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Measles in adults: photo, symptoms, treatment, prevention

Content:

Measles is an acute respiratory disease that, despite vaccination, remains among the leading causes of infant mortality. This is mainly due to the fact that the human body is highly susceptible to the virus. That is, contact with a patient with measles will result in an infection with a 100% probability for a healthy person. To protect yourself from this disease, you need to know how to diagnose, treat, and most importantly, prevent the spread of a dangerous virus.



Causes of disease

Measles in adults Infection with measles occurs for one reason only - the measles virus, which belongs to the group of RNA viruses, enters the body of a healthy person. This pathogen is distinguished by a low level of survival outside the human body - that is, it is almost impossible for them to become infected, being at a distance from the patient, touching objects that he touched, and so on. But in direct contact with the patient, provided that the disease is in the stage from the last two days of the incubation period to the fifth day from the start of the rash on the skin, infection is almost inevitable.

The exception to the rule are people who have had measles before - the body’s immune system produces antibodies against the RNA virus, thereby protecting the person for life from the development of the disease. In addition, the mother, who had been ill before the beginning of pregnancy, transfers part of the antibodies to her child. They protect his body until the age of three months, after which the child becomes susceptible to the virus.

The pathogen is transmitted by tactile contact - by touching the skin - and by airborne droplets. Getting on the mucous membrane, it enters the human blood, after which the infection begins, with characteristic severe symptoms.

Symptoms of measles in adults

Measles in adults photos Measles has a rather interesting symptomatic picture, due to which the diagnosis of the disease does not take much time and often does not require a differential analysis, excluding other respiratory infections. Depending on the prevalence of certain symptoms, the following periods of illness are distinguished:

  • Incubation period. After the virus has entered the body, for 1–2 weeks a person does not feel any manifestations of the disease. Sometimes the incubation period can take up to three weeks, which is associated with the peculiarities of the immune system in a particular person. It is worth recalling that, despite this, the person who carries the virus becomes infectious to all people susceptible to the measles virus.
  • Catarrhal period (initial). Measles are commonly associated with characteristic skin rashes. But the first symptoms of the disease, appearing after the incubation period expires, are simple manifestations of the common cold: significant fever, cough, runny nose, asthenic syndrome. At this point, you may be suspected of having an acute respiratory infection or an acute respiratory viral infection, but the characteristic signs in the form of rashes on the skin will allow you to make the correct diagnosis.
  • External manifestations. From the second day of the onset of symptoms, a person appears redness of the mucous membrane of the eyes ( conjunctivitis ), rashes on the cheeks in the form of small white spots, with a characteristic red border (see photo). The main dermatological manifestations begin on the 5th day of the initial period of the disease, and are red spots that merge into one large spot covering the skin of the face, neck, torso, arms and legs. During this period, the temperature may rise again to the maximum throughout the course of the disease mark - up to 40.5 degrees.
  • Stage of convalescence (final). Starting from the fifth day after the appearance of a red rash, the disease regresses and the person begins to recover. The temperature gradually decreases to a normal level, the rash peels off. It is worth remembering that skin manifestations may disappear slowly over a period of two weeks, while during this period of the disease a person is no longer infectious.



Diagnostic methods

Among the methods of diagnosis, the main and most frequently practiced is the examination of the patient. For diagnosis, doctors are guided by the following indicators:

  1. Copious runny nose;
  2. Coughing;
  3. Conjunctivitis;
  4. Photosensitivity (photosensitization);
  5. White rashes on the skin of the cheeks, which appear from 4-5 days from the onset of the disease.

Very important information that the patient was in contact with a person with measles.

Obviously, the first four symptoms are not specific, and can not accurately indicate that the patient is measles, and not scarlet fever , tuberculosis or rubella. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct laboratory tests, including:

  • Clinical blood test. An important indicator is the change in the level of blood leukocytes. Responsible for the protective functions of the body, they are the first to respond to the occurrence of a viral infection or inflammatory process. However, in general, the analysis is not specific, but merely indicates the presence of inflammation or an immunological reaction.
  • Serological blood test. The study of the level of IgM and IgG antibodies to the RNA virus. Increasing their level with an absolute guarantee allows you to make a diagnosis. In the future, the same analysis will be used to determine the presence of immunity to measles, for example, during pregnancy and in other cases.

Treatment of measles in adults

Measles in adults treated Special treatment aimed at the destruction of the RNA virus, to date, does not exist. Therefore, therapy is aimed at eliminating the symptoms, and as a result, relieving the patient's condition.

  • In order to get rid of cough, the doctor may recommend taking mucolytic drugs. Dilution of sputum makes cough more productive and effectively clears the bronchi and lungs.
  • Nasal drops with a vasoconstrictive effect help to get rid of a cold. You can use them for no more than 5 days to avoid addiction.
  • At high temperatures shows the use of antipyretics. But it is worth remembering that there is information according to which children are not recommended to give aspirin as a medicine to lower the temperature. Aspirin is better to replace with paracetamol or ibuprofen.
  • To eliminate the symptoms of conjunctivitis, it is recommended to use special drops, washing tea brewing. With a strong swelling of the eyelids, you can take antihistamines, which are also prescribed by the doctor.
  • The mouth cavity is rinsed with a decