- Classification of periodontitis
- Causes contributing to the onset of periodontal disease
- The development and course of the disease
- Symptoms of periodontal disease
- What can be confused with periodontal disease?
- Treatment of periodontitis
- Surgical treatment of periodontitis
- Treatment of periodontal disease in the home
- How to treat periodontal disease with the help of folk methods
- Treatment of periodontal disease with propolis and honey
- Prevention of periodontal disease
- Interesting facts about periodontal disease
The pathological condition of periodontal tissues, in which the mucous membrane of the gums and the bone tissue of the jaw gradually go into decline, is called periodontitis. The process is of a destructive nature, in which gradual atrophy of the gum and the alveolar part of the jaw occurs.
The symptomatology of the disease is rather scarce, and the process progresses at a slow pace. On this basis, the patient for a long time may remain unaware of the fact that he has a gum disease. Periodontal disease is found by chance, when you visit a doctor for loose teeth or other diseases of the teeth and mouth.
Periodontal disease is rare, compared with other diseases of the oral cavity. Its peculiarity is that the inflammatory process, in this case, has no place to be. Most often, parodontosis occurs in those people whose parents have suffered or are suffering from this disease. From this it can be concluded that periodontal disease can be transmitted genetically from generation to generation.
Classification of periodontitis
Parodontosis is classified according to the prevalence, the nature of the course and the stages of development.
The prevalence of periodontitis is divided into two groups:
- Localized (exposure of the necks is observed only in a restricted area of the dentition);
- Generalized (destructive changes capture the entire dentition or both jaws).
In the course of periodontitis, there are:
According to the stages of development or the degree of atrophy of the jaw bone, five stages are distinguished:
- Initial stage;
- The first stage;
- The second stage;
- The third stage;
- The fourth stage.
Causes contributing to the onset of periodontal disease
Periodontitis is not a fully studied disease. It is impossible to say with certainty what can be the cause of its appearance - only to suggest factors that can contribute to a gradual resorption of the gum and bone tissue of the jaw.
Parodontosis always takes place against the background of the violation of blood supply in the soft tissues of the oral cavity and the violation of metabolic processes of the body. This condition occurs with a variety of diseases, but the mucous membrane and bones are destroyed only in some cases.
Studies of dentists have helped identify several factors that are most often present in people suffering from periodontitis:
- Decreased immunity for a long period;
- Endocrine disorders (failure of the process of hormone production);
- Pathology of occlusion;
- Acute or chronic trauma of periodontal tissues (bruises, fractures, wrong orthopedic and orthodontic structures);
- Disorders of trophism (metabolic processes in the mucosa of the oral cavity);
- Harmful habits (alcoholism, smoking);
- Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (gastrointestinal tract);
- Neurological diseases;
- Lack of vitamins and minerals.
The development and course of the disease
Periodontal disease begins suddenly and unnoticed. For a long time, especially if there is a large amount of deposits (plaque and stones) on the teeth, the patient may not notice the progressive loss of tissues. Teeth adhere tightly to the cervix and slowly grasp the surface, which is exposed as the periodontitis develops.
Often people come to the dental office to remove mineralized dental deposits, and only after professional cleaning they notice the condition of periodontal disease (hard and soft tissues surrounding the tooth). In parallel, the doctor notes the presence and degree of development of periodontal disease.
The impetus for the launch of the pathological process is insufficient supply of nutrients and vitamins through the periodontal blood vessels. Consequently, the rate of metabolic processes decreases and the destruction (destruction) of bone tissue begins and the recession (descent) of the gum occurs.
Symptoms of periodontal disease
The signs of periodontal disease depend on the stage at which the process is located:
- почти всегда остается незамеченной. The initial stage almost always goes unnoticed. Symptoms are barely noticeable even for the professional, and the patient himself does not see any changes at all. And yet, in the periodontal tissues (bone tissue of the jaw and gum), the pathological process is already started and the cervical teeth begin to show. X-ray studies are not informative.
- характеризуется незначительной рецессией (опущением) десны. The first stage is characterized by a slight recession (omission) of the gum. Sensitivity of the teeth may appear from time to time. Teeth remain in place and stand firmly in the wells. On the x-ray, the initial destructive changes in the bone tissue are noticeable.
