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Increased flatulence in the intestines

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Increased flatulence in the intestines Digestion is a process of mechanical and chemical processing of food, due to which complex compounds are broken down into simpler ones, which makes possible their subsequent absorption in the intestine and the use of the body for its own needs.

All the organs of the digestive tract, special enzymes, acids, hormones and specific microflora take part in this process. Indeed, inside the human body contains more than a kilogram of microbes, the number of which exceeds the number of cells in the body. But do not worry about this, because these microbes are of great benefit by participating in digestion, producing vitamin K, acting on fiber, etc. It is enough to remember how uncomfortable it is after taking broad-spectrum antibiotics that aggressively affect our microflora and can kill a significant amount of it, disrupting the natural balance.

Naturally, such a complex process as digestion can not proceed without waste. In addition to feces, which consists mainly of fiber and all the same microorganisms, in the digestive tract of an adult contains about 1 liter of various gases. The gas appears in the intestine mainly due to the life of the microflora and is normally removed during bowel movements, as well as evenly throughout the day.

If everything is good and functions as it should, then during one day, from 0.1 to 0.5 liters of gases are formed and released into the environment (it all depends on the size of a person and the food he took the day before). The specific smell that intestinal gases have is caused by the presence of sulfur compounds in it.

However, sometimes a day in the intestines of a person appears up to 3 or more liters of gas mixture, which tends to leave the body and gives the patient a lot of inconvenience. Sometimes people can not perform their work duties due to the fact that they continuously experience discomfort in the abdominal cavity and a desire to empty the bowels from the gases.



Causes of increased gas formation in the intestines

Quite a lot of factors can cause increased gas formation in the intestine.

1. Pathology on the part of the enzyme system (this is particularly relevant in relation to small children, in whom the digestive system may not yet be fully formed) leads to insufficient splitting of food in the upper sections of the digestive tract. As a result, a large amount of insufficiently digested food enters the human colon. The lower intestine has the same other function and cannot provide further digestion, resulting in fermentation processes in the intestinal contents. These processes are accompanied by the release of large amounts of gases and cause the patient a lot of inconvenience.

2. Inflammatory diseases in the upper gastrointestinal tract (stomach, duodenum), even with preserved enzyme activity, may interfere with the normal process of food digestion. In addition, individual cells of the stomach produce an enzyme that provides protein breakdown.

3. The pancreas and liver are the most important digestive glands, without whose normal activity digestion is impossible. Pancreatitis , cholecystitis , hepatitis - these inflammatory diseases are accompanied by a decrease in the production of digestive enzymes and a violation of their activation by bile acids.

4. Violation of the composition of microflora in the colon. Normally, microorganisms are represented in the intestinal lumen at approximately the same percentage. Also, the presence of its own microorganisms prevents the reproduction of pathogenic flora. If for certain reasons (antibiotics, an unbalanced diet, the entry of pathogenic bacteria into the intestinal lumen) there are not enough normal bacteria, other microorganisms are able to multiply uncontrollably. However, this composition of the flora can not ensure the normal functioning of the digestive tract and provokes the formation of a large amount of intestinal gases. Some bacteria normally absorb the resulting gases, but this does not occur if the balance is broken.

5. Normally, the human intestines are constantly reduced in such a way that its contents gradually move in one direction. This process is called peristalsis. But in some cases, the intestine loses its ability to contract and is overly stretched. Especially dangerous in this regard are surgical interventions on the abdominal organs, during which surgeons are forced to touch the intestinal wall with their hands. This invariably leads to a violation of motility and makes it possible for gases to accumulate in the lumen of the organ (it was previously pushed to the rectum, from which it later emerged naturally).

If a lot of gas is accumulated in the patient's stomach, then pronounced paroxysmal pain - intestinal colic - comes to the forefront in the symptoms. Also, some diseases that are accompanied by intoxication of the body can also disrupt the physical activity of the intestine.

6. Circulatory disorders can also cause digestive disorders and large amounts of gas in the abdominal cavity.

7. The presence in the abdominal cavity adhesions - adhesions between adjacent organs or tissues in the form of connective tissue fibers. Even two loops of the same intestine can grow together, which creates difficulties for the implementation of normal peristalsis. Also adhesions can reduce the lumen of the intestine, disrupting the passage of food.

8. Tumors located in the abdominal cavity can also cause indigestion, resulting in fermentation and decay processes, accompanied by an increase in gas production.

9. Psycho-emotional overload, frequent stress - can provoke disturbances in the process of digestion and cause flatulence.

10. Features in the patient's diet are probably the most common causes of increased gas formation in the intestine. If you use a lot of foods rich in coarse fiber, legumes in large quantities, carbonated drinks, kvass (it itself can cause fermentation processes).

