclude the presence of systemic blood diseases and other pathologies that could cause the development of Raynaud's syndrome.
Particular attention should be paid to the following symptoms:
- the presence of non-healing wounds and abrasions for a long time,
- thinning of phalanges of fingers,
- difficulty in swallowing and closing the mouth of the patient.
If the patient has all of these symptoms, then there is a suspicion of systemic scleroderma.
Systemic lupus is characterized by the appearance of erythematous rash on the face in the form of a butterfly - symmetrical on both sides. In addition, the patient has increased sensitivity to bright sunlight, symptoms of pericarditis and hair loss.
The combination of signs of Raynaud's disease with dryness of the mucous membranes of the mouth and eyes is characteristic of the syndrome. The doctor should ask the patient if he does not take drugs from the group of beta-blockers, which, also with prolonged uncontrolled use, can provoke dry mucous membranes.
Men over the age of 40 should be interviewed for smoking to determine if Raynaud's syndrome is the cause of a possible concomitant obliterating endarteritis. To exclude the influence of a professional factor on the development of the disease, it is necessary to interview the patient about possible work with vibrating instruments.
Treating Raynaud's Disease
Treating patients with Raynaud's disease is somewhat difficult, since it is necessary to first establish a specific cause that triggered the development of this pathology. If Raynaud's disease is diagnosed against a background of concomitant disease, the management of such patients is conducted in parallel with the observation of the appropriate specialist (cardiologist, endocrinologist, rheumatologist, vascular surgeon).
As a rule, the treatment of Raynaud's disease is symptomatic and includes the use of:
- restorative drugs,
- medicines that normalize the hormonal background.
Special tactics of managing patients with this pathology is required with a professional factor in the development of the disease. For this, first of all, it is necessary to eliminate the factor influencing the appearance of seizures - cold, vibration and others.
When diagnosing an idiopathic form of the disease, when the pathology is caused only by stresses, humidity, climate and cold effects on the body, the exclusion of these factors can lead to a reduction in the seizures of Raynaud's syndrome.
In some forms of the disease, characterized by the development of irreversible trophic disorders and severe pain syndrome, the patient is shown to facilitate surgery to facilitate his condition. However, it is unlikely that this method can be called effective: monitoring of operated patients shows that the return of all clinical symptoms of Raynaud's disease appears within 2-3 weeks after the operation.
In order to improve microcirculation in capillaries, the patient is prescribed calcium blockers, only to take them for a long time.
Since Reynaud's syndrome is accompanied by a number of disorders in the work of the nervous system, the patient is shown taking psychotropic drugs - antidepressants, tranquilizers.
Non-traditional approach to the treatment of Raynaud's disease
First of all, patients with a diagnosis of "Raynaud's syndrome" are recommended to perform massage of the affected areas - fingers, hands, lower limbs. Massing movements must begin at the fingertips, gradually moving to the shoulder. Movement in this case should be smooth - you can stroke the skin, rub, tingle, pat. This massage should be done for at least 2 weeks for 10 minutes. After that, you need to take a break for 1 week, and then again to repeat the course. If the clinical symptoms of the disease spread to the lobules of the ears, they also need to be massaged, stroked and rubbed.
To make the treatment even more effective, massage can be done by moistening the hands with a massage oil and adding a few drops of essential oil of mint, anise, motherwort or yarrow. These oils have antispasmodic and analgesic effect.
Well proven hot baths with the addition of water decoction herbs - motherwort, Valerian root, inflorescences of dill, yarrow. Also in the water can add a few drops of essential oils listed above. The duration of the healing bath is 15 minutes, while the water temperature should not exceed 39-40 degrees. For this time the patient as it is warmed up, blood supply of small blood vessels amplifies, heart palpitations are quickened.
Instead of a bath you can try the bathtubs. Prepare them the same way as a medicinal bath, just dip into the water hands or feet. It is important to monitor the temperature of the water - you can not keep the limbs in the tub after cooling water. This will not only not be of use, but can also lead to an aggravation of Raynaud's attacks.
Prevention of disease
People who suffer from migraine are predisposed to the development of Raynaud's syndrome. The development of this pathology can be avoided by following simple recommendations:
- Avoid contacts with chemicals.
- Avoid general supercooling of the body and especially hypothermia of the extremities.
- Exclude the impact of vibration waves on the body.
- Refuse from addictive habits (smoking) and the use of alcoholic beverages.
- Take some pharmacological drugs only as directed by your doctor.
If, after stress or hypothermia, a person feels numbness in fingertips and notice a change in the shade of the skin of the limbs, you should immediately show your doctor. Do not self-medicate. Harmless at first glance, pathology can lead to irreversible effects in the body.