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Acute cystitis


Acute cystitis Cystitis is an inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane of the bladder, which is characterized by frequent urination and severe pain at the end of bladder emptying. This disease is most common in girls and women. This is due to the anatomical structure of the urethra - in contrast to men, the representatives of the weaker sex have a wide and short urethra, which allows the pathogenic microflora to more easily penetrate the mucous membrane of the bladder and trigger the development of the inflammatory process.

Causes of Cystitis

The most common cause of inflammation in the bladder is the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms into the mucous membrane. The main causative agents of cystitis are staphylococci, E. coli, streptococci, mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas and other microorganisms.

It happens that an acute inflammatory process in the bladder develops as a result of surgical or instrumental intervention. In these cases, the causative agents of infection is gram-negative microflora, as well as Candida fungi, chlamydia and other microorganisms.

In men, a common cause of cystitis is inflammation of the prostate gland or stagnant processes in it.

Predisposing factors to the development of bladder inflammation include the following:

  • hypothermia;
  • sitting on a cold floor (especially dangerous for women during critical days);
  • rough sexual intercourse (in this case, doctors say about “honeymoon cystitis”);
  • abuse of spicy dishes that irritate the bladder mucosa;
  • frequent change of sexual partners;
  • pregnancy;
  • thrush in women.

Symptoms of acute cystitis

The onset of the disease is acute. The patient complains of the appearance of such symptoms:

  • nagging pain in the abdomen;
  • frequent and painful urination;
  • severe cutting pains during bladder emptying with a few drops of blood at the end;
  • chills and weakness;
  • feeling of not completely emptying the bladder;
  • sometimes urinary incontinence and spontaneous discharge from the urethra;
  • increase in body temperature (in rare cases, up to 37.0-37.5 degrees).

With the progression of the disease and the lack of adequate treatment, the urine may become turbid with blood. At the initial stage of the development of the inflammatory process, treatment is still possible at home, but in the absence of timely assistance and the progression of cystitis, the patient is referred for treatment to the hospital.

The patient must understand that the organs of the urinary system are closely interrelated, so the pathological process can spread to the kidneys and ureters. Sometimes the disease can turn into a chronic course with periods of exacerbation and remission. In order to avoid the development of complications and the transition of the disease to the chronic form, it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor at the first symptoms of cystitis.

Inflammation of the bladder in pregnant women

Cystitis development during pregnancy is not rarely observed, both in the early and late periods. The course of this disease during pregnancy is in itself considered to be complicated, since it is contraindicated intake of many drugs. Cystitis during pregnancy should be treated only in the hospital, as the risk of the spread of the inflammatory process to the kidneys is very high, and this is fraught with unfavorable conditions for the development of the fetus.

The main reason for the development of cystitis during pregnancy is the compression of the walls of the bladder by the growing uterus, as a result of which some urine is retained in the body and creates favorable conditions for the reproduction of bacterial microflora.

A woman should understand that she is responsible not only for her health, but also for the life of a growing fetus in the womb, therefore, the detection of the first symptoms of cystitis should be an occasion to immediately contact your obstetrician-gynecologist.

Acute cystitis in children

Cystitis can occur in children of almost any age, but most often the disease is detected in girls 5-6 years old. The main reason for the development of acute inflammation in the bladder are the anatomical features of the structure of the urogenital system, weak local protection of the mucous membrane of the bladder, the lack of endocrine function of the ovaries. In addition, a prerequisite for the development of cystitis in girls is improper washing of the external genital organs, when E. coli gets from the opening of the anus to the urethra. In order to avoid the development of cystitis in girls, the mother should either wash her daughter herself, or teach her to do it right - from front to back.

Frequent viral infections and weakening of immunity create excellent conditions for the reproduction of pathogenic microflora in the body and the development of cystitis.

Diagnosis of cystitis

Diagnosis of cystitis is based on a thorough collection of the patient's history, characteristic complaints and additional examinations.

  • A blood test - as a rule, acute cystitis does not cause significant changes in blood counts. Perhaps only a slight increase in ESR, as a sign of the inflammatory process in the body.
  • Urinalysis - is the most informative and important method for the diagnosis of inflammation of the bladder. A characteristic change in urine in cystitis is its turbidity, the identification of a large number of white blood cells, mucus, pus, bacteria and red blood cells. Changing the smell of urine to fetid and unpleasant means that the inflammatory process is very running.
  • Urine analysis according to Nechiporenko is an additional and highly informative method of research in cases of suspected cystitis. The patient must collect a medium portion of urine, the study of which allows for a more detailed study of the characteristics of the work of the urinary organs. This study is characterized by the determination of the form elements contained in 1 ml of urine. Counting uniform elements is carried out by a special apparatus in the laboratory. Normally, 1 ml of urine of a healthy person contains no more than 1000 red blood cells, 2000 white blood cells and 20 cylinders. With an acute inflammatory process in the bladder, these indicators increase several dozen times.