- проявляется значительным обнажением шеек. The second stage is manifested by a significant exposure of the necks. There are gaps between the teeth, in places of recession, the enamel transition to cement (solid substance covering the roots of the teeth) is visible, the patient is troubled by hyperesthesia (hypersensitivity of the teeth). The strength of the dentogingival ligaments is not weakened yet. X-ray picture is characterized by noticeable atrophic changes in the alveolar process (arcuate protuberance of the jaw, in which the roots of the teeth are fixed).
- корни выступают за десну более чем наполовину. At the transition to the third stage, the roots protrude beyond the gum more than half. The interdental spaces are widened even more, the mobility of the teeth may appear. The patient is disturbed by unpleasant sensations when taking acidic, hot and cold food. On the x-ray, a decrease in the height of the alveolar process by 1 cm is determined.
- считается крайней, так как она служит показанием к удалению зубов. The fourth stage is considered extreme, as it serves as an indication for the removal of the teeth. Roots are exposed to two-thirds of their length. Mobility and sensitivity of teeth interfere with talking and eating. X-ray examination shows that the roots of the teeth are held in the bone only by the tip.
At all stages, the disease is not manifested by flushing and bleeding. Soft tissues of pink color, periodontal pockets (the gum area adjacent to the neck of the tooth, but not attached to it) has not been enlarged.
Parodontosis is almost always chronic. The name "acute form" is a symbol, since the difference consists only in the rapid progression of the disease.
Depending on the stage of development of periodontal disease, the doctor prescribes treatment and decides whether it is possible to preserve the teeth, or whether it is more expedient to resort to orthopedic treatment.
What can be confused with periodontal disease?
In order to confidently determine the presence of periodontal disease, you should know exactly what it differs from other periodontal diseases.
Its symptoms partially coincide with the clinical manifestations of gingivitis and periodontitis.
Gingivitis is an inflammatory disease of the gums that occurs with poor oral hygiene. In this case only the gum is affected. Unlike periodontitis, even at the most severe stage of gingivitis, the jaw bone remains intact, and the teeth remain immobile. With periodontal disease, the gum is pale pink and looks healthy. With gingivitis, the mucous membrane of the gums is inflamed, bleeding and redness are observed.
Most often, periodontitis is confused with periodontitis, since in both cases there is mobility of the teeth. But periodontitis is an infectious and inflammatory disease, accompanied by an expansion of dentogingival pockets, hyperemia, bleeding and suppuration. With parodontosis, such signs are not observed.
Treatment of periodontitis
It should immediately be noted sad fact that methods that can completely cure parodontosis, in our time have not yet come up. The doctor-periodontist can only stop the progress of the pathological process and stabilize the patient's condition.
The actual treatment begins with the elimination of the etiological (causative) factor. In order to eliminate the cause it is necessary to identify it, so the patient must undergo a complete examination of all organs and systems that bother him.
The next stage of treatment is professional oral hygiene. Despite the small role of pathogenic bacteria in the development of periodontitis, all dental deposits should still be removed. The gums, freed from stones, are more effective.
Be sure to get training in oral hygiene and learn how to brush your teeth properly. Improper manipulation can increase the speed of the descent of the gum.
It is desirable to use toothpastes that strengthen the periodontium and improve blood circulation in the mucous membrane of the gums.
From medicines the periodontist appoints only vitamin-mineral complexes. The therapist doctor, in the presence of common diseases of the body, can make a separate appointment.
Positive effect in periodontal disease is provided by such physiotherapeutic procedures as:
- Gum massage - is carried out with the help of a special device. In this case, blood flow to the periodontal tissues is strengthened, metabolic processes are improved.
- Darsonvalization and dynamic currents - act on the same principle as massage. They contribute to the stabilization of the trophic and stop the development of atrophy.
- Electrophoresis in combination with calcium gluconate - reduces hyperesthesia (hypersensitivity) in the area of the exposed neck of the teeth. Electrophoresis is the administration of a drug substance into soft periodontal tissues using a low-voltage current.
- Self-massage of the gums is also allowed, but only with the permission of the doctor. Twice a day the gum can be gently massaged for a few minutes. Before the procedure, you need to brush your teeth and wash your hands to avoid infection.
