Laryngitis: symptoms, treatment
- Classification of laryngitis
- Causes of laryngitis
- Symptoms of laryngitis
- Diagnostic measures
- Treatment of laryngitis
- Laryngitis and pregnancy
- Laryngitis in children
- Complications of laryngitis
- Prophylaxis of laryngitis
Laryngitis is an inflammatory process that covers the larynx localized on the mucous membrane. It is able to proceed independently or to be a continuation of inflammation of the mucous pharynx, nasopharynx or nasal cavity in cases of acute respiratory diseases.
Classification of laryngitis
Distinguish between acute and chronic form of laryngitis along the course of the disease.
Types of acute laryngitis
By the degree of spread of inflammatory processes, catarrhal and phlegmonous acute laryngitis (AL) are divided.
- Catarrhal acute laryngitis is an inflammation that usually spreads only to the mucous membrane of the larynx. One form of AL is a false cereal, in which inflammatory processes cover the vocal cords, as well as the area of the subglottic space. According to the severity of the main signs and respiratory failure, 4 degrees of severity of false croup (acute stenotic laryngitis) are divided.
- Phlegmonous acute laryngitis - is characterized by the spread of the inflammatory process deep into the structure of the submucosa, muscle tissue, perichondrium of the cartilages of the larynx, and its ligaments.
According to the etiology, viral and bacterial forms of laryngitis are isolated.
Types of chronic laryngitis
In most cases, chronic laryngitis is a consequence of frequently recurring AL. They differ on catarrhal, hyperplastic and atrophic.
- Catarrhal chronic laryngitis is marked by the appearance of congestive hyperemia of the laryngeal mucosa. At the same time, small amounts of mucus can form.
- Hyperplastic chronic laryngitis - in addition to the features indicated above, hypertrophy of the laryngeal mucosa and the appearance of symmetrical protrusions on the surface of the vocal cords are observed.
- Atrophic chronic laryngitis - the further spread of inflammatory processes is accompanied by the appearance of a viscous, sometimes purulent discharge. Dark crusts appear on the pharynx mucosa. When coughing sputum is separated from the blood veins.
Acute and chronic laryngitis in themselves do not pose a serious threat to human life, but can lead to loss of efficiency. One of the first stages of treatment of the disease is to determine its causes.
Causes of laryngitis
It is not always possible to pinpoint the causes of laryngitis for each specific case. Physicians identify several major factors contributing to the development of inflammation in the larynx.
- Subcooling - the head, legs, other parts of the body or the body completely.
- Inhalation of a burning cold or, conversely, hot air mouth.
- Contacts with patients - pertussis, chicken pox, influenza or other acute respiratory viral infections. The incubation period of laryngitis of infectious origin can be from several hours, up to several days depending on the pathogen.
- Inhalation of various irritants - contaminated with dust, soot, chemical air.
- A constant or one-time strong tension of the vocal chords is a prolonged loud conversation, as well as a cry, especially in the case of unfavorable conditions specified in the previous paragraph.
- Damage to the surface of the mucous membrane of the larynx - surgical intervention, mechanical (fish bone, an attempt to swallow poorly chewed food, crackers).
- Abuse of alcoholic beverages, tobacco smoking.
- The spread of infections from the paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity, oral cavity and other nearby areas.
Provoke an attack of chronic laryngitis can allergic reaction (to dust, pollen, smell), the presence of a chronic gastrointestinal disease, accompanied by constant irritation of the larynx mucous membranes of the gastric contents, chronic tonsillitis , dental caries , curvature of the nasal septum. Significantly contributes to the development of inflammatory processes, weakening of immunity, hormonal disorders.
Symptoms of laryngitis
The onset of inflammatory processes in the throat is usually manifested by the appearance of painful sensations. Patients complain of pain while swallowing, perspiration, hoarseness, hoarseness of voice. In some cases, complete numbness is possible. Significant difficulty in breathing can be accompanied by narrowing of the glottis.
- The "barking" cough, from the inside "tearing" the throat, gradually turns into "wet", with the coughing of the discharge sometimes containing bloody inclusions.
- It hurts to swallow, to speak.
- Submandibular cervical lymph nodes increase in size, their palpation is quite painful.
Further development of the inflammatory process is accompanied by a deterioration in overall well-being:
- The temperature rises from 37 0 at the beginning, to 40 0 in the case of heavy forms.
- Patients complain of a sensation of a coma in the throat, difficulty in breathing - for edematic forms.
- Perekhivanie (violation of swallowing) - with purulent forms (phlegmonous), with the development of abscesses.
In addition, with acute laryngitis, other signs of acute respiratory viral infection may manifest: general weakness, muscle pain, nasal congestion, and runny nose. Chronic - signs of concomitant diseases.
The course of the diagnostic measures is determined by the results of the preliminary examination and the collection of the anamnesis.
At the stage of general examination of the larynx (laryngoscopy), the otolaryngologist draws attention to the color of the mucous larynx, the degree of its swelling, the presence of the discharge. The mobility of the larynx, the size of the glottis, the presence of abscesses are assessed.
If necessary, additional laboratory and instrumental studies are prescribed:
- A common blood test - for inflammatory changes;
- General analysis of urine - the presence of signs of inflammatory diseases in the body;
- Bacteriological studies of refractory sputum or washings of the upper respiratory tract;
- Polymerase chain reaction in collected materials.
