Go Acute laryngitis, symptoms and treatment of acute laryngitis
medicine online

Acute laryngitis


Acute laryngitis Acute laryngitis , popularly called false croup, is common in both children and adults. How to diagnose and treat this disease everyone should know.

Acute laryngitis is an inflammatory disease of the larynx, which is characterized by loss of voice and barking paroxysmal cough. Despite the fact that this disease responds well to treatment, do not delay or neglect the advice of a doctor in order not to earn a lot of unpleasant complications.

Causes of acute laryngitis

The main cause of acute inflammation of the larynx is viruses that cause acute infectious diseases (influenza, scarlet fever , diphtheria ). Another common cause of laryngitis is overstrain of ligaments, mechanical and chemical irritation.

In the normal state, the vocal cords function easily and resiliently, they open and tighten smoothly, and the sound is reproduced with vibration. When inflammation of the ligaments become rough and swollen, with the voice hoarse, and then maybe even a gulf (aphonia).

In adults, the cause of laryngitis in addition to infection can be:

  • ulceration of the vocal cord,
  • neoplasms on the mucous membrane of the ligaments (nodules, polyps),
  • chronic diseases of ENT organs (sinusitis, sinusitis, adenoids ),
  • paralysis of the vocal cords due to stroke, injury or malignant neoplasm,
  • age changes.

Factors contributing to the development of acute laryngitis:

  • hypothermia
  • unhealthy habits (smoking, alcoholism),
  • unbalanced nutrition, obesity,
  • overstrain of the vocal cords,
  • inhalation of air contaminated with dust and chemicals
  • harmful working conditions
  • reduced body defense.

In most cases, the causative agent of this disease are such microorganisms:

  • Staphylococcus,
  • streptococcus,
  • Pneumococcus,
  • hemolytic and Staphylococcus aureus ,
  • catarrhal micrococcus.

It is possible that several types of microorganism can cause laryngitis at the same time. For acute laryngitis is characterized by outbreaks of micro-epidemic, most often occurring in organized children's groups.

How is acute laryngitis?

Regardless of the etiological factor, the pathogenesis of the disease looks like this:

  1. The initial stage is manifested by hyperemia of the mucous membrane due to its defeat by viruses or microorganisms.
  2. In the inflamed mucosa, the vessels are dilated, exudate submucous transudate, leukocyte infiltration.
  3. After the appearance of the transudate, an exudate appears, which may be of a slimy or purulent character, sometimes with blood particles.
  4. Intoxication from the inflammatory process leads to edema of the mucous membrane of the vocal cords, which often leads to laryngeal stenosis in young children (false croup).

Symptoms of acute laryngitis

Acute laryngitis developing on the background of acute respiratory viral infections is characterized by an acute and abrupt onset. The first symptoms are tickling, dryness, irritation in the throat. After that, a pain component appears, which is enhanced by swallowing and pronouncing the sound. Appears hoarseness voice, which goes into a full aphonia (lack of voice). A barking paroxysmal cough occurs, which is accompanied by tearing pain. Often, when the first symptoms appear, there is hyperthermia of the body, chills, headache, symptoms of general malaise.

If acute laryngitis develops on the background of acute respiratory viral infections, very often the inflammatory process covers both the upper and lower parts of the respiratory system, capturing the bronchi and lungs. The acute clinical picture lasts 5-7 days, after which the symptoms of acute inflammation subside, and the vocal cords resume their function. After 12-15 days, the signs of inflammation disappear completely.

Diagnosis of acute laryngitis

In order to accurately diagnose and prescribe an adequate and effective treatment, the doctor must collect a detailed history, prescribe additional studies, conduct differential diagnostics.

  1. The first and most informative step in deciding the diagnosis is a thorough history taking (when the disease began, what is the reason, what symptoms bother you). After collecting this information, the doctor will proceed to an objective examination.
  2. Conducted general blood and urine tests will confirm the presence of an inflammatory process in the body (increase the number of leukocytes, ESR).
  3. Instrumental diagnostics for uncomplicated acute laryngitis is most often unclaimed. But if acute stenosing laryngitis has developed, then direct laryngoscopy should be performed. The laryngoscopic picture, in most cases, is represented by edema, hyperemia of the mucous membrane, narrowing of the laryngeal lumen by 50-75%. When fibrinous laryngitis will be visible whitish plaque, with hemorrhagic - hemorrhages on the mucous membrane.
  4. Radiographic examination of the chest organs plays an auxiliary function for differentiating the diagnosis.
  5. In carrying out the differentiation of the diagnosis, diseases such as acute respiratory viral infections and other infectious diseases (prodromal period), diphtheria, erysipelas, syphilis , allergic edema, a foreign body of the respiratory organs, and pharyngeal abscess should be excluded.

Tactics of management and treatment of patients with acute laryngitis

In the treatment of acute laryngitis, in addition to medical treatment, the creation of a therapeutic and protective regimen, diet food and a complex of rehabilitation measures play a huge role.

