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Sepsis: what is it, symptoms, treatment

Content:

Sepsis is a purulent-septic infectious disease that affects the blood. Pathology is accompanied by the spread of infection throughout the body and is very difficult, creating a threat to the life of a sick person. The most common causative agents of sepsis are staphylococcus, E. coli, streptococci, pneumococci. Sepsis often develops due to the unfavorable course of purulent inflammation of soft tissues (abscess, peritonitis), against the background of weakening of the body's defenses.



What can contribute to the development of sepsis?

  1. Non-compliance with the rules of asepsis and antiseptics during the treatment of purulent wounds, with surgical interventions.
  2. Wrong selection of drugs, an error with the appointment of the dosage of antibacterial drugs.
  3. Immunological disorders.
  4. The progression of infectious pathogens resistant to antibiotics.


Symptoms of sepsis

The clinical picture in sepsis depends on the nature of the pathogen that provoked the development of the disease. Often there is a combined form of pathology, which is based on the active reproduction of several pathogens at once.

Staphylococcal sepsis, which is distinguished by high antibiotic resistance, is considered to be the most dangerous. If the disease is caused by E. coli, then pus is formed in the focus of inflammation. At the same time, the affected area has no clear forms.

Sepsis Sepsis can have various manifestations. The course of the disease is often rapid and rapid, so treatment must begin as early as possible, until irreversible consequences for the body have occurred. Recently, sepsis with erased symptoms or atypical forms of the infectious process has been detected.

The main signs of sepsis:

  • high body temperature;
  • increased white blood cells;
  • cardiopalmus;
  • slowing the formation of urine;
  • violation of the circulatory system.



Septicemia and septicopyemia

Septicopyemia is a type of sepsis, in which the common symptoms of the disease are combined with the formation of characteristic purulent abscesses in various organs and tissues. Patients feel very bad, the body temperature is often elevated to 39-40 ° C, consciousness is usually inhibited. The main pathogens for septicopyemia are staphylococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Septicopyemia develops less rapidly than septicemia. In patients with septicopyemia, a purulent lesion of all vital organs (heart, liver, kidney, brain) is detected.

With septicopyemia, cardiopulmonary insufficiency often develops rapidly. The defeat of the urinary system is accompanied by pain, oliguria. If purulent meningoencephalitis occurs, patients notice the appearance of severe headaches, clouding of consciousness, agitation followed by severe depression and inhibition. Purulent foci are subject to urgent surgical removal with a powerful antibiotic therapy.

For septicemia characterized by pronounced intoxication syndrome:

  • fever;
  • clouding of consciousness;
  • muscle pain;
  • feeling unwell.

The infection process proceeds rapidly. Septicemia develops mainly against the background of the progression of streptococcal infection. Due to the development of hemorrhagic syndrome, a petechial rash appears on the patient's skin, hemorrhages are also detected in the internal organs. Increased vascular permeability, there are internal edema. The spleen is sharply enlarged, as are the lymph nodes. Mucous and skin cyanotic (cyanotic).

Diagnosis of sepsis

Examination for sepsis is prescribed in accordance with the form of the disease and the localization of the septic focus. Can be held:

  • laboratory studies of blood (neutrophilic leukocytosis is observed with a shift of the leukocyte formula to the left, decrease in hemoglobin), urine;
  • Ultrasound of the kidneys, liver and other organs;
  • radiodiagnosis;
  • CT scan;
  • ECG;
  • bacterioscopic studies;
  • magnetic resonance imaging.

Features of the treatment of sepsis

Sepsis is an emergency condition that requires emergency resuscitation care. Treatment is reduced to the fight against infectious pathogens and the progression of complications, which are often deadly for the patient. The appearance of symptoms of the development of renal failure requires hemofiltration, hemodialysis, urgent restoration of hemodynamic parameters.

If the patient has signs of heart failure, prescribe vasomotor preparations, as well as tools that stimulate the heart. Pulmonary insufficiency requires the use of a ventilator. Antibiotics are prescribed to patients with sepsis after obtaining reliable results of bacterioscopic examination and determining the sensitivity of infectious pathogens.

Sepsis in newborns

Sepsis in the neonatal period is a very dangerous infectious disease, the pathogens of which can be various pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms. In 50% of cases of infection, the cause lies in the progression of staph infection, reproduction of hemolytic streptococcus. Slightly less, the disease is caused by active reproduction of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella, and E. coli. Sometimes the cause of the development of sepsis in newborns is mixed bacterial flora.

Entrance gate for infection:

  • umbilical wound;
  • damaged skin, mucous membranes;
  • urinary organs;
  • gastrointestinal tract.

Sepsis of newborns most often develops on the background of pyoderma, otitis, enteritis, intestinal infection, bronchitis, pneumonia, pharyngitis.

Who is at risk of sepsis among newborns? Predisposing factors and conditions:

  • fetal hypoxia;
  • birth trauma;
  • damage to the head and neck during labor;
  • prolonged artificial lung ventilation;
  • probe nutrition of the child;
  • vein catheterization;
  • immune disorders;
  • HIV infection;
  • deep degree of prematurity;
  • difficult childbirth;
  • hereditary pathologies accompanied by immunoreactivity;
  • conjunctivitis ;
  • complex operations carried out in the first weeks of the child's life.

