Go Rubella: photos, symptoms, treatment of rubella
medicine online

Rubella: photos, symptoms, treatment of rubella

Content:

Rubella photo One of the most common viral infections occurring predominantly in childhood is rubella. This disease is mild, causing almost no complications and ending in full recovery. At the same time, the infection of a woman during pregnancy is a rather serious threat to the health of her unborn child. In some cases, rubella causes congenital malformations and even leads to fetal death.

Rubella is a disease of viral nature, in 1881 isolated into a separate nosological form. Its causative agent is an RNA-genomic virus (rubivirus) from the Togavirus family, which has teratogenic activity (disrupting the normal process of embryonic development). The rubella virus tolerates freezing well, retains its aggressiveness at room temperature for several hours, quickly dies under the influence of ultraviolet radiation, heat and disinfectants.

The source of infection is a person with clinically pronounced or erased signs of rubella. Rubivirus begins to stand out in the external environment a week before the onset of rash and for another 5-6 days after the onset of the rash. The most dangerous in terms of epidemiology are children with a congenital form of the disease. In this situation, the pathogen is released into the environment along with saliva, urine and feces for several months (sometimes up to one and a half years).



Ways of transmission

  • Airborne;
  • Transplacental (especially in the first trimester of pregnancy);
  • In young children, the virus can be passed from mouth to mouth through toys;

Women of active reproductive age (20-29 years old) are especially susceptible to rubivirus. Prior to the use of mass prophylactic rubella vaccination, the disease was recorded almost everywhere. Currently, of all outbreaks of infection, 83% are recorded in the post-Soviet countries. This situation is due to the lack of a broad immunization program. Every 3–5 years, moderate increases in incidence are noted, and every 10–12, more intense (usually in March – June). In the last decade, the incidence of infection of adolescents and women of childbearing age.

The mechanism of development of rubella

To date, the mechanism of development of the disease has not been studied enough. The rubella virus enters the human body through the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract (in rare cases, through the skin). The pathogen spreads in a hematogenous manner, settling on the epithelial cells of the skin and in the lymph nodes, leading to the development of lymphadenopathy. As a rule, viremia ends immediately after the onset of rash (at this time, antibodies neutralizing the virus are found in the patient's blood). They persist for life, causing persistent post-infectious immunity.

In pregnant women, rubivirus affects the internal epithelium of the blood vessels of the placenta, disrupts the fetal nutrition, easily overcomes the placental barrier and causes infection of the embryo. Infection of a woman in the first trimester of pregnancy leads to damage to the genetic apparatus of the unborn child’s cells, slow growth, impaired organ formation and the subsequent development of congenital malformations.

Symptoms of rubella

Rubella symptoms photo The duration of the incubation period is 10-15 days.

The subsequent catarrhal period lasts 1-3 days. In children, symptoms of lesions of the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract are rarely observed. Adults, as a rule, complain of photophobia, headache, feeling of sore throat, runny nose, dry cough, loss of appetite, tearing and body temperature is also possible to high levels. In some patients with physical examination revealed redness of the mucous membrane of the throat, an increase and soreness of the occipital and posterior cervical lymph nodes (this condition can persist for 2-3 weeks).

Already on the first day of the disease, 70-90% of patients develop a rash on the background of pruritus. In children, they have the appearance of oval or round pink small spots of regular shape, towering above the surface of unchanged skin. In adult patients, the elements of the rash often merge, forming erythematous fields.

Most often, the initial rash appears in the face, on the scalp, behind the ears and on the neck. During the day, exanthema spreads to other parts of the body (extensor surfaces of arms and legs, buttocks, back and abdomen). It should be noted that the rubella rash never appears on the soles and palms. Quite often small single specks of pink color are found on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity (the so-called Forchheimer spots, or the spotted hyperemia of the soft palate).

In 20-30% of cases, erythematous rashes are absent, which makes diagnosis much more difficult.

When the rash appears, the body temperature may be slightly elevated or within normal limits. In all areas accessible by palpation, enlarged lymph nodes are found, sometimes pains in muscles and joints, hepatosplenomegaly syndrome (simultaneous enlargement of the liver and spleen), disruption of the digestive tract. Within 4 days the rash disappears without a trace and there comes a recovery.

Possible complications of rubella

  • Accession of a secondary bacterial infection (pneumonia, otitis media);
  • Serous meningitis or encephalitis, characterized by a relatively favorable course (this complication can develop by 4-7 days of illness);
  • Thrombocytopenic purpura;
  • Intrauterine fetal death;
  • Congenital malformations.

