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Syphilis in women

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Syphilis in women

Syphilis in women

Women become ill with syphilis, predominantly during sexual intercourse, although options for transmission of the disease through everyday objects are not excluded.

In a woman infected with syphilis, the first symptoms appear in a few weeks in the form of a chancre. Hard chancre has the appearance of an ulcer with tight edges and a bright red bottom. It is localized on the genital lips, on the mucous lining of the vagina, rarely in the cervix. There are cases when syphilitic ulcers were found on the breast in the nipple area, on the lips or under the nails.

The most unpleasant place of localization of hard chancre is the anal area, since the act of defecation, at the same time, is significantly more difficult.



Symptoms of syphilis in women

The existence of a disease called "syphilis" is to blame for the pale spirochete, which is also known as pale treponema. Penetrating into the body, it immediately begins its destructive work, forming syphilitic ulcers.

The patient may not pay attention to a small ulcer, especially since it does not give any subjective sensations. After some time, the mucous membrane in the affected area may recover by itself, and the disease will manifest itself only as a general weakness. From time to time a rash will be found on the body, but, again, the woman does not experience any discomfort from her.

With asymptomatic syphilis, the woman has enlarged lymph nodes. This is because the causative agent of the disease penetrates the lymphatic vessel, where it multiplies freely and travels throughout the body with lymph flow. In such situations, a characteristic infected seal often occurs in the region of the mouth and anus.

If there are enlarged regional lymph nodes in the localization of hard chancre, this is a sign of the primary stage of the disease. If you find enlarged lymph nodes throughout the body and the temperature rises to subfebrile values ​​(up to 38 degrees Celsius), it is safe to speak about the onset of the second stage of syphilis. In addition, the second stage gives the feeling of aching in the joints and bones, headaches, minor rashes on the skin.

If syphilis is detected in the early stages and its adequate treatment, the outcome will be favorable. In our time, syphilis is perfectly treated. But with a careless attitude towards one's health and neglect of the disease, in a couple of years the third stage will come.

The third stage of syphilis is dangerous because it affects the internal organs, nervous system and bone structure. The whole body is covered with syphilides - tubercles that transform into ulcers, and during healing leave scars behind them. Skin lesions with syphilides is considered a less dangerous condition than their localization on the internal organs. Ulcers on internal organs do not heal just like that, but can be fatal, since the tissues of vital organs are destroyed and cease to function.

When the tertiary stage of syphilis affects the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth, the ulcers can be so deep that there is a danger of perforation of the palate and bone of the nasal septum. The picture is quite terrible: the back of the nose falls, and while eating, food gets into the mouth.

The most dangerous variant of syphilis is the asymptomatic course before the onset of the third stage. Therefore, do not be shy or afraid to consult a doctor at the slightest suspicion. A blood test and Wasserman's reaction will help to accurately answer the question: is a woman infected with syphilis, or not. And if infected, then at what stage is the disease.

Changes in the menstrual cycle with syphilis

A change in the monthly cycle is not an absolute indicator that a woman has been infected with a sexually transmitted disease.

So with syphilis, the initial stage may not affect the general well-being and regularity of menstruation. But the chronization of the pathological process can contribute to the appearance of pain and discomfort during the period of bleeding or with the introduction of a tampon, even if previously no such symptoms were observed. This may indicate that the infection occurred through sexual intercourse. Ulcers should be localized on the labia, in the vagina or in the cervix area.

The cycle is also subject to changes in the advanced stages of the disease, when internal organs are affected.

It often happens that the Wasserman reaction, which is positive during menstrual bleeding, becomes negative after their cessation. In such cases, the diagnosis is difficult, so any unusual sensations in the area of ​​the urogenital organs - a reason to consult a doctor for advice.

Diagnosis of syphilis in women

Women with a corresponding lesion on the skin and mucous membranes, as well as neurological disorders of unknown origin (origin), are suspected of having syphilis.

The volume of diagnostic measures depends on the stage of development of the disease. Usually carry out screening (reaginovye) and treponemnye tests, as well as microscopy in a heavy field.