At the same time, a differential diagnosis is made to determine the form of laryngitis according to its etiology: professional, syphilitic, tubercular. For example, in children, a false croup is differentiated from the laryngeal papillomatosis, a zagrugar abscess, with a "true croup" (diphtheria), a foreign body.
Treatment of laryngitis
The choice of methods and the course of treatment are determined depending on the prevalence of inflammatory processes and their etiology. It can be performed on an outpatient basis by a physician-therapist or an otolaryngologist. The general scheme of treatment:
- Elimination of possible causes - reduced loads on the larynx and vocal cords (silence);
- Exclusion of food irritating mucous - carbonated drinks, salty, spicy dishes;
- Complete refusal from smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages, including beer, alcoholic cocktails;
- Abundant warm drink - teas, infusions, decoctions, milk, jelly, juices.
In the case of viral etiology of OL, antibacterial drugs are additionally used. At the same time, it is possible to prescribe antitussive drugs by the doctor, as well as medications that dilute the hard-to-cough phlegm. When fever is recommended compliance with bed rest and prescribed antipyretic agents.
In the treatment of all forms of laryngitis have:
- Physiotherapeutic procedures;
- Inhalation with plant or slightly alkaline solutions;
- Various thermal procedures - dry and moist warming compresses.
Antiallergenic, decongestants are also prescribed. All medical medications are purchased only after consultation with the attending physician. Surgical methods are used for abscesses of the larynx, as well as for the elimination of foci of hyperplasia in order to prevent the development of cancer.
Treatment of acute laryngitis or exacerbation of chronic form usually takes 5-10 days. Cure the chronic form of laryngitis completely rarely succeeds - it is a long and time-consuming process, often complicated by the impossibility of eliminating the underlying disease. But compliance with the recommendations of the doctor makes it possible to achieve a stable remission.
Laryngitis and pregnancy
Pregnant women do not always manage to avoid diseases, including ARVI, influenza and accompanying laryngitis. Viruses can be "delivered" to a future mother from outside by family members or attacked from the inside at any "favorable" moment - cooling, exacerbation of an already existing chronic disease, hormonal disorders.
Particular danger during pregnancy are laryngitis of an infectious nature that can penetrate the placenta, which can cause various complications of the course of pregnancy until it is interrupted. The presence in the body of a future mother of a viral infection can complicate childbirth.
In addition, most thermal procedures and chemical preparations are contraindicated for pregnant women, the use of which is necessary to treat all forms of laryngitis, their consequences, as well as major or accompanying diseases. The future mother should be very careful about her health and, with the slightest signs of inflammation in the throat, go to the otolaryngologist. The choice of treatment regimen and medicines is determined not only by the form of laryngitis, but also according to the peculiarities of the course of pregnancy.
Laryngitis in children
Stenosing laryngitis (false croup) is more common in children under the age of 3 years. It is characterized by:
- Inflammatory edema of the laryngeal mucosa;
- Blockage of its lumen with phlegm;
- Reflex spasms.
The attack often begins suddenly at night. There are 4 degrees of severity of the disease:
- I (compensated) - the child worries, noisy breathing, he has a "barking" cough.
- II - characterized by constant dyspnea, at the same time there is cyanosis (blueing) of the nasolabial triangle.
- III (decompensated) - the sick kid rushes, is frightened, cold puffy sweat appears on the pale cyanotic skin. The heart sounds are deaf, the pulse is frequent.
- IV (asphyxia) - vainly trying to breathe with open mouth air, the child throws back his head. Cyanosis is rapidly increasing, there may be seizures. Breathing gradually ceases, the heart sounds are becoming deeper and it stops.
Complications of laryngitis
One of the most common complications of OL is its transition into a chronic form. Often recurrent disease can cause a complete loss of voice, which for representatives of the "voice" professions is accompanied by a loss of ability to work.
Doctors warn of the following complications of laryngitis, which really threatens the patient's life:
- Epiglottis infiltration;
- Stenosis of the larynx;
The chronic form becomes the reason of disturbances of a circulation, innervation, secretion of a larynx. Pathology can cause the transformation of cells of the laryngeal mucosa into cancerous tumors.
Prophylaxis of laryngitis
The main preventive agent of all forms of laryngitis is hardening, strengthening of immunity and observance of simple rules of a healthy way of life (HLS):
- Refusal from bad habits - smoking, the use of alcoholic drinks;
- Compliance with standard hygienic rules - wash hands, apply personal respiratory protective equipment (gauze masks, respirators) in the period of epidemics of infectious diseases, in case of prolonged exposure to contaminated environment;
- Regular holding in wet cleaning rooms.
It is recommended to avoid conversations in the cold, as well as in hot paired and other aggressive environments.
Particular care should be taken to monitor the health of people whose professional activities are related to stresses on the vocal cords: singers, teachers, readers, dispatchers, broadcasters.
It is very useful to systematically purify the mucous throat by inhalation from the accumulation of particles of dirt and dust and its regular softening, for example, with oils.
It is necessary to take timely measures to eliminate any foci of infection and inflammation in the body, including caries.
Any painful condition: sore throat, hoarseness of voice, cough, which do not stop for 5 days should become a reason for going to the doctor.
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