Rubella in adults: photos, symptoms, treatment, prevention
- Causes of infection with the rubella virus
- Symptoms of rubella in adults
- Methods for diagnosing rubella
- Treatment of rubella in adults
- Prevention of rubella in adults
- Features of rubella in pregnant women
The disease, called "rubella" refers to the diseases that many get when they are young. At this age, it runs quite quickly and easily, and after recovery, the probability of repeated infection is almost zero. But in adults who have contracted the virus, the disease can take a more serious form and it will be much more difficult to bear than children.
This "talking" name of the disease was due to the fact that a red rash appears throughout the patient's body. It can be infected by an infected person. Most often this occurs within a few days after the incubation period, or in the first five days of the disease.
Causes of infection with the rubella virus
The causative agent belongs to the family of toboggans. The virus can multiply, parasitizing on many cell cultures, but its cytopathic effect exerts only on some of them. By the way, the rubella virus can agglutinate red blood cells even in the blood of pigeons and geese, however, the external environment can serve as a reason for its destruction. It will die on drying or if the pH drops below 6.8 or rises above 8.0. It is destructive for him not only ultraviolet, but also ether, formalin and other disinfectants.
It is easy enough to infect a virus, because it is transmitted by airborne droplets. Usually the disease occurs during a contact with someone who is already infected. It is also possible that an infected person will transmit the virus to another at a time when he himself did not know about his illness. This occurs during a so-called incubation period, which can last a week before the first signs of the disease appear. The person remains contagious even a few weeks after the rash on the body appeared. At this time, the patient poses the greatest danger to others, since he himself does not know about his illness and does not take any preventive measures.
To prolong the life of the virus, low humidity and increased temperature are necessary. The spike in morbidity occurs in the spring and summer, but with careful compliance with the prescriptions of epidemiologists, complications can be avoided.
Symptoms of rubella in adults
Symptoms of the disease will manifest themselves approximately on the fifth day after the infection itself.
- The main diagnostic sign is the appearance on the body of a red rash. In adults this rash will "merge" with each other. As a result, red spots will form on the body of considerable size. First, small marks appear on the nose, behind the ears. Later they can be observed throughout the body. Usually the rash lasts no more than a week, and then gradually comes to naught. This symptom is a consequence of agglutination of erythrocytes.
- Before the appearance of rashes or simultaneously with them the patient will have a fever. Its values can reach 40 degrees. In patients who are hard to tolerate a fever, it is extremely difficult to bring down the temperature with rubella.
- On the second day after the appearance of the first signs of the disease, the adult can grow lymph nodes. This can occur locally (or under the arms or on the neck), or simultaneously in all places.
- Often during the debut of the disease, there is a headache, which is not stopped by standard medications from migraine.
- The patient will completely lose his appetite and begin to nausea. This will be due to the fact that the body will accumulate toxic products from the life of the virus. To remove the symptoms of intoxication is usually helped by a plentiful drink.
- The patient can feel pain in the muscles and joints. It is very similar to the one that occurs with colds.
- Adult people can confuse the initial form of rubella with the flu, because there is a runny nose, cough and a sore throat. However, no drugs from ARI in this case do not help.
- It is not excluded the appearance of photophobia. Bright light can cause lachrymation and discomfort. The patient feels much worse if conjunctivitis develops in parallel. Usually this happens on the third day of the active phase of the disease. Since morning the person simply can not open eyes - eyelashes stick together from pus.
Methods for diagnosing rubella
To determine rubella in an adult, you can conduct serological diagnosis. The growth of titres of immunoglobulins M and G will be determined.
Separately, one can single out such a method as a general blood test. It will refer to nonspecific diagnostic methods, however, allows you to see lymphocytosis during general leukopenia. The index of ESR will also be increased.
Additional diagnostic procedures are prescribed for suspected complications. If there is a possibility of pneumonia, then radiography is performed. If there are prerequisites for the development of any neurological disorders, one has to resort to the EEG of the brain. Often after rubella, otitis develops.
Treatment of rubella in adults
To date, there are no specific methods for treating rubella, therefore, supportive therapy is prescribed, aimed at eliminating and alleviating the symptoms.
- If the patient suffers from a fever, then it is necessary to take antipyretics.
- Be sure to drink abundantly and strictly adhere to bed rest. Go out on the street as rarely as possible. During the disease, the immunity of an adult will be reduced, and this increases the risks of additional infection.
- If the patient has all the signs of photophobia, then it is necessary to darken the room specifically to alleviate the patient's condition.
- Sometimes a doctor can prescribe immunostimulating drugs.
- In cases where there is itching, you can also use antihistamines and ointments based on glucocorticoids.
Prevention of rubella in adults
More often than not, those who contracted the rubella virus are simply isolated until they recover completely. The minimum duration of the quarantine period is 5 days. If in the house where the patient lives, there is a pregnant woman, then the term of isolation is recommended to be extended to three weeks.
In order to prevent disease, it is recommended to ventilate the room and regularly hold a wet cleaning. It is advisable to avoid long trips and close contact with people for another three weeks from the time of recovery.
Specific prophylaxis is performed with a specific vaccine. Primary vaccination is carried out at the age of 1 to 7 years, then the vaccine can be administered repeatedly after the child reaches 14 years of age. Adults are vaccinated at will. For this, a preliminary blood test is performed for the presence of immunity to rubella. Usually, this procedure is performed before the planned pregnancy. It is necessary to remember that after vaccination it is necessary to protect from pregnancy not less than 3 months. Vaccination of pregnant women is not possible.
Most often at the same time vaccinated against measles, mumps and rubella. This approach, although it increases the burden on the body, however, allows you to effectively control the surge in morbidity. Immunity is formed 20-25 days after vaccination and protects a person for 20 years from the moment of vaccination.
Rarely within two weeks of vaccination, cough, rhinitis, rash or allergy to the drug is observed. But, as practice shows, this happens only in 10-12% of all vaccinated.
There is no specific prevention of the disease in those cases when a person is diagnosed with:
- Other oncological diseases.
You can not vaccinate during pregnancy, as well as during any immunodeficiency conditions.
There is evidence that even a live vaccine can not give a one hundred percent guarantee that a re-infection will not occur. Experience has shown that if an inoculation was made to an adult person, the risk of the disease will simply be reduced, but not disappear at all. Similar facts are appealed to mothers who oppose mandatory vaccination.
Features of rubella in pregnant women
It is very important to timely diagnose rubella in pregnant women who have been in contact with the carriers of the virus. Then you can identify the virus at the earliest stage and determine how likely the infection of the baby in the womb. Such an analysis is conducted no later than on the twelfth day after infection. If the results of a serological study in the blood determine immunoglobulins G, then this indicates that the mother has already formed immunity to rubella, respectively, there is no reason to worry about the health of the baby. If only immunoglobulins M are detected, then urgent measures must be taken.
Illness of rubella during pregnancy can lead to serious impairment of fetal development. If the disease occurred in the first trimester, the probability of pathologies in the baby will be about 90% if the infection occurred in the second trimester - 75%, and in the third - 50%.
Most often because of such a disease the baby can have congenital heart disease, deafness, pathology of internal organs, mental retardation, vision problems. As practice shows, in one case out of seven, a child can be born dead. Most often because of a mother's disease rubella, doctors recommend abortion.
The World Health Organization has introduced vaccination measures to reduce the syndrome of congenital rubella in children. Therefore, in childhood, adolescence and childbearing age, all girls and women are vaccinated.
Before conception of the baby the woman also should hand over a blood on the analysis which will show presence of antibodies. If they are not identified, then three months before the start of active pregnancy planning is vaccinated.
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