Serological methods for the diagnosis of syphilis are divided into two groups:

  1. Non-treponemal screening tests are performed using lipid antigens (bovine heart lipids, cardiolipin) to detect syphilis reagins (which have the ability to bind to lipid molecules).
  2. Treponema specific for detecting antitreponema antibodies.

VDRL tests and reagin rapid test are in the first group. The VDRL test is a reaction that visually shows the interaction of the cardiolipin antigen with reagin antibodies from the patient's serum. The test result can be positive, weak positive, marginal or negative. Weakly positive and positive results suggest that a person is infected with syphilis, but this must be confirmed by additional research methods.

Screening tests are inexpensive and fairly simple in their execution. But they do not have specificity for treponema and can sometimes give a false positive result indicating:

  • Autoimmune diseases;
  • Diffuse diseases of connective tissues;
  • The presence of a viral infection in the body;

After the end of treatment, the reagin titer becomes negative after primary syphilis after one year, and with secondary syphilis after two years.

Reagin tests show a positive result no earlier than 4-5 weeks after the introduction of pale treponema into the body. To be sure of the test results, reagin tests should be performed at intervals of two weeks for six weeks.

Treponemal tests give a positive result after infection in 2-4 weeks, and even after complete recovery, women can not change their values ​​for years.

Tests that are specific to treponema are:

  • RIF-ABS (immunofluorescence-absorption with treponema pallus);
  • RMGA-BT (microhemagglutination reaction with antibodies to pale treponema);
  • DSA (hemagglutination test for pale treponema).

These three reactions show a more truthful result than the other tests. If they indicate the absence of the pathogen in the body, then all other values ​​are not taken into account.

Microscopy in a dark field - a method in which a beam of light is transmitted at an angle through a glass slide and is reflected from organisms on its surface. Microorganisms appear in the field of view as light bodies on a dark background, and the researcher has the opportunity to study the morphological features of microorganisms and the nature of their movements in exudative fluids of the human body.

The latent (hidden) form of the disease can be calculated by excluding other types of the disease in women who have no clear signs of infection with syphilis, but whose tests stubbornly continue to show positive results.

To be sure that such patients do not have secondary and tertiary syphilis, the mucous membranes of their genitals, skin, as well as the state of the cardiovascular and nervous systems should be carefully examined.

Treatment of latent syphilis is carried out under the constant control of serological tests for several years, in order to monitor the slow drop in the titer of reagin antibodies.

Treatment of syphilis in women

This disease is one of the most severe and capable of significantly damaging the patient’s health by damaging her immune system. Therefore, treatment should be started immediately after a successful diagnosis of syphilis.

The treatment system depends on the type of disease:

  • primary,
  • secondary,
  • tertiary,
  • with damage to the nervous system (neurosyphilis),
  • with hidden flow (latent form).

Most of the drugs prescribed for the treatment of syphilis, are penicillin, as well as its derivatives. Unlike other pathogens, pale treponema has not lost its sensitivity to this group of drugs, although for many years in the fight against it they have been using penicillin drugs.

Treatment of primary syphilis begins with daily injections of "Penicillin", then - "Bitsillina-3". Injections are administered intramuscularly, in two stages, in both buttocks. During the procedure, it is necessary to ensure that the skin, rubbed with alcohol, are dried. Disinfectant solutions are capable of destroying the therapeutic properties of penicillin-type preparations, and, introduced into the dry disinfected area, the medicine is not so intensively fighting the pathogen.

In addition to intramuscular injections, women with primary syphilis are prescribed antihistamines.

Treatment of secondary syphilis involves an increase in the duration of the course of injections. In the primary form of the disease, injections are made within 16 days, and in secondary syphilis, this gap almost doubles. The patient is prescribed water-soluble "Penicillin" or "Doxycycline", as well as injections "Ceftriaxone".

Treatment of tertiary syphilis is a fight against the advanced stage of the disease. As in the previous cases, Penicillin course treatment is carried out in combination with Bionehinol.