The meaning of physiotherapy is to saturate periodontal tissues with oxygen, increase blood flow and restore nutrient metabolism.
Orthopedic treatment can significantly help if the teeth in the dentition are preserved, but have already become mobile. Plastic tires, in conjunction with intensive therapy, prevent further loosening and loss of teeth.
Many people are worried about the issue of dietary nutrition in periodontal disease. Follow strict dietary rules are not necessary, but it is desirable to enrich your diet with vegetables and fruits. They contain vitamins, which are necessary for the body to recover.
Surgical treatment of periodontitis
Surgical intervention, in this case, is aimed at restoration of the dissected gingiva and bone tissue of the alveolar process.
Various osteosubstitution (replacing damaged parts of the bone) preparations, membranes and substitute materials are hemmed under the gum. After a while, the materials take root and begin to synthesize bone tissue. With a favorable course of treatment, there is a chance to "grow" the alveolar process anew and strengthen the mobile teeth.
Several types of cell cultures are used to regenerate the gums:
- Stem cells are known for their rejuvenating properties. They are able to reproduce new tissues, enhance healing speed and update cellular structures. With parodontosis, stem cells perform the function of restoring the gums.
- Fibroblasts are responsible for the formation of collagen. Collagen structures increase the elasticity of tissues and strengthen the protective mechanisms of the mucosa. They make soft periodontal tissues resistant to the effects of unfavorable factors and more durable.
- The growth factor of platelets refers to protein structures. It plays an important role in angiogenesis (the formation of new blood and lymphatic vessels). The synthesis of healthy capillaries restores the blood supply and metabolic processes in the gums necessary for proper functioning.
Osteoplastic surgery and the use of cell cultures are considered one of the most expensive ways to cure periodontal disease. But, in case of successful engraftment of materials, the surgical method of treatment can give tremendous results.
Treatment of periodontal disease in the home
Self-treatment of periodontal disease, without the involvement of a professional doctor, is highly undesirable. The disease is treated for a long time and with difficulty even with the use of intensive therapy, and self-medication can (at best) prove to be ineffective.
But there are methods of treatment at home, which are very useful to use in conjunction with a regular visit to the periodontist.
The doctor can prescribe the following gels and ointments for self-administration. They increase blood supply and metabolic processes, saturate tissues with oxygen and have an additional anti-inflammatory effect.
- Troxevasin has a pronounced anti-parodontic effect. Strengthens the vascular walls of capillaries, improves blood supply.
The gel is rubbed into the gum with gentle movements until completely absorbed twice during the day.
- Elyugel includes in its composition chlorhexidine - a well-known antiseptic. It should be applied to the gums with a thin layer several times a day.
- Holisal is rubbed into the periodontal tissues twice a day. The duration of treatment depends on the severity of the disease.
- Heparin ointment has the ability to dilute blood, improving microcirculation in blood vessels. Within two weeks, the ointment is applied to the gums in small amounts twice a day.
- Solcoseryl is used both for rubbing and for applying bandages. The bandage is a small piece of gauze, which is applied to the ointment before it is completely impregnated. The dressing is applied to the gums for 10-20 minutes.
How to treat periodontal disease with the help of folk methods
Traditional medicine is based on the treatment of natural products. With the proper use of medicinal herbs and other beneficial substances, it is possible to significantly improve the effectiveness of treatment of periodontal disease.
Healers consider the following recipes to be the most effective:
- Dried leaves of cranberries, the number of six grams, you need to pour a glass of boiling water and boil for about 20 minutes. Strain and cool at room temperature and rinse the mouth with a decoction of at least 5 times a day.
- Tincture of marigolds should be prepared as follows: pour 500 ml of boiling water over two tablespoons of crushed marigold and leave for 30 minutes. Rinse the mouth 5-7 times during the day.
- The tea mushroom is rich in vitamin C, which strengthens the walls of the vessels. Rinse the tincture of the fungus is very useful for restoring blood circulation.
- Grated ayr during periodontal disease is added to toothpaste and also promotes strengthening of gums.
- The replacement of ordinary green tea can have a weak but positive effect. It acts on the entire body, purifying and healing it. Accordingly, the condition of periodontium improves in parallel with that of other organs and systems.