Congenital rubella syndrome

Congenital rubella is a slow viral infection characterized by a long-term interaction of the pathogen with body tissues. The disease develops due to the transmission of rubivirus in a vertical way from the sick mother to the fetus. In the event that infection occurred before the 14th-16th week of pregnancy, rubella often causes miscarriages, prematurity and the development of severe intrauterine defects, leading to an unfavorable outcome in the early neonatal period (neonatal period). Most often in babies with congenital rubella syndrome, heart disease, prenatal malnutrition, prematurity, hepatosplenomegaly, damage to the visual organs, thrombocytopenic purpura are detected. In 13% of cases in the first months of life is fatal.

In the subclinical form of congenital rubella, occurring in 75-85% of cases, health problems manifest themselves in the distant postnatal period, and only dynamic medical observation of this contingent of children makes it possible to detect possible defects.

The specific treatment of entrained rubella syndrome has not been developed to this day.

Diagnostics

Rubella symptoms treatment photo The diagnostic study includes the following laboratory tests:

  1. Complete blood count (increased ESR, lymphocytosis, leukopenia, it is possible to identify plasma cells).
  2. Serological examination of nasal mucus (RSK, RIA, ELISA, RTG).
  3. Determination of the concentration of antiviral immunoglobulins.

Mandatory rubella should be differentiated from measles, scarlet fever, enterovirus infection and allergic rashes.

Rubella treatment

For uncomplicated rubella, patients are given symptomatic treatment, which is usually done at home. Recommended bed rest, drink plenty of water, to eliminate the itching, anti-allergy medication (fenistil) is indicated.

In severe (complicated) cases, antiviral and immunostimulating therapy is prescribed, and pathogenetic and symptomatic agents are prescribed. In this situation, it is necessary to prevent the development of edema and swelling of the brain. For this purpose, corticosteroids, hemostatics and diuretics are used. In the final stage (recovery period), patients are prescribed nootropic drugs that improve cognitive (brain) function.

Preventive actions

Today, the first priority of specialists is to protect women of childbearing age from becoming infected. Fortunately, rubella is a small group of infectious diseases, which can be prevented by vaccination. For this, live poly-and mono-vaccines are used. Children are vaccinated from the 15th to the 18th month of life. Revaccination is performed for girls who have reached the age of 6 and 15 years to avoid infection during pregnancy (immunity after vaccination lasts for 20-25 years).

However, vaccination is strictly contraindicated for pregnant women. It is also undesirable to plan pregnancy in the first 3 months after vaccination, as there is a possibility of post-vaccination infection of the fetus.

Patients with the acquired form of rubella should be isolated until complete recovery. Children in groups are isolated for 10 days from the onset of rash. In the presence of a rubella pregnant woman in the team or in the family of a patient with a rubella, the period of isolation is extended by 3 weeks.

In the room (ward) where the infected person is located, wet cleaning and airing should be constantly carried out.

In the event that a woman who is expecting a child has been in contact with a rubella who has fallen ill, the question of preserving pregnancy is decided after a two-time serological study, which includes determining the amount of immunoglobulins of class G and M. not dangerous.


| June 14, 2015 | | 3,125 | Infectious diseases
Go
Leave your feedback


Carolann Cannuli-Denton: What was suggested as a plant based toxin..to prevent German measles beginning 1900's..for pregnant females in Germany??Leading to brain disorders causing precursor to psychopathic tendencies..resulting in..etc etc etc etc etc etc ...and so on.

Da Da Da: Wooooah...Praying for the peeps who are getting the measles that’s spreading all over NZ and Samoa 🇼🇸 Big Big news...We need to probs make a charity

Pippa pig: My partner’s baby had the MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) jab. When he was 6mths old and died because of it. I wouldn’t recommend any vaccines to anybody. There’s an agenda going on and it’s not in the interest of the people.

Daniel Blaha: It's like getting the flu. You just stay in bed, drink lots of water, deal with the fever and wait about six weeks. The only way you could die from Measles is the same as any other virus. If you have a weak immune system or your frail and old (chances are you 've already had it) or you don't stay in bed and get over it. BTW> The biggest risk if you haven't Measles as a kid is when you are in your 50's you contract it in the form of Shingles and they are excruciatingly painful. Most men get these lesions on their forehead and temple and women often get them on their back. You are better off getting them when you're young, that's a fact. Measles has an incubation period of about six weeks so you never really know who you got them from. However, once the population gets over it, everyone is then immune for ever.

Bo Brother: Disneyland measles outbreak was all staged. The infections were real, but it was caused by the vaccine industry criminal behavior in order to achieve a political purpose.

Bo Brother: Disneyland measles outbreak few years back was a false flag .......Turns out that A PHARMA INDUSTRY terrorist took incubated measles tissue from a low tech lab .....and smeared it onto railings, and public surfaces to MANUFACTURE a measles outbreak.

John Werahiko: Is this saying.. 1. The only carriers are non vaccinated children 2. If your kids are vacinated why wrry that they'll get it

Go
Go