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Periodontal disease


Parodontosis photo The pathological condition of periodontal tissues in which the mucous membrane of the gums and jaw bone gradually subside is called periodontal disease. The process is destructive in nature, in which there is a gradual atrophy of the gums and the alveolar part of the jaw.

The symptomatology of the disease is quite scarce, and the process is progressing at a slow pace. On this basis, the patient may remain in ignorance for a long time as to the fact that he has a gum disease. Periodontal disease is detected by chance, when visiting a doctor for loose teeth or other diseases of the teeth and oral cavity.

Periodontal disease is quite rare, compared with other diseases of the oral cavity. Its peculiarity is that the inflammatory process, in this case, does not take place. Most often, periodontal disease is found in those people whose parents suffered or are suffering from this disease. From this we can conclude that periodontal disease can be transmitted genetically from generation to generation.

Classification of periodontal disease

Periodontal disease is classified according to the degree of prevalence, the nature of the course and stages of development.

By prevalence periodontal disease is divided into two groups:

  • Localized (neck stripping is observed only on a limited portion of the dentition);
  • Generalized (destructive changes capture the entire dentition or both jaws).

With the flow of periodontal disease is:

  • Chronic;
  • Acute.

According to the stages of development or the degree of atrophy of the jaw bone tissue, five stages are distinguished:

  • Initial stage;
  • First stage;
  • Second stage;
  • Third stage;
  • Fourth stage.

Causes of parodontosis

Parodontosis is not a fully studied disease. It is impossible to say with precision what may be the cause of its appearance - just assume factors that may contribute to the gradual resorption of the gums and jawbone.

Periodontal disease always proceeds against the background of blood supply disturbance in the soft tissues of the oral cavity and disturbance of the body's metabolic processes. This condition occurs when many diseases, but the mucous membrane and bones are destroyed only in some cases.

Dental research has helped to highlight several factors that are most often present in people with periodontal disease:

  1. Reduced immunity for a long period;
  2. Endocrine disorders (failure of the hormone production process);
  3. Bite pathology;
  4. Acute or chronic trauma of periodontal tissues (bruises, fractures, abnormal orthopedic and orthodontic structures);
  5. Disturbances of trophism (metabolic processes in the oral mucosa);
  6. Bad habits (alcoholism, smoking);
  7. Diseases of the digestive tract (gastrointestinal tract);
  8. Neurological diseases;
  9. Lack of vitamins and minerals.

Pathogenic bacteria and plaque are also present in the overall picture, but they do not play a decisive role in periodontitis.

The process of development and course of the disease

Symptoms of periodontal disease Parodontosis begins suddenly and unnoticed. For a long time, especially if there is a large amount of deposits on the teeth (plaque and stones), the patient may not notice a progressive loss of tissue. Dental stones are tight to the necks and slowly capture the surface, which is exposed as periodontal disease develops.

Often people come to the dental office to remove mineralized dental deposits, and only after professional cleaning they notice the state of their periodontal disease (hard and soft tissues surrounding the tooth). In parallel, the doctor notes the presence and degree of development of periodontal disease.

The impetus for the launch of the pathological process is the lack of nutrients and vitamins in the blood vessels of the periodontium. Consequently, the rate of metabolic processes decreases and begins the destruction (destruction) of bone tissue and the recession (omission) of the gums.

Parodontosis can develop slowly over the years, without causing any inconvenience and not being complicated by additional diseases.

Symptoms of periodontal disease

The signs of periodontal disease depend on the stage at which the process is located:

  • почти всегда остается незамеченной. The initial stage almost always goes unnoticed. Symptoms are barely noticeable even for a professional, and the patient himself does not see any changes at all. And yet, in the periodontal tissues (jaw bone and gum tissue), the pathological process is already running and the necks of the teeth begin to strip out. X-ray studies are not informative.
  • характеризуется незначительной рецессией (опущением) десны. The first stage is characterized by a slight recession (omission) of the gums. The sensitivity of the teeth may occur from time to time. The teeth remain in place and stand firmly in the holes. Initial destructive changes in the bone tissue are visible on X-rays.
  • проявляется значительным обнажением шеек. The second stage is manifested by a significant exposure of the necks. Gaps appear between the teeth, the transition of enamel to cement (a solid substance covering the roots of the teeth) is visible in places of recession, the patient is worried about hyperesthesia (hypersensitivity of the teeth). The strength of the periodontal ligaments is not yet weakened. The X-ray picture is characterized by noticeable atrophic changes in the alveolar process (arcuate jaw protrusion, in which the roots of the teeth are fixed).
  • корни выступают за десну более чем наполовину. When moving to the third stage, the roots extend more than half in the gum. Interdental crevices widened even more, teeth mobility may appear. The patient is disturbed by discomfort when taking sour, hot and cold food. On the x-ray is determined by reducing the height of the alveolar process by 1 cm.
  • считается крайней, так как она служит показанием к удалению зубов. The fourth stage is considered extreme, as it serves as an indication for tooth extraction. The roots are bare two-thirds of its length. Mobility and sensitivity of the teeth interfere with talking and eating. X-ray examination shows that the roots of the teeth are held in the bone only by the tip.

At all stages of the disease does not manifest hyperemia and bleeding. Soft tissues of pink color, periodontal pockets (a portion of the gum adjacent to the tooth neck, but not attached to it) are not extended.

Periodontal disease is almost always chronic. The name “acute form” is a symbol, since the difference consists only in the rapid progression of the disease.

Depending on what stage of development periodontal disease is, the doctor prescribes a treatment and decides whether it is possible to save the teeth, or it is more expedient to resort to orthopedic treatment.

What can be confused with periodontal disease?

In order to determine with certainty the presence of periodontal disease should know exactly how it differs from other periodontal diseases.

Its symptoms overlap with the clinical manifestations of gingivitis and periodontitis.

Gingivitis is an inflammatory disease of the gums that occurs with poor oral hygiene. In this case, only the gums are affected. Unlike periodontal disease, even at the most severe stage of gingivitis, the jaw bones remain intact, while the teeth remain motionless. With periodontal disease, the gums are pale pink and look healthy. When gingivitis gum mucosa is inflamed, there are bleeding and redness.

Periodontal disease is most often confused with periodontitis, as in both cases, the mobility of the teeth appears. But periodontitis is an infectious-inflammatory disease, accompanied by expansion of the periodontal pockets, hyperemia, bleeding and suppuration. With periodontal disease similar signs are not observed.

Treatment of periodontal disease

It should be immediately noted the sad fact that methods that can completely cure periodontal disease in our time have not yet been invented. The periodontist can only halt the progression of the pathological process and stabilize the patient’s condition.

Actually, treatment begins with the elimination of the etiological (causal) factor. In order to eliminate the cause, it is necessary to identify it, so the patient must undergo a full examination of all the organs and systems that bother him.

The next stage of treatment is professional oral hygiene. Despite the small role of pathogenic bacteria in the development of periodontal disease, all dental plaque should be removed. On the gum, freed from the stones, drugs act more effectively.

Be sure to undergo training in oral hygiene and learn how to properly brush your teeth. Improper manipulation can increase the speed of the descent of the gums.

It is advisable to use toothpastes that strengthen the periodontal and improve blood circulation in the mucous membrane of the gums.

Of the medications, the periodontist prescribes only vitamin-mineral complexes. A physician, in the presence of common diseases of the body, can make a separate appointment.

Physiotherapeutic procedures have a positive effect in periodontitis, such as:

  1. Massage gums - by using a special apparatus. At the same time, blood flow to periodontal tissues increases, metabolic processes improve.
  2. Darsonvalization and dynamic currents - act on the same principle as massage. They contribute to the stabilization of trophism and suspend the development of atrophy.
  3. Electrophoresis in combination with calcium gluconate - reduces hyperesthesia (hypersensitivity) in the area of ​​the exposed necks of the teeth. Electrophoresis is the introduction of a medicinal substance into the periodontal soft tissues using a low voltage current.
  4. Self-massage of the gums is also allowed, but only with the permission of the doctor. Twice a day, the gum can be lightly massaged for several minutes. Before the procedure, you need to brush your teeth and wash your hands, in order to avoid infections.