Promote the development of sepsis in early childhood common pathology of pregnancy. Sexually transmitted and urinary infections, syphilis , HIV, chronic stomatitis, candidiasis, lack of useful substances in the diet of the expectant mother, overwork of the woman, oxygen starvation of the fetus due to anemia and lack of iron have a negative effect on fetal immunity.

Symptoms of sepsis in newborns

Newborns most often develop septicemia. The pathological process begins to progress against the background of a long-weeping umbilical wound, ulcers on the body, severe stomatitis, conjunctivitis. Parents should be alerted by the harbingers of the disease:

  • frequent regurgitation;
  • navel redness;
  • diaper rash that cannot be treated;
  • discharge of blood, pus, clear fluid from the umbilical wound;
  • passivity of the child;
  • insufficient weight gain;
  • anxiety of the newborn.

A characteristic sign of sepsis is an increase in body temperature. A pustular rash may appear all over the body. The skin acquires a distinctive earthy hue, mucous membranes may turn yellow. In sepsis, intoxication syndrome is observed.

All organs of the child are affected, which leads to the progression of dangerous diseases and the development of the following disorders:

  • tachycardia , bradycardia;
  • an increase in the amount of urine;
  • hemorrhagic syndrome;
  • pneumonia;
  • malfunctions in the adrenal glands, liver, kidneys;
  • the appearance of chronic suppurative foci in bone tissue, brain, lungs, liver;
  • abscesses;
  • purulent arthritis;
  • phlegmon in the digestive organs.

With the development of fulminant sepsis occurs septic shock, which in most cases ends in death. The disease leads to a sharp decrease in body temperature, accompanied by severe weakness, lethargy, increased bleeding, pulmonary edema, cardiovascular disorders, acute renal failure.

Diagnosis and treatment of sepsis in children

The diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is established according to the clinical picture and examination results. The main diagnostic method is blood donation for sterility. Bacterioscopic examination of the discharge from the umbilical wound is also carried out, a smear is taken from the conjunctiva, oropharynx, urine is examined for microflora, feces for the presence of dysbacteriosis, PCR analysis is performed. The task of specialists involved in diagnostics is to differentiate sepsis from pneumonia, mediasthenitis, enterocolitis, inflammation of the meninges, candidiasis, and enterovirus infection.

Treatment of sepsis in children takes place with the use of resuscitation equipment and the most modern antibacterial drugs. Antibiotics are injected directly into the vein of the child - so they act almost instantly and allow you to effectively fight the infectious pathogen.

All purulent abscesses on the skin are opened, treating septic foci with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial compounds and special enzymes that enhance local immunity. To enhance the immune activity, hemosorption and plasmapheresis are performed. Detoxification measures can reduce the load on the kidneys and liver, improve the child's condition and prognosis. It is recommended that a sick baby be fed exclusively with breast milk, since it contains antibodies and helps to recover more quickly from the disease.


    | 12 May 2015 | | 1 945 | Uncategorized
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    Sarah Spindler: My grandma had hip surgery and developed pneumonia and was close to going septic. I think she may developed septic shock (instinct, but no evidence) and she died a year ago this month. Yes, it does need quick attention as said in the video

    No_Mercy: Lol I had a toe infection and the doctor got shock and checked my temp to see if I have symptoms of septis I knew it cuz 5 mins ago I read a leaflet bout it lol

    Jared Hanamaikai: Troy morgan was student volunteer for hiv/aids testing at usc he is now hiv positive and close to death. He longed to be hiv staph at usc as condom trojan ecstasy. Pun intended. He always has staph like the lgbt pod of the fresno jail which he is in.

    maddox baron: Dr Cheng Mark alternative treatment therapy uses herbal remedies to cure any prolonged and incurable diseases of all types. An estimated 80% of people around the world use herbal medicine. studies have shown that certain herbs are effective in treating a number of health issues like Parkinson's, multiple Sclerosis, Lupus, polio, Asthma,Prostate Enlargement allergies, premenstrual syndrome chronic fatigue, all types of cancerous diseases, cirrhosis,nasal polyp etc I'm a practicing medical doctor and I like to refer my patient to Dr Cheng,a Chinese herbal doctor who is the last resort when medication fails oe inadequate .it may interest you to know that even as a doctor that i am, i was recently cured of sepsis by this same Dr Wengs herbal remedies. if you are experiencing any sickness and desire quick healing, you can send me an email to my mailbox so that I will give you the contact of the herbal doctor.My email is waltermark360@gmail.com

    Paul Yarrow: The care quality commission reported that the Royal free nhs foundation trust was not prioretised in identifying sepsis pneumonia. December 2017

    Robert Mcgowan: I lost my little sister on Monday the 30th Oct 20-17 to Sepsis and the doctors and nurses couldn't do enough for her. They tried their best for my wee sister. Godbless them. It was Forth Valley Hospital, Larbert SCOTLAND. She was only 53. I and my family are all heart broken . I miss you loads my angel. RIP.xxxx

    Carol Jones: My mother died in The Royal Free the 3 Feb 2107 at 9.45pm and If I had not been there she would have died alone in her room. I had to wait for over an hour no thanks to the useless indifferent lacking empathy moron night nurses who were rude especially the filth from the philippine that they employ. rude, unhelpful, lacking empathy, talking over my mother while they change her bedding few hours before she died the pigs

    Louise Barker: Cloning. Singapore make 2. Get stabbed . Crippled. And burnt. It's a game isnt it. Sims and cloning. Morgellons...dawn centre.

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