- Symptoms of poisoning
- Principles of first emergency aid for poisoning
- Poisoning with medications
- Prevention of poisoning
Poisoning is a "composite" name of the disease, which implies a violation of the function of organs and systems of the human body, due to the action of toxic (poisonous) substances. There are two types of poisoning:
- acute poisoning, which is characterized by the ingress of a large amount of poison into the body;
- chronic poisoning, long-term exposure to toxic substances in small doses.
Causes of poisoning can be different substances, but more often it is:
- medicinal preparations;
- poisonous substances, animal and vegetable origin;
- toxic household chemicals (acids, alkalis, washing and cleaning agents);
- Crafted toxic substances (glue, varnish, paint, solvent);
- fertilizers and pesticides used in horticulture and horticulture;
- tobacco and alcohol;
- poor-quality or overdue food products.
Symptoms of poisoning
Depending on what substance caused the poisoning, the symptoms may be different, but there is a symptom complex that indicates the poisoning of the body with toxic substances:
- nausea, vomiting, indigestion;
- impaired vision, hearing, coordination of movements;
- the color of the skin changes;
- can be both hypothermia and hyperthermia;
- disorders in the work of respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems.
Principles of first emergency aid for poisoning
The tactics of managing patients with any kind of poisoning includes a set of therapeutic measures:
- Immediate hospitalization of the victim in the inpatient department.
- As soon as possible, detoxify the body by removing toxic substances.
- Carry out a specific therapy, applying the antidote to the poison.
- Symptomatic treatment.
Before the ambulance team arrives, it is necessary to make a number of procedures that facilitate the patient's condition:
- Call the ambulance "103"!
- Before the arrival of an ambulance it is necessary to neutralize the toxic effect of the poison as much as possible: wash the skin, rinse the stomach, apply salt-bearing, enterosorbent (activated charcoal, sorbex, enterosgel).
- Before the arrival of doctors, you need to provide the patient with hunger and peace.
After providing the TNP, the victim should be immediately taken to the nearest in-patient medical facility. Do not forget that the life and health of the victim depend on the promptness of the actions!
Poisoning with medications
Most often this type of poisoning happens to children of small age who take colored pills for tasty candies, or when trying to commit suicide.
Poisoning with barbiturates (hypnotics) occurs with the use of these drugs inside, at a dose exceeding the therapeutic dose by 10 times or more. The peculiarity of these drugs is that they are very quickly absorbed into the digestive tract. An overdosed intake of such drugs as barbitals, phenobarbital, tardil, bromital leads to CNS depression, kidney function and respiratory system suffers. Lethal outcome occurs due to acute disruption of blood circulation and paralysis of the respiratory center. Intoxication with barbiturate poisoning has 4 stages:
- The first stage is characterized by drowsiness, indifference, but at this stage it is still possible to establish contact with the victim.
- The second stage is accompanied by loss of consciousness, tongue sagging and swallowing, and during this period, the body temperature rises to 40 0 .
- The third stage is accompanied by immersion of the patient into a deep coma, the activity of the respiratory system and the central nervous system is disrupted.
- The fourth stage is the way out of the coma, in which there is psychomotor agitation, excessive emotionality, tearfulness.
The decisiveness of the actions and timeliness of the first medical aid depends on the health and favorable outcome for the victim. The first thing to do is to call an ambulance or hospitalize a patient in a hospital. First aid includes gastric lavage, copious drinking, sorbent intake. In the hospital, the victim will have a number of medical manipulations:
- Rinsing the stomach to clean water.
- The reception of activated carbon, which must be removed from the body after 15-20 minutes.
- Reception of salt-bearing tools.
- For the fastest elimination of toxic substances, infusion therapy is prescribed with the introduction of diuretics, and the patient is provided with a copious drink.
- If there is a violation of breathing or cardiovascular function, it is advisable to use adrenaline, analeptics and cardiac glycosides.
Poisoning with antidepressants is also a frequent cause of drug poisoning. Among this group of drugs, all known drugs amitriptyline, imizine, and fluocyclin, which can lead to death, with a single use of more than 1 g of substance. Symptoms of poisoning with antidepressants are as follows: hallucinations, psychomotor agitation, dilatation of the eye pupils, dry mouth, sharp decrease in body temperature to critical parameters, stopping of cardiac and respiratory function. The victim must necessarily be hospitalized, pre-medical care consists of such procedures:
- gastric lavage to clean wash water with a weak solution of sodium hydrogencarbonate;
- siphon enema or brine;
- preparations sorbing harmful substances;
- antidote for poisoning with antidepressants - a drug physostigmine, which, with intravenous administration, normalizes blood pressure and pulse.