Clinical manifestations of flatulence

This pathological condition, with all its seeming simplicity, can deliver a lot of suffering to the patient and have a number of symptoms.

  • Abdominal distention is the result of a large amount of gas in the intestinal lumen. Normally, the front abdominal wall of a person should be located below the costal arch in the prone position. In a patient with increased gas formation, the abdomen can significantly rise above the level of the chest, become rounded. This is somewhat less noticeable in people who are overweight, because their stomach is already somewhat enlarged.
  • An increase in the size of the abdomen is accompanied by a feeling of fullness; a person experiences severe discomfort.
  • Increased flatulence - this is how doctors call the discharge of gases from the body. It is logical that if a large amount of gas is formed in the intestine, then it tends to go out.
  • A loud "rumbling" in the abdomen of the abdomen can occur by itself, and may be due to conscious containment of gases inside (if the patient is forced to do this for certain reasons).
  • Cramping pain resulting from gas pressure on the intestinal wall. They proceed in the form of a sudden increase and gradually pass - this is connected with peristalsis, which for a short period of time can significantly increase the pressure in a single section of the intestine.
  • Constipation, diarrhea, belching and loss of appetite - the symptoms are quite nonspecific and occurring far from every patient.
  • A burning sensation in the region of the heart, a change in the heart rhythm are very rare symptoms, which are the exception to the rule. However, they can be misleading for both the patient and the treating doctor.

Variants of the course of flatulence

  • With the predominant accumulation of gases formed inside the intestines. As a result, bloating is the leading symptom of the disease. At the same time, patients develop severe pain in the abdomen.
  • The second variant of the excessive formation of gases in the intestines can lead to their permanent and rapid discharge. Such patients cannot stay in society for a long time, because they have to constantly restrain themselves. In this case, there is practically no pain in the abdomen, but “rumbling” and “transfusion” are troubling.



Diagnostics

It is clear that flatulence is not an independent disease, but a symptom that, due to its severity, attracts the patient’s attention more than the root cause of all problems. Consequently, the doctor during the diagnosis will not try to identify flatulence (after all, this is the reason for visiting the doctor), but the reason for his appearance.

  • Careful history taking can immediately give a lot of important information. If the doctor sees that the patient eats, to put it mildly, is not quite right, then the main suspicions will fall on this particular factor.
  • Analysis of feces allows you to determine the presence in the intestine of pathological bacteria or simply to identify an imbalance in the composition of the microflora.
  • In the most difficult and confused cases, instrumental diagnostics come to the rescue: colonoscopy, x-ray methods of examination, diagnostic laparoscopy as a last resort - they allow to detect adhesions, tumors and other causes of impaired gas discharge.

Treatment of increased gas formation in the intestines

If you establish and eliminate the cause, due to which a large amount of gas is formed in the intestine, flatulence will recede and is unlikely to manifest itself again in the future. Treatment may include several components.

  • Correction of the patient's diet - already at this stage it is possible to help the majority of patients, because most often people eat unbalanced, abuse some products. It is necessary to abandon the use of products, which include a lot of coarse plant fiber (cabbage, grapes, gooseberries, sorrel). Also you should not eat beer, kvass, carbonated drinks in large quantities, because they are rich in gases and can cause fermentation of food masses. It is recommended to introduce more sour-milk products, crumbly cereals, boiled vegetables and fruits into the diet. Meat can be consumed only in boiled form. After all the symptoms of the disease have passed, you can somewhat retreat from a strict diet, but at the same time try to follow all the recommendations of the doctor.
  • If it is established that the cause of the gas retention is abdominal adhesions or other pathological phenomena, then it is necessary to think about the operation. Today, doctors can do everything with minimally invasive techniques.
  • Prokinetics are drugs that make doctors can get the intestines to move again in a normal rhythm. These substances are shown in the event that flatulence was the result of impaired peristalsis.
  • Violation of the composition of the microflora can be corrected with special drugs - probiotics and eubiotics. Some contain a culture of bacteria in their composition, while others provide all conditions in the intestine for good growth of these microorganisms.
  • Preparations with enzymes can correct their insufficient production by their own glands, due to which the digestive process will come within the norm.
  • Activated carbon, white clay, Polysorb - these substances, if properly administered, can absorb large amounts of gas, improving the patient's condition and well-being.
  • Chamomile, dill, coriander, mint leaves infusions have a carminative effect and stimulate the excretion of gases.
  • In the most severe cases, it is possible to use a venting tube, which helps the accumulated gases to leave the patient's intestinal lumen.

| March 16, 2014 | | 7 617 | Diseases of the digestive tract
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