The meaning of physiotherapy procedures is to saturate the periodontal tissues with oxygen, increase blood flow and restore the metabolic processes of nutrients.

Orthopedic treatment can significantly help if the teeth in the dentition are preserved, but have already become mobile. Plastic tires, together with intensive therapy, prevent further loosening and tooth loss.

Many are concerned about the issue of diet with periodontal disease. Follow strict dietary rules is not necessary, but it is desirable to enrich your diet with fruits and vegetables. They contain vitamins that the body needs to recover.

Seafood and legumes (peas, beans) saturate tissues with minerals, and their use is also important for healing and strengthening the oral mucosa.

Surgical treatment of periodontal disease

Surgical intervention, in this case, is aimed at restoring the resorbed gums and bone tissue of the alveolar process.

Various osteo-substituting (replacing destroyed bone areas) preparations, membranes and replanting materials are sutured under the gum. After some time, the materials take root and begin to synthesize bone tissue. With a favorable course of treatment, there is a chance to “grow” the alveolar process anew and strengthen mobile teeth.

Several types of cell cultures are used to regenerate the gums:

  • Stem cells are known for their anti-aging properties. They are capable of reproducing new tissues, enhancing the rate of healing and renewing cellular structures. With periodontal disease, stem cells perform the function of restoring the gums.
  • Fibroblasts are responsible for the formation of collagen. Collagen structures increase the elasticity of tissues and strengthen the protective mechanisms of the mucous membrane. They make periodontal soft tissue resistant to adverse factors and more durable.
  • Platelet growth factor refers to protein structures. It plays an important role in angiogenesis (the formation of new blood and lymphatic vessels). Synthesis of healthy capillaries restores the blood supply and metabolic processes in the gum, necessary for proper functioning.

Osteoplastic surgery and the use of cell cultures is considered one of the most expensive ways to cure periodontal disease. But, in the case of successful engraftment of materials, a surgical method of treatment can give amazing results.

Treatment of periodontal disease at home

Independent treatment of periodontal disease, without the participation of a professional doctor, is highly undesirable. The disease is treated for a long time and is difficult even with the use of intensive care, and self-treatment can (at best) be ineffective.

But there are methods of treatment at home, which are very useful to use in conjunction with regular visits to the periodontist.

The doctor may prescribe the following gels and ointments for self-administration. They enhance blood circulation and metabolic processes, saturate tissues with oxygen and have an additional anti-inflammatory effect.

  1. Troxevasin has a pronounced anti-parodontozny effect. Strengthens the vascular walls of capillaries, improves blood circulation.

The gel is rubbed into the gums with soft movements until fully absorbed twice during the day.

  1. Elugel includes chlorhexidine - a known antiseptic. It should be applied to the gums with a thin layer several times a day.
  2. Holisal is rubbed into periodontal tissue twice a day. The duration of treatment depends on the severity of the disease.
  3. Heparin ointment has the ability to thin the blood, improving microcirculation in the vessels. Within two weeks, the ointment is applied to the gums in small quantities twice a day.
  4. Solcoseryl is used for rubbing and for dressing. The dressing is called a small piece of gauze, which is applied ointment to its full impregnation. The bandage is applied to the gums for 10-20 minutes.

Anti parodontosis gels and ointments are generally completely safe. But before using them, you should consult with your doctor and discuss in detail the methods and duration of their use.

How to treat periodontal disease using popular methods

Traditional medicine is based on the treatment of natural products. With the correct use of herbs and other beneficial substances, it is possible to significantly improve the effectiveness of the treatment of periodontal disease.