Poisoning with tranquilizers (Relanium, Seduxen, Andaxin, Nitrazepam) occurs with uncontrolled admission of these drugs, which have a sedative, soothing effect. This group of drugs is very quickly absorbed from the digestive tract and connects with blood proteins. The clinical picture of poisoning with tranquilizers is manifested by dry mouth, heart rhythm disturbance and lowering of arterial pressure, muscle weakness and trembling of limbs. If you do not help in time, then the symptoms of the disorder of the central nervous system, cardiovascular and respiratory systems increase. To provide qualified medical assistance, the injured person should be hospitalized or called an ambulance team. To facilitate the patient's condition is recommended:
- rinse the gastrointestinal tract with plenty of clean water;
- give a salt-bearing or put a siphon enema;
- give activated carbon at the rate of 1 tablet per 10 kg of weight;
- in hospital appoint infusion therapy with the use of diuretics;
- if necessary, appoint cardiac glycosides and drugs that support the respiratory system.
Poisoning with CNS stimulants . The most common drug that stimulates the central nervous system is caffeine, dangerous to health, the dose of which is 1 g, and the lethal dose is 20 g. When this drug is poisoned, an excited state of the patient is observed, a violation of sleep and vital activity, the condition is aggravated by hallucinations, a violation of the function of the heart. The patient should be hospitalized, as soon as possible, rinse the stomach with soda solution and a suspension of activated carbon, put a siphon enema. To stop the seizure, injections of aminazine or diphenhydramine on a solution of novocaine are used. If necessary, cardiovascular resuscitation is prescribed.
Morphine drug poisoning develops with intravenous injection of a large amount of narcotic drug 0.1-0.2 g. Poisoning is manifested by depression of the function of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, narrowing of the eye pupils, lowering arterial pressure to critical indices, and a shallow coma. To provide first aid, gastric lavage is used with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, activated carbon and a salt-bearing agent. After repeated gastric lavage, appoint infusion therapy, forced diuresis and intravenous injection of a 0.5% solution of nalorphine 1-3 ml.
Poisoning with salicylates is observed with an overdose of acetylsalicylic acid and its analogues. The lethal dose for adults is 40-50 g, for children - 10 g. The first symptom when using salicylates is burning pain along the esophagus, stomach, multiple vomiting and diarrhea with an admixture of blood particles. There is also dizziness, general weakness, visual and hearing impairments. Everyone knows, the ability of aspirin to dilute blood, so when poisoning with salicylates there is a threat of bleeding. For the treatment of the patient you need to be taken to the hospital, where he will undergo alkaline washing of the stomach and intestines, copious alkaline drink and intravenous infusion of soda solution for infusion. To neutralize the effect of acetylsalicylic acid and its analogs, it is recommended to take up to 1 g of ascorbic acid per day or its intravenous injection together with glucose solution.
Poisoning with an antiseptic drug - iodine, is observed when ingested up to 2-3 g of antiseptic solution. Symptoms of poisoning with this drug: staining the mucous membranes of the mouth and tongue in a yellowish-brown color, vomiting and diarrhea with blue calves, runny nose and allergic skin rash, convulsions , coma. To provide first aid, the victim is given a solution of starch or flour paste, a large amount of mucous drink and fresh milk. Also, inside give a drink of 200-300 ml of sodium thiosulfate, if necessary, conduct symptomatic treatment of the gastrointestinal burn.
Poisoning by fungi occurs more often during the mushroom season. Poisonous in nature mushrooms there are not so few, about 100 species that can lead to death in the first few hours after ingestion. The most poisonous in our region are pale toadstool and fly agaric, these kinds of mushrooms are familiar in appearance to everyone. But the special danger is contained in the edible species of fungi that have grown in adverse environmental conditions and have absorbed harmful pesticides, herbicides, salts of heavy metals. The first symptoms of fungal poisoning appear within the first two days, medicine knows cases of manifestation of the disease and after 6 days. Poisoning is manifested by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, profuse urination, dry mouth, thirst, convulsive twitching of the extremities. After the appearance of the first symptoms 2-3 days pass, when the patient feels considerable relief, but do not rejoice, because after 7-10 days the patient has violations of the liver, kidneys, cardiovascular systems and a lethal outcome occurs in 40% of cases. To provide emergency care for acute fungal poisoning apply:
- gastric lavage and siphon enema will help to remove toxic products from the body as soon as possible;
- of sorbents, activated carbon is most often used (according to the proportion of 1 tablet - 10 kg of weight);
- in the hospital appoint forced diuresis (intravenous injection of a large amount of saline and glucose solution, followed by diuretics such as furosemide or lazix);
- lost fluid is replenished with the help of droppers and heavy drink;
- according to indications, it is carried out by artificial ventilation, cardiovascular resuscitation and hemodialysis.
