Go Poisoning: symptoms, treatment, first aid for poisoning
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Symptoms of poisoning Very often, people can hear the diagnosis "Poisoning." What this diagnosis implies, what principles of treatment, diagnosis and emergency care exist, everyone should know about it.

Poisoning is the "collective" name of the disease, which implies dysfunction of the organs and systems of the human body, due to the action of toxic (toxic) substances. There are two types of poisoning:

  • acute poisoning, which is characterized by the ingestion of a large amount of poison;
  • chronic poisoning, prolonged exposure to toxic substances in small doses.

Causes of poisoning can be different substances, but most often it is:

  • medication;
  • toxic substances of animal and vegetable origin;
  • toxic household chemicals (acids, alkalis, detergents and cleaning products);
  • industrial toxic substances (glue, varnish, paint, solvent);
  • fertilizers and pesticides used in gardening and horticulture;
  • tobacco and alcohol;
  • substandard or expired food.

Symptoms of poisoning

Depending on the substance that caused the poisoning, the symptoms may be different, but there is a symptom complex, indicating toxic substances in the body:

  • nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia;
  • visual impairment, hearing, coordination of movements;
  • the color of the skin changes;
  • there may be both hypothermia and hyperthermia;
  • disorders of the respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems.

Principles of first aid for poisoning

The tactics of managing patients with any kind of poisoning includes a complex of therapeutic measures:

  • Immediate hospitalization of the victim in the inpatient unit.
  • Detoxify the body as quickly as possible, removing toxic substances.
  • Conduct specific therapy by applying an antidote to the poison.
  • Symptomatic treatment.

Before the arrival of the ambulance brigade, a number of procedures must be done to alleviate the patient’s condition:

  1. Call the ambulance "103"!
  2. Before the arrival of the ambulance, it is necessary to neutralize the toxic effect of the poison as much as possible: wash the skin, wash the stomach, you can apply salt-carrying, give enterosorbent (activated carbon, sorbex, enterosgel).
  3. Before the arrival of the doctors, it is necessary to provide the patient with hunger and peace.

After providing the PNP to the victim, he should immediately be taken to the nearest inpatient medical facility. One should not forget that the life and health of the victim depends on the speed of actions!

Poisoning with drugs

Most often, this type of poisoning happens to young children who take multi-colored pills for tasty candy, or when attempting suicide.

Poisoning with barbiturates (hypnotic drugs ) occurs when using these drugs by mouth, at a dose exceeding therapeutic 10 times or more. The peculiarity of these drugs is that they are very quickly completely absorbed in the digestive tract. An overdose of such drugs as barbital, phenobarbital, tardil, brobital leads to depression of the central nervous system, kidney function and respiratory system suffers. Fatalities occur due to acute circulatory disorders and paralysis of the respiratory center. Intoxication in case of poisoning with barbiturates has 4 stages:

  • The first stage is characterized by drowsiness, indifference, but in this stage it is still possible to establish contact with the victim.
  • The second stage is accompanied by loss of consciousness, sticking of the tongue and violation of swallowing, also during this period there is an increase in body temperature to 40 0 .
  • The third stage is accompanied by immersion of the patient in a deep coma, the activity of the respiratory system and the central nervous system is disturbed.
  • The fourth stage is a way out of a coma, in which there is a psychomotor agitation, excessive emotionality, tearfulness.

Health and a favorable outcome for the affected person depend on the decisiveness of the actions and the timeliness of first aid. The first thing to do is to call the ambulance or hospitalize the patient in the hospital. First aid includes washing the stomach, drinking plenty of water, taking sorbents. In the hospital, a number of medical procedures will be applied to the victim:

  • Washing the stomach to clean water.
  • Acceptance of activated carbon, which must be removed from the body in 15-20 minutes.
  • Reception of salt carrying means.
  • For the rapid elimination of toxic substances, infusion therapy with the administration of diuretics is prescribed, and the patient is provided with abundant drinking.
  • In case of impaired respiration or cardiovascular function, it is advisable to use adrenaline, analeptics, and cardiac glycosides.

Antidepressant poisoning is also a common cause of drug poisoning. Among this group of drugs, the well-known drugs amitriptyline, imizine, fluoracyzine, which can be fatal, with a single use of more than 1 g of the substance. Symptoms of antidepressant poisoning include the following: hallucinations, psychomotor agitation, dilated eye pupils, dry mouth, a sharp drop in body temperature to critical parameters, cardiac and respiratory function arrest. The victim must be hospitalized, first aid consists of the following procedures:

  • washing the stomach to clean wash water with a weak solution of sodium bicarbonate;
  • siphon enema or salt carrying means;
  • drugs sorbing harmful substances;
  • An antidote for antidepressant poisoning is a physostigmine, which, when administered intravenously, normalizes blood pressure and pulse.