When collecting a urine test, it is necessary to first thoroughly clean the external genitalia, otherwise the results of the analysis will not be reliable. Important: women should not collect urine for analysis during critical days! In this case, the study should either be postponed or urine collected by a catheter, having previously closed the vagina with a cotton swab.

Treatment of acute cystitis

If a patient visits a doctor in a timely manner and carefully fulfills all his appointments, then the symptoms of cystitis disappear within 3-5 days from the start of therapy. Full recovery of the mucous membrane of the bladder occurs after about 7-10 days.

The main treatment for cystitis is the administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The dosage of the drug, the number of doses per day and the duration of the course of treatment are prescribed only by the doctor, based on the indicators of urine tests, the course of the disease, the general condition of the patient and the neglect of the process.

The most common drugs for the treatment of cystitis are penicillin antibiotics, norfloxacins, Biseptol. Treatment of cystitis in pregnant women depends on the duration of pregnancy and a number of other factors. Treatment of cystitis in pregnant women is strictly individual for each patient.

In addition to antibacterial drugs, antispasmodics and painkillers are prescribed to the patient.

Since the immunity in cystitis is often weakened, the patient is additionally prescribed vitamins and immunostimulants.

With strong painful attacks and rezah on the lower abdomen, you can apply a warm heating pad - this will ease the condition and relax the muscles of the bladder.

In addition to the medical treatment of cystitis, physiotherapy methods are widely used - UHF, iontophoresis, inductometry.

During an acute inflammatory process, it is recommended to drink at least 2-3 liters of fluid per day. Dried fruit compotes, cranberries, cranberries, raspberries, which have natural antiseptic properties, are excellent. You can drink plain mineral water without gas. High fluid intake helps flush out bacteria from the bladder in a natural way.

Diet for acute cystitis

During an acute inflammatory process in the bladder, the patient is advised to follow a special diet. It is to exclude products that irritate the mucous membrane from the diet - strong coffee, alcohol, spicy and fried foods, smoked meats, canned foods, pickles. Food should be light, steamed, boiled or stewed.

Folk treatment of cystitis

Among the popular methods of treatment of cystitis, the most effective are sessile baths with a decoction of chamomile, oak bark, sage, herbs, mother and stepmother.

At the initial stage of the inflammatory process a decoction of corn silk helps well. To do this, brew the grass, pour the broth into the bucket and sit over the steam. Make sure that the steam is not too hot, otherwise you can easily get burns of the mucous membrane and external genital organs!

Such thermal procedures and sedentary baths help to significantly reduce pain and pain in the lower abdomen.

Remember that folk remedies for the treatment of cystitis - it is very good, but only in conjunction with drugs, which the doctor prescribed. Otherwise, the lack of medical treatment of cystitis threatens the transition of the disease to the chronic form and the development of complications from the kidneys.

Complications of Acute Cystitis

The main complications of untreated cystitis are:

  • the transition of the disease to the chronic form of the course;
  • the spread of the inflammatory process in the kidneys;
  • gradual development of renal failure.

Chronic cystitis

If the treatment of acute cystitis was not commenced in a timely manner, or the patient independently stopped taking medications prescribed by the doctor, then the cystitis proceeds to the stage of chronic course. In this case, the acute manifestations of the disease, as a rule, subside, the patient mistakenly believes that a cure has occurred. However, after some time, under the influence of adverse environmental factors (hypothermia, rough sex, alcohol and spicy food), the disease is exacerbated with a new force, with more severe clinical symptoms that are already poorly amenable to antibiotic therapy. This is due to the development of resistance to the antibiotic pathogenic pathogen. Thus, cystitis will occur more often, and it will be more difficult to cure it.

Methods for the prevention of cystitis

To prevent the development of an acute inflammatory process in the bladder, it is necessary to follow simple rules:

  • Carefully monitor the personal hygiene of the external genital organs (women should be washed from front to back so as not to carry the infection from the rectum into the urethra).
  • You can not allow hypothermia.
  • To prevent the accumulation of bacteria in the bladder is not recommended to restrain the urge to urinate (long endure).
  • Try to use at least 1.5-2 liters of fluid per day.
  • Wear underwear made from natural fabrics, suitable size. Too tight lingerie and clothing interferes with normal blood circulation in the pelvic organs, which leads to stagnation and the development of inflammation.
  • Watch for regular bowel movements, avoid constipation.
  • After each act of defecation (emptying the intestines) to hold the toilet of the external genital organs using baby soap or gel for intimate hygiene.
  • Avoid rough intimate intercourse, and after intercourse, be sure to try to empty the bladder.
  • Women during the critical days to change the sanitary pad every 2 hours, regardless of the degree of its filling.

If you follow these simple tips, cystitis will bypass you!

| 8 December 2014 | | 7,086 | Diseases of the genitourinary system