- Garlic infusion - one of the most effective decoctions for the treatment of periodontal disease. To make it, you need to pour the chopped garlic with boiling water and insist. After half an hour, strain and rinse your mouth, holding the infusion in your mouth for 5-10 minutes, twice a day.
Or you can take a garlic slice, cut it in half and rub it into the gums several times a day.
- The Kalanchoe juice reduces the itching sensation in the gums. The leaves of the plant should be dried for a week in a dry, cool place. Then they crush and squeeze out the juice. Again, the liquid must be infused for several days. Filtered and diluted with boiled water or infusion of sage juice rinse the mouth three times a day.
Treatment of periodontal disease with propolis and honey
The medicinal properties of beekeeping products should be mentioned separately, although they also fall into the category of folk methods of treatment.
Lotions with honey, rinsing with solutions or simply lubricating the mucous membranes helps to remove irritations and restore normal blood circulation.
Propolis tincture can be prepared independently, but can be purchased at the pharmacy in the finished form. In a glass of boiled water is added 20-25 drops of 10% tincture. The resulting solution should rinse the mouth every time after eating for two weeks.
Infusion, 4% concentration, is used for compresses (applying a moistened piece of cotton wool to the causative site) several times a day for 2-3 minutes.
Ingestion of 15-20 drops of 10% tincture before meals is also allowed, but only for the doctor's prescription.
There is a way to use propolis in its pure form. Still fresh raw materials are kneaded and stretched in a thin strip, applied to the gums at night for 10 days. But this method is dangerous because you can accidentally swallow propolis, or it can get into the airways.
Rubbing honey, mixed with crushed cinnamon, in the mucous membranes is the most pleasant procedure. And tasty, and a pleasant smell pleases, and benefits. Ingredients are mixed in a 1: 1 ratio, rubbed into the affected area at night. In the morning, rinse your mouth with warm water. The course of treatment is a week.
Prevention of periodontal disease
In the absence of effective treatment, periodontal disease is easier and more correct to try to prevent, than then go to doctors and listen to disappointing predictions.
Since the cause of periodontal disease is unknown, it is necessary to work on those factors that allow to maintain the overall health of periodontium:
- Vitamins and minerals are well-known helpers in maintaining the tone and vigor of the whole organism. More raw, firm vegetables and fruits in the diet and less fast food - the main rule of a healthy diet.
- Regular physical exercises strengthen the entire body, increase immunity and, accordingly, have a beneficial effect on the condition of the gums.
- Regular dental hygiene (independent and professional) and the oral cavity is a very important component in the preservation of healthy periodontal disease. The toothbrush when brushing the teeth additionally massages the gum, strengthening the blood flow and removing a soft coating, and professional cleaning prevents the formation of dental calculus. Although bacteria are not causative agents of periodontal disease, they still play a role in the process.
- Careful attention to the state of their internal organs is necessary, since in patients with periodontal disease, severe systemic diseases are almost always found.
Taking care of yourself and your health is the key to preventing periodontal disease. Lack of information about this disease makes it more dangerous than other diseases of the oral cavity, which are manifested aggressively, but which can be completely cured.
Interesting facts about periodontal disease
What can surprise such a disease as periodontal disease? At first glance, based on a meager symptomatology and insufficient knowledge of the disease, nothing interesting can be said. And yet, periodontitis is an insidious disease. Researches of experts have specified on some interesting features, which are fraught with periodontal disease:
- Scientists of the Karolinska Institute have found out that a pronounced form of periodontal disease that can not be treated can indicate the presence of malignant tumors (cancer) and other serious diseases. Brigitte Seder (professor who leads the study) believes that if the teeth begin to drop out one by one, then the disease has been going on for about 20 years.
- The observation of three thousand patients over 16 years has led to the conclusion that young people with severe periodontitis are prone to premature death from severe diseases more than people with healthy periodontium.
During the study, more than one hundred cases of death were recorded. The average age of deceased patients was less than 50 years.
Dentists assure that any disease of the body is manifested in the oral cavity in one way or another. The data of the studies confirm this assumption, although there is as yet no scientific evidence of the theory.