Healers consider the following recipes to be the most effective:

  1. Dried leaves of cowberries, the amount of six grams, you need to pour a glass of boiling water and boil for about 20 minutes. Strain and cool at room temperature and rinse your mouth with the resulting decoction at least 5 times a day.
  2. Prepare the calendula tincture in the following way: Pour 500 ml of boiling water over two tablespoons of crushed calendula and leave for 30 minutes. Rinse your mouth 5-7 times during the day.
  3. Kombucha is rich in vitamin C, which strengthens the walls of blood vessels. Rinsing with tincture of the fungus is very useful to restore blood circulation.
  4. Grated calamus with periodontal disease is added to the toothpaste and also helps strengthen the gums.
  5. Replacing ordinary tea with green may have a weak but positive effect. It acts on the entire body, cleansing and healing it. Accordingly, the periodontal state is improved in parallel with the state of other organs and systems.
  6. Garlic infusion is one of the most effective decoctions for the treatment of periodontal disease. To cook it, you need to pour boiled water over crushed garlic and insist. After half an hour, strain and rinse the mouth, holding the infusion in the mouth for 5-10 minutes twice a day.

Or you can take a garlic clove, cut it in half and rub it into the gums several times a day.

  1. Kalanchoe juice reduces an itchy feeling in the gums. The leaves of the plant should be dried for a week in a dry, cool place. Then they are crushed and squeezed juice. Again, fluids need to be infused for several days. Filtered and diluted with boiled water or infusion of sage juice rinse your mouth three times a day.

Treatment of periodontal disease with propolis and honey

The healing properties of bee products should be mentioned separately, although they also fall into the category of traditional methods of treatment.

Lotions with honey, rinsing with solutions or simply smearing mucous integuments helps relieve irritation and restore normal blood circulation.

Propolis tincture can be prepared by yourself, and can be purchased at the pharmacy in finished form. In a glass of boiled water is added 20-25 drops of 10% tincture. The resulting solution should rinse your mouth every time after eating for two weeks.

The infusion, with a concentration of 4%, is applied to compresses (applying a wetted piece of cotton to a causal place) several times a day for 2-3 minutes.

Intake of 15-20 drops of 10% tincture before a meal is also allowed, but only as directed by a doctor.

There is a method of using propolis in pure form. Still fresh raw materials are stretched and stretched into a thin strip, applied to the gums at night for 10 days. But this method is dangerous because you can accidentally swallow propolis, or it can get into the respiratory tract.

Massaging honey mixed with ground cinnamon into mucous membranes is the most pleasant procedure. And tasty, and pleasant smell pleases, and brings benefits. The ingredients are mixed in a ratio of 1: 1, rubbed into the affected places at night. In the morning, rinse your mouth with warm water. The course of treatment is a week.

Propolis and honey also have bactericidal and healing properties. Although there is no inflammatory reaction during periodontal disease, additional antiseptic properties are only beneficial to him.

Prevention of periodontal disease

Due to the lack of effective treatment, periodontal disease is easier and more correct to try to prevent than to go to the doctors and listen to disappointing forecasts.

Once the cause of periodontal disease is unknown, you should work on those factors that allow you to maintain the general health of the periodontal disease:

  • Vitamins and minerals are well-known assistants in maintaining the tone and vigor of the whole organism. More raw, hard fruits and vegetables in the diet and less fast food - the main rule of a healthy diet.
  • Regular exercise strengthens the whole body, improves immunity and, accordingly, has a beneficial effect on the condition of the gums.
  • Regular dental hygiene (independent and professional) and oral cavity is a very important component in the complex for maintaining a healthy periodontal disease. A toothbrush during teeth cleaning additionally massages the gums, increasing blood flow and removing soft plaque, and professional cleaning prevents the formation of tartar. Although bacteria are not causative agents of periodontal disease, they still play a role in the process.
  • Careful attention to the state of their internal organs is necessary, since in patients with periodontal disease almost always severe systemic diseases are detected.

Taking care of yourself and your health is the key to preventing periodontal disease. The lack of information about this disease makes it more dangerous than other diseases of the oral cavity, which appear aggressive, but can be completely cured.

