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Quincke edema: symptoms and treatment


Angioedema, more commonly known as Quincke edema, was given its popular name in honor of the German physician Heinrich Quincke, who first described this dangerous condition in 1882. Indeed, in some cases it represents a direct threat to life. That is why it is so important to know about what constitutes angioedema, for whom there is a high risk of its occurrence and what to do when symptoms of the disease appear.

Quincke edema: what is it?

Edema Quinche photo Quincke edema is a disease of an allergic nature, which manifests itself through the occurrence of pronounced edema of the skin, subcutaneous tissue and mucous epithelium. The pathology is usually fixed in the following areas of the body:

  • face;
  • neck;
  • brushes;
  • upper torso;
  • feet.

Much less often, edema develops on internal organs, joints and even the membranes of the brain.

Angioedema can affect absolutely any person. However, there is a group of people most prone to the disease - we are talking about allergies. And much more often than in older people and men, pathology develops in children (the exception is infants, in whom such edema is extremely rare, although it is possible) and young women.

Causes of angioedema

There are two types of angioedema - allergic and pseudo-allergic. And they differ in the reasons causing a dangerous condition.

If we are talking about allergic angioedema, then in this case the “culprit” is a specific allergen that has entered the body of a person suffering from allergies. Then massive edema becomes a kind of response to the stimulus. Usually, the described condition is combined with such diseases and illnesses as hay fever, bronchial asthma, food allergies, urticaria .

In the case of pseudo-allergic angioedema, the cause of the pathology is congenital defects of the complement system - a group of proteins that take part in the formation of primary immune and allergic reactions. Normally, these proteins are in peace, and are activated only when ingested allergen. If there are defects in their structure, the complement system works either spontaneously or in response to thermal, chemical and cold stimuli.

Quincke edema: symptoms

Edema quinta symptoms photo Signs of angioedema are not likely to go unnoticed. Indeed, the very first of them is a rapid and sharp swelling of the skin, subcutaneous tissue and mucous epithelium on the affected area, visible to the naked eye. As a rule, the skin in these areas does not initially change its natural hue, and a little later it becomes visibly pale.

Most often, angioedema is localized on the lips, tongue, eyelids, cheeks and larynx (the most dangerous case).

Patients usually do not feel itching, but they are worried about pain and burning. Patients at the time of edema feel unpleasant tension, an increase in the tonsils, soft palate and tongue.

The greatest danger is the spread of the pathological process on the mucous membrane of the larynx, as well as on the pharynx and trachea, which creates obstacles to normal breathing. Meanwhile, according to statistics, this condition occurs in every fourth person suffering from angioedema. His signs are hoarseness, noisy difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, barking cough and, as a result, first a sharp reddening of the patient's skin, and then their unnatural pallor, expressed anxiety of the patient, even fainting is not excluded. In the absence of urgent professional due care, the patient quickly falls into a hypocapnic coma, after which there is a high risk of death due to lack of oxygen.

In cases where angioedema affects the gastrointestinal tract, its symptoms are sharp abdominal pain, as well as vomiting and diarrhea. When edema develops in the meninges, there are neurological signs: hemiplegia, aphasia, epileptiform seizures, etc.

Quincke's edema: help at the first signs

Immediately, as soon as there is a suspicion of angioedema, you must call the doctor. Before his arrival, the patient must be given first aid, which includes the following activities:

  • barrier to contact with the allergen (for example, if it is an insect bite, then the sting should be removed first);
  • ensuring the supply of clean fresh air to the room where the patient is located;
  • sedation of the victim;
  • release of the victim from cramped clothing, belt, belt, tie;
  • removal from the patient's body of the allergen through abundant otpaivanija person and taking them sorbents - the same activated carbon;
  • instillation in the nose of the affected vasoconstrictor drops, which are only at hand;
  • the application of a cold compress to the affected area and preferably a rope to the place above it - if the edema occurred in response to an injection of a medicine or an insect bite;
  • taking the appropriate antihistamine.

Emergency help with angioedema is accompanied by such actions as:

  • detoxification therapy: hemosorption, enterosorption, etc .;
  • hormone therapy (administration of prednisone intravenously or intramuscularly);
  • desensitization therapy (intramuscular injection of suprastin);
  • use of diuretics;
  • use of protease inhibitors.

And, of course, the patient with all this needs urgent hospitalization in the department of allergology. Quincke's edema, especially its severe forms - a condition requiring urgent skilled care. Sometimes the bill goes on for just a minute.

Diagnosis of angioedema

First of all, the doctor conducts an examination in order to get acquainted with the existing symptoms. In addition, the reaction of edema to the administration of adrenaline is taken into account.