Poisoning by toxic substances of household chemicals occurs by inhalation, ingestion or skin contact of products containing alkali, acid or chlorine. All these substances toxic to the human body are part of most household cleaning and cleaning products. When working with these substances should follow the rules of personal protection, if all the same toxins were in the body, then you should take several important measures that save the life of the victim:
- call an ambulance "103";
- depending on where the chemical is ingested, the stomach, intestines or mucous membrane and skin are washed, with plenty of clean water;
- after washing the stomach it is recommended to drink activated charcoal, 1-2 raw egg whites, a glass of milk or a couple of spoons of sunflower oil;
- when poisoning with acids, it is recommended to wash the stomach with a weak solution of soda, but when poisoning with alkali, the antidote is acid (2% citric acid solution).
The poisoning with salts of heavy metals occurs when salts of metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium, copper, bismuth enter the body. All these substances are a part of many industrial organic and inorganic compounds, as well as a component of many poisons used in horticulture and gardening. In the human body, these toxic substances get through the skin, mucous membranes and with food. The danger of this type of poisoning lies in the fact that they accumulate in tissues and organs, gradually killing healthy cells and disrupting the function of many organs and systems. Symptoms of poisoning with salts of heavy metals are weakness, dizziness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, and CNS disruption are associated with these symptoms. To provide first aid, it is necessary to wash the stomach and intestines with plenty of clean water, give enterosorbents, drink plenty, if necessary, prescribe forced diuresis and correct functions of organs and systems with the help of the necessary medications. Also renew the functions of all organs and systems will help a gentle balanced and vitaminized diet.
Alcohol poisoning develops with a single use of a large, toxic for the body, the amount of alcohol. Symptoms of alcohol intoxication are manifested by the patient's excited state, euphoria, unhealthy gleam in the eyes, dilated pupils, hyperemia of the skin and a violation of the central nervous system. If the victim does not receive timely medical assistance, alcohol intoxication can go to the alcoholic coma, which directly poses a threat to the patient's further health and life. First you need to call an emergency ambulance, and before the doctors arrive, you must rinse the stomach to the patient, give enterosorbents, quickly bring the patient into consciousness with ammonia, whose vapors need to be inhaled. Doctors hospitalize the victim in the hospital, where a thorough washing of the stomach with a probe, intestinal lavage, forced diuresis and symptomatic treatment will be performed.
Food poisoning is the most common type of poisoning, which is especially popular in the spring-summer period, when high air temperature promotes rapid souring and fermentation of food. Poisoning is caused by eating contaminated food. All food poisoning is divided into: bacterial and non-bacterial. After eating poor-quality food, there is a sharp pain in the abdomen, which is replaced by nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, lack of appetite, fever and chills. In especially severe cases, the liver, kidneys and central nervous system may be damaged. It is necessary to apply to a medical institution for obtaining highly qualified medical care. At home, before the arrival of a doctor, the victim needs to be:
- gastric lavage with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or soda, to clean wash water;
- Inside take enterosorbents, it is possible to suspend activated carbon;
- compensate for the loss of water with the help of abundant drink of mors, alkaline mineral water, a solution of the rehydrone;
- Before the arrival of a doctor, the patient needs to provide hunger and peace;
- in the hospital according to the indications prescribe forced diuresis, antibiotic therapy, detoxification therapy.
Never need to ignore the symptoms of poisoning, relying on the fact that it will pass, the symptoms may well go away, but the consequences can remain for the rest of your life. Only under the supervision of medical staff can you remove toxins from the body, restore the function of organs and systems, so you should never ignore medical help and advice.
Prevention of poisoning
Most of all poisoning happens because of inattentive and careless attitude to their health. In order to avoid such health problems, it is necessary to adhere to a number of simple rules in everyday life.
- Perform basic rules of personal hygiene.
- Maintain a satisfactory sanitary condition in kitchens, in living quarters and in the workplace.
- When working with dangerous and poisonous substances, wear personal protective equipment: gloves, special protective goggles, special clothing.
- Drug medications should be stored out of the reach of children, and they should be used strictly on the advice of the doctor in charge.
- Never eat unknown and dubious food.
- Fruits, vegetables and berries wash in plenty of clean water.
- Mushrooms eat only edible and properly cooked, if you do not understand anything in it, better exclude mushrooms from your diet.
- Perishable food is stored in the refrigerator, do not use after the expiration date.
- Eat healthy and natural food.
- To lead a correct and healthy way of eating and living, eliminating bad habits (smoking, drinking alcohol).