Poisoning with tranquilizers (Relanium, Seduxen, Andaksin, Nitrazepam) occurs when uncontrolled administration of these drugs, which have a sedative, sedative effect. This group of drugs is very rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is connected to blood proteins. The clinical picture of tranquilizer poisoning is manifested by dry mouth, heart rhythm disturbances and low blood pressure, muscle weakness and trembling of the extremities. If time does not provide assistance, then the symptoms of a disorder of the central nervous system, cardiovascular and respiratory systems increase. In order to provide qualified medical assistance to the victim, it is necessary to hospitalize or call an ambulance brigade. To alleviate the condition of the patient is recommended:

  • wash the digestive tract with plenty of clean water;
  • give a salt piercing or siphon enema;
  • give activated carbon at the rate of 1 tablet per 10 kg of weight;
  • in the hospital prescribed infusion therapy with diuretics;
  • if necessary, prescribe cardiac glycosides and drugs that support the respiratory system.

Poisoning with CNS stimulants . The most common drug that stimulates the central nervous system is caffeine, which is hazardous to health, the dose of which is 1 g, and the lethal dose - 20 g. In case of poisoning with this drug, an excited state of the patient, disturbed sleep and vital activity is observed, the state is aggravated by hallucinations, impaired heart function. The patient needs to be hospitalized, as soon as possible to wash the stomach with soda solution and a suspension of activated carbon, put a siphon enema. For relief of seizure seizures, aminazine or dimedrol injections are used on novocaine solution. If necessary, prescribe cardiovascular resuscitation.

Poisoning with narcotic drugs of the morphine group develops with the intravenous administration of a large amount of a narcotic drug of 0.1-0.2 g. Poisoning is manifested by inhibition of the function of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, constriction of the eye pupils, a decrease in blood pressure to critical values, a shallow coma. For first aid, gastric lavage is applied with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, activated carbon, and a salt-carrying agent. After repeated washes of the stomach, infusion therapy is prescribed, forced diuresis and intravenous administration of 0.5% solution of nalorphine 1-3 ml.

Salicylate poisoning occurs with an overdose of acetylsalicylic acid and its analogues. Lethal dose for adults is 40-50 g, for children - 10 g. The first symptom of salicylate use is burning pain along the esophagus, stomach, repeated vomiting and diarrhea with an admixture of blood particles. Dizziness, general weakness, visual and hearing impairment are also observed. Everyone knows the ability of aspirin to thin the blood, so when poisoning with salicylates there is a risk of bleeding. For treatment, the patient must be taken to a hospital, where he will undergo an alkaline lavage of the stomach and intestines, abundant alkaline drinking and intravenous administration of soda solution for infusion. To neutralize the effect of acetylsalicylic acid and its analogues, it is recommended to take up to 1 g of ascorbic acid per day or its intravenous administration together with a glucose solution.

Poisoning with an antiseptic drug - iodine, is observed when ingested up to 2-3 g of an antiseptic solution. Symptoms of poisoning with this drug: staining of the mucous membranes of the mouth and tongue in the yellow-brown color, vomiting and diarrhea blue stool masses, runny nose and allergic skin rash, convulsions , coma. For the provision of first emergency aid, the victim is given to drink a solution of starch or paste from flour, a large amount of mucous drink and fresh milk. Also, inside they give 200-300 ml of sodium thiosulfate to drink, and if necessary, symptomatic treatment of the gastrointestinal tract is carried out.

Mushroom poisoning increasingly occurs during the mushroom season. Poisonous in nature mushrooms, there are not so few, about 100 species that can be fatal in the first few hours after consumption. The pale toadstool and amanita are considered the most poisonous in our area, these species of mushrooms are familiar in appearance to everyone. But edible species of mushrooms, which have grown in adverse environmental conditions and have nourished harmful pesticides, herbicides, and salts of heavy metals, are particularly dangerous. The first symptoms of mushroom poisoning appear during the first two days, the medicine shows cases of the manifestation of the disease and after 6 days. Poisoning is manifested by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abundant urination, dryness of the oral mucosa, thirst, and convulsive twitching of the extremities. After the appearance of the first symptoms, it takes 2-3 days, when the patient feels significant relief, but you should not be happy, because after 7-10 days the patient has an abnormal liver, kidney, cardiovascular system and death occurs in 40% of cases. To provide emergency care for acute mushroom poisoning use:

  • gastric lavage and siphon enema will help to remove toxic products from the body as soon as possible;
  • Of the sorbents, activated carbon is most often used (according to the proportion 1 tablet per 10 kg of weight);
  • in the hospital prescribed forced diuresis (intravenous administration of a large amount of saline and glucose solution, after which diuretics such as furosemide or lasix) are prescribed;
  • lost liquid is replenished with droppers and heavy drinking;
  • according to indications carry out IVL, cardiovascular resuscitation and hemodialysis.