The next step is to establish the cause of the pathology. As a rule, it is enough to interview the patient as to what allergic diseases are present in his or her family history, what is his body’s reaction to the use of various products, the administration of medicines, and contact with animals. Sometimes specific blood tests and allergy tests are required to find the cause.

Treatment of angioedema

In the event of edema development in the pharynx, larynx or trachea, emergency hospitalization of the victim is required, followed by treatment in resuscitation or intensive care unit.

In general, treatment of angioedema is carried out in several directions.

  • The exclusion from the life of the victim of all potentially dangerous allergens. Specific recommendations are given after identifying the exact cause of edema. In this case, the patient is asked to refuse to eat foods rich in natural salicylates (raspberries, cherries, strawberries, peaches, apples, grapes, strawberries, apricots, plums, tomatoes, carrots, potatoes), as well as using certain medications, such as as pentalgin, tsitramon, baralgin, paracetamol, indomethacin and others.
  • Drug therapy. This direction of treatment is the appointment of antihistamines and corticosteroids by the attending physician. In the presence of hypersensitivity to individual food products, in order to reduce it, the use of enzyme preparations, such as, for example, festal, is used.
  • Lifestyle correction. Persons who have experienced angioedema should stop smoking, alcohol abuse, and these patients are advised to avoid stressful situations, overheating, and hypothermia.

In order to protect a person who in the past has suffered from severe angioedema, he is recommended to always keep a syringe with an adrenaline solution with him.

Possible complications of angioedema

As mentioned above, the most dangerous complication of Quincke edema, affecting the larynx or trachea, is asphyxiation, leading to coma, and, possibly, disability or death.

If the edema is localized in the gastrointestinal tract, then a complication in the form of peritonitis is not excluded, as well as increased intestinal motility and dyspeptic disorders can be observed.

If the urogenital system is affected, the complication can manifest itself through the symptoms of acute cystitis and the development of urinary retention.

Edema on the face is the most alarming, since, if present, there is a possibility of damage to the brain or its membranes, accompanied by the appearance of labyrinth systems and meningeal symptoms - all of which represent a direct threat to life.

Quincke's edema in children

Quincke's edema in children is a fairly common phenomenon. Moreover, in such young patients the pathological process has its own characteristics.

First, edema in children can reach quite large sizes. In addition, it has a migratory nature, that is, it is capable of arising in one place or another, as if moving. If you feel the swelling, it will be quite dense and homogeneous. When you click on it does not appear indentation. About 50% of cases of angioedema in children is accompanied by the appearance of urticaria.

Especially dangerous for patients of tender age is swelling of the throat and larynx. After all, all the pathological processes in a child develop more rapidly than in an adult, therefore at the slightest suspicion it is so important, without losing a single second, to immediately call an ambulance.

If Quincke’s edema has affected the child’s gastrointestinal tract, then the patient will most likely be disturbed by sharp pains in the stomach, tingling of the tongue and palate, as well as diarrhea and vomiting, which appear a little later.

Even if the swelling develops exclusively on the skin, children can suffer from fever and severe pain in the joints. In addition, in this case, increased excitement of the child is not excluded, and it is even possible to faint.

The parents of each allergic child should know the most common causes of life-threatening angioedema in children:

  • taking certain medications: antibiotics (in particular, penicillin), anti- spasmodic drugs, acetylsalicylic acid, iodine-containing drugs, B vitamins;
  • individual foods that provoke allergies in a particular child, as well as various food additives that may be present in some foods: for example, a number of dangerous preservatives and dyes are found in sausages, exotic fish dishes, juices, cheese, etc .;
  • insect bites;
  • pollen released during the flowering period of some plants.

Quincke's edema: how to prevent

People, especially those predisposed to allergic reactions, should observe some preventive measures that will prevent the development of such dangerous condition as angioedema.

First, you must always follow a strict diet. In this case, allergens should be excluded not only from the diet, but also in general from the human environment (in particular, this also applies to domestic animals). However, doing the latter is not always in the will of a particular person suffering from allergies. Therefore, in cases where it is impossible to protect oneself from contact with irritants (for example, during the flowering of a plant), antihistamines should be taken.

Patients suffering from an increased sensitivity to insect bites should not forget about repellents in their respective seasons. In addition, they should avoid wearing at this time clothes of bright colors - it is very attractive mosquitoes, bees and wasps. And, of course, you should not walk barefoot on the street, even in summer.

Parents whose child is prone to allergies need not only to restrict their child from contact with sensitizers in every possible way, but also to maintain perfect cleanliness in the house so that, as they say, there is not a speck of dust in the corners. In addition, it is important to regularly ventilate the rooms, often carry out wet cleaning in them and ensure the optimum level of humidity and temperature in the dwelling.

    | November 5, 2014 | | 4 619 | Uncategorized