The treatment of neurosyphilis is somewhat more complicated due to the fact that the central nervous system (brain) is involved in the pathological process. From the attending physician, the situation requires a more active, even aggressive method of treatment.

Since neurosyphilis often accompanies the secondary form of the disease, the treatment begins according to the appropriate scheme. With insufficient efficacy of drugs, additional prescription of antibiotics is necessary.

To find out whether a woman is cured or not, you need to pay attention to several facts:

  • The earlier a diagnosis is made, the more successful the treatment will be.
  • The nature of the flow of syphilis also plays a role. If there are relapses, then conservative treatment was not very successful.
  • The quality of the treatment is very important. Inadequate treatment or advice from a physician who is not knowledgeable in this field of medicine may do more harm than good.
  • The general condition and emotional attitude of the patient also play a significant role in the successful outcome of the disease.
  • The results of serological reactions with repeated analyzes should be negative.
  • A woman’s spinal fluid test should be conducted for the presence of a pathogen.

When evaluating the above criteria, it is most likely that it is clear whether a woman has been cured of syphilis or not.

Complications

Syphilis proceeds in a rather destructive way, affecting many organs and even organ systems. And the complications from it are so dangerous that they can lead to the saddest consequences.

A woman who has contracted syphilis but has not cured it is at risk of acquiring one or more of the following complications:

  • Partial, or complete loss of vision in neurosyphilis.
  • Damage to the structure of bones and joints in advanced forms of the disease.
  • Meningitis with subsequent death in neurosyphilis.
  • Paresis and paralysis.
  • Infection of the child in the period of prenatal development or family members through household items.

Household syphilis

Domestic syphilis refers to situations in which a person is infected not through sexual contact, but through inanimate objects.

A woman suffering from syphilis and unaware of it, or neglecting treatment, can easily transmit the disease to all family members.

Subjects of transmission can be common washcloths, dishes, etc. Pale treponema is found in all biological fluids (saliva, blood, urine). If a healthy person has lesions on the skin, if the secretions containing the causative agent of syphilis hit this area, there is a high probability of catching the disease.

The pale spirochete is able to exist for a long time in humid environments and even at sub-zero temperatures it does not die. It is not sensitive to low temperatures, but it does not tolerate high temperatures. Hard chancre appears exactly at the place where the pathogen has entered the body.

There are cases of infection during blood transfusion. If the donor does not suspect that he has syphilis, and the transfusion is urgent and there is no time left for a blood test, the pale spirochet goes to the recipient (the person who is transfused) with blood.

Syphilis during pregnancy

Syphilis itself is a dangerous disease, and for a woman who is to become a mother, the danger is doubled due to the fact that an innocent child can suffer.

During pregnancy, a woman is under the supervision of a gynecologist and regularly carries out routine tests, so it is not uncommon for syphilis to be detected during this period. The infection may have occurred much earlier, but, due to the absence of symptoms or neglect of one’s health, the disease was not identified.

Immediately it should be noted: syphilis is not considered an indication for artificial interruption of pregnancy. Modern medicine allows you to undergo appropriate treatment in the period of carrying a child.

Without treatment, the child also has the opportunity to be born healthy, but his chances of a successful outcome are only 10%. Drugs used to treat syphilis during pregnancy cannot be called harmless, but they increase the chances of the fetus to avoid serious complications from this disease.

To give birth after syphilis, or not?

Many persons of the fair sex are interested in the question: “Is it safe to have a baby after syphilis, or not?”.

There is no unequivocal answer to this question, since much depends on the form of the disease and the complications that it caused.

If syphilis was detected in the initial stages and successfully treated, then there should be no contraindications for becoming a mother to the woman. The gynecologist will give a detailed account of the precautionary measures and determine the time frame in which safe conception is possible. The patient can only follow the instructions of the specialist.

In the event that the disease has affected the internal organs or has passed into the third stage, the doctor may advise the woman not to risk the health of the child, hoping for a favorable outcome.


| 29 December 2014 | | 16 696 | Diseases in women
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