Poisoning toxic substances household chemicals occurs by inhalation, ingestion or on the skin of products containing alkali, acid or chlorine. All of these substances that are toxic to the human body are found in the composition of most household cleaning products and detergents. When working with these substances, you should follow the rules of personal protection, but if toxins are still in the body, then several important measures should be taken to save the life of the victim:

  • call the ambulance brigade "103";
  • depending on where the chemical agent is used, the stomach, intestines or mucous membranes and the skin are washed with plenty of pure water;
  • after washing the stomach, it is recommended to drink activated charcoal, 1-2 raw egg whites, a glass of milk or a couple of spoons of sunflower oil;
  • in case of acid poisoning, it is recommended to wash the stomach with a weak soda solution, while in case of alkali poisoning, the antidote is acid (2% citric acid solution).

Poisoning by salts of heavy metals occurs when salts of metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium, copper, bismuth are ingested. All of these substances are part of many industrial organic and inorganic compounds, as well as a component of many poisons used in horticulture and gardening. These toxic substances enter the human body through the skin, mucous membranes and with food. The danger of this type of poisoning is that they accumulate in tissues and organs, gradually killing healthy cells and disrupting the function of many organs and systems. Symptoms of poisoning with salts of heavy metals are weakness, dizziness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, disruption of the central nervous system are associated with these symptoms. For first aid, it is necessary to flush the stomach and intestines with large amounts of clean water, give enterosorbents to take, drink plenty of liquids, and if necessary, prescribe forced diuresis and correct the functions of organs and systems with the help of the necessary medication. A gentle balanced and fortified diet will also help to resume the functions of all organs and systems.

Alcohol poisoning develops with a single use of a large, toxic for the body, the amount of alcohol. Symptoms of alcohol intoxication are manifested by the agitated state of the victim, euphoria, unhealthy shine in the eyes, dilated pupils, hyperemia of the skin and dysfunction of the central nervous system. If the victim does not receive timely medical care, alcohol intoxication can turn into an alcoholic coma, which is a direct threat to the patient’s future health and life. First you need to call the ambulance brigade, and before the doctors arrive, you must flush the stomach of the patient, give enterosorbents, and ammonia, the vapors of which you need to inhale, will quickly bring the patient to consciousness. Doctors hospitalize the victim to a hospital where they will thoroughly wash the stomach with a probe, intestinal lavage, forced diuresis and symptomatic treatment.

Food poisoning is the most common type of poisoning, which is especially popular in the spring-summer period, when the high temperature of the air contributes to the rapid souring and fermentation of food. Poisoning caused by eating contaminated spoiled food. All food poisonings are divided into: bacterial and non-bacterial. After eating poor-quality food there is a sharp pain in the abdomen, which is replaced by nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, lack of appetite, fever and chills. In severe cases, possible violation of the liver, kidneys and central nervous system. It is imperative to contact a medical institution for obtaining highly qualified medical assistance. At home, before the arrival of the doctor, the victim needs to do:

  • washing the stomach with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or soda, to clean wash water;
  • inside take enterosorbents, you can suspension of activated carbon;
  • to compensate for the loss of water using abundant drinking of fruit drinks, alkaline mineral water, rehydron solution;
  • before the arrival of the doctor, the patient needs to ensure hunger and peace;
  • in the hospital according to the indications prescribed forced diuresis, antibiotic therapy, detoxification therapy.

You should never ignore the symptoms of poisoning, relying on the fact that it will go away, the symptoms can and will pass, but the consequences can remain for the rest of your life. Only under the supervision of medical staff can toxins from the body, restore the function of organs and systems, so you should never ignore medical help and advice.

Prevention of poisoning

Most of all poisonings occur due to inattention and neglect of their health. In order to avoid such health problems, it is necessary to follow a number of simple rules in everyday life.

  1. Follow the basic rules of personal hygiene.
  2. Maintain a satisfactory sanitary condition in kitchens, in residential areas and in the workplace.
  3. When working with hazardous and toxic substances, wear personal protective equipment: gloves, special protective glasses, and a special form of clothing.
  4. Drug medications should be kept out of the reach of children, and they should be used strictly according to the recommendation of the attending physician.
  5. Never eat unknown and questionable food.
  6. Wash fruits, vegetables and berries in plenty of clean water.
  7. Грибы употреблять только съедобные и правильно приготовленные, если сами не понимаете в этом ничего, лучше исключите грибы из своего рациона.
  8. Скоропортящуюся пищу хранить в холодильнике, не употреблять по истечению срока годности.
  9. Питаться здоровой и натуральной пищей.
  10. Вести правильный и здоровый образ питания и жизни, исключив вредные привычки (табакокурение, употребление алкоголя).

    9 Декабрь 2014 | 11 136 | Uncategorized