Interesting facts about periodontal disease

What can surprise such a disease as periodontal disease? At first glance, on the basis of poor symptoms and insufficient knowledge of the disease, nothing interesting can be said. And yet, periodontal disease - an insidious disease. Researches of experts pointed out several interesting features that periodontal disease is fraught with:

  1. Scientists at the Karolinska Institute have found that a severe form of periodontal disease, which is not amenable to treatment, may indicate the presence of malignant tumors (cancer) and other serious diseases. Brigitta Seder (professor who leads the study) believes that if the teeth begin to fall out one by one, then the disease has been going on for about 20 years.
  2. Observation of three thousand patients for 16 years has led to the conclusion that young people with severe periodontal disease are prone to premature death from serious diseases more than people with a healthy periodontal disease.

In the process of the study, more than one hundred deaths were registered. The average age of deceased patients was less than 50 years.

Dentists claim that any disease of the body manifests itself in the mouth one way or another. Research data supports this assumption, although there is no scientific evidence for the theory yet.

| 23 February 2014 | | 36 459 | Diseases in men
  • | Lisa | November 16, 2015

    I felt it was unpleasant to smell from my mouth, I treat periodontal disease, but still the smell just kills (((

  • | Nina | November 16, 2015

    Lisa, so those drugs that are prescribed for the treatment of the smell and you will not be saved. I used a special tool for rinsing the oral cavity when I treated periodontal disease called CB12. Here he rescued me and eliminating the unpleasant smell. Now I also apply it from time to time, I like it when my mouth smells nice.

  • | Wap | November 21, 2015

    Damn emaeo old age joy

Leave your feedback

L O V E: LISTEN EVERYBODY! I'm 15..I didn't have much tartar and my teeth are very weak..So I went for a scaling and polishing according to ny dentist's recommendation! I must say,she was extremely gentle with my teeth..I didn't feel any pain and not a single drop of blood came out! But I felt a slight pain on my sensitive tooth but that can't be counted as pain I guess! And now I have totally clean and polished teeth! I think it was my best decision to get this done! AWESOME EXPERIENCE!!! If u have tartar,please go for this treatment ASAP..As less tartar you'll have,as less pain you'll feel! But don't let that bacteria build up on your teeth.. Otherwise you'll loose all your teeth like the patient sitting next to me had! So please don't ignore it and get it done at least once in a year! May all of u and I be blessed with a good dental health! 😊❤

Rajkumar Ratnasamy: Rajkumar's Dentistry was incepted in the year 1994 with a vision to serve our beloved Patients with utmost dental care solutions in achieving that splendid happy smile. With 23 years of Experience, we have achieved an exclusive place in the Dental Clinic in Coimbatore. For more Details please visit https://www.rajkumarsdentistry.in/periodontia-coimbatore-india.php

Maria Do Carmo: . Queridos amigos que Deus abençoe você é sua família Deus nos ama tantos poriso ele jamais vai perder a nossa alma diga asim jesus Cristo eu te amóoóoo

J131: I had had mostly 1, 2, and 3s. I brush every day with "Burst" toothbrush....but I don't always floss. Had 4's and 5's today. Yikes.

Darren Scott: I've had this done it cost me around £1100 in the uk do not have it with out anesthetic you will be in a lot of pain during the procedure..i was not in any pain afterwards and my teeth are not loose now..

Joex Ink: It’s good to have this done for your teeth sake! I thank my hygienist everyday in my heart. It’ll prolong the life of your gums and teeth.

Henry Genesis: My gums bleed moderately sometimes when I brush/and or floss and I’m trying to fix this ASAP I’ve made the mistake of not caring about my oral health for a long time but I’ve been trying to get rid of it for a few months now and my dentist says I’ve been lacking in brushing still Regardless, Will this really help? I was recommended to a periodontist and I’m thinking of asking him to show me how to brush unfortunately because for some reason I’m doing it wrong I feel ashamed But can anyone attest to this and say that it actually works? How soon did u see the improvement How long did it hurt and feel sensitive afterwards? Thank you all!

Sueanne Gera: My daughter is starting this proceedure. I would like to know what some of your prices were and if you felt that it is worth the expense?