For patients with low-grade body temperature, bed rest is recommended. The temperature in the room should be 19-20 0 С, but it is necessary to humidify the air and periodically air the room. Be sure to warn the patient that he should talk as little as possible so as not to overstrain the vocal cords. But it is also impossible to completely end up from the conversation, because it can be a psychological trauma for the patient. Food during treatment should be balanced, gentle mechanical and thermal preparation. For the period of the disease, everything sharp, salty, sour, everything that may cause irritation of the larynx mucosa is completely excluded. For the fastest recovery, the patient needs to provide plenty of drink and warm, dry heat can be applied to the throat area.

As for medical treatment, it should be comprehensive and prescribed by a highly qualified doctor. The standard treatment regimen includes:

  1. Broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs ( amoxicillin , ospamox, augmentin). The combination of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid leads to good results. The drug is prescribed in a dose of 625-1000 mg (2 or 3 times a day). Usually relief from the use of these drugs occurs in 1-2 days. Also, fluoroquinolone preparations (doxycycline, levofloxacin) have good antibacterial efficacy.
  2. Considering that large doses of antibiotics are used for treatment, it is necessary to prescribe drugs that restore the intestinal microflora - probiotics (lactovit, bifiform, linex).
  3. for the symptomatic treatment preparations: for high body temperature - antipyretics (ibuprofen, aspirin, paracetamol, analgin) at Bole throat recommended by the topical application of aerosols (ingalipt, chlorophyllin, orasept, geksasprey), lozenges (Travisil, islamint, septolete, Falimint).
  4. If the cause of inflammation of the vocal cords has become a virus, then it is advisable to take antiviral drugs (anaferon, altabor, amixin, immunal, immunoflazid).
  5. Relieve the condition will help rinse decoction of chamomile, sage, to which you can add a little soda.
  6. Very often in young children, acute laryngitis is complicated by stenosis of the larynx (false croup). To relieve an acute attack, the patient must be hospitalized in the hospital for resuscitation.

Physiotherapy in the treatment of acute laryngitis

Depending on the phase of the disease, physiotherapy can vary:

  1. The first phase of the disease is characterized by dry cough, sore throat, hoarseness. To alleviate the condition of the first phase of the disease, dry heat is shown on the throat area, UHF procedures, mustard plaster on the soles and calf muscles, mustard baths for the legs. Aerosol injection of a lytic mixture, for the preparation of which for 1 inhalation you will need:
  • rr hydrocortisone 1.0;
  • 1% solution of Dimedrol 1.0;
  • 0.5% solution of novocaine 1.0.
  • physiological solution of sodium chloride 1.0.
  1. In the second phase of acute laryngitis, inhalations with soda or alkaline mineral waters like Borzhomi, Polyana Kvasova, Essentuki No. 4 are very effective.
  2. At the third stage of inflammation of the vocal cords, special attention should be paid to the restoration of their function. To do this, it is recommended to undergo a course of vibratory massage for the larynx and electrophoresis with calcium on the damaged area.

Recipes of traditional medicine in the treatment of acute laryngitis

In the treatment of laryngitis, as in the treatment of other diseases, do not forget about the very effective and natural recipes of traditional medicine. To relieve the condition and speed up the recovery will help herbal inhalations from the grass of the series and violets. To prepare the infusion, take 1 teaspoon of herbs and curl it with 500 ml of boiling water, infuse it for 50-60 minutes. You need to breathe in pairs of this infusion for 10-15 minutes. The course of procedures is 15-20.

Also suitable for inhalation essential oils of eucalyptus, sea buckthorn and sage.

A delicious and healthy cocktail prepared from decoction of anise, cognac and honey will suit your voice. To prepare this drug you will need:

  • purified water - 250ml
  • anise seed - 100g,
  • Cognac - 1 tablespoon,
  • honey - 2 tablespoons.

All the ingredients you need to mix well, take 1 teaspoon several times a day.

Complications in acute laryngitis

As mentioned above, acute laryngitis is treated quickly with timely and appropriately prescribed treatment. There are cases when the inflammatory process becomes chronic, in which periods of remission and exacerbation alternate. Acute laryngitis in young children, in which, due to the physiological structure of the organs of the respiratory system, the occurrence of attacks of acute respiratory failure is fraught with particular danger. Of all the possible complications of acute laryngitis, there are several types:

  • Diffuse laryngitis is an inflammatory process of the mucous membrane of the vestibule of the larynx and surrounding organs of the respiratory system.
  • Sublingual acute laryngitis is an inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane of the larynx, which is characterized by extensive symmetric edema in the sub-leaf section.
  • Acute laryngotracheitis or laryngotracheobronchitis is an inflammation of the vocal cords, which descends into the lower parts of the respiratory system and covers the trachea and bronchi.
  • Epiglottis - inflammation of the epiglottis, which covers the pagan-nadgorny folds, children under 7 years of age are most susceptible to this complication.
  • Malignant form of laryngotracheobronchitis is an inflammation of the lower parts of the respiratory system, in which, due to inflammatory processes in the mucous membrane, hemorrhagic sputum is observed.

Prevention of acute laryngitis

For the prevention of laryngitis, you must follow a few simple rules:

  • lead a healthy lifestyle,
  • to refuse from bad habits,
  • balanced and fortified food,
  • timely treatment of chronic foci of infection,
  • preventing contact with infection,
  • avoid injury and burns to the laryngeal mucosa,
  • control the load on the vocal cords.

| 5 December 2014 | | 5,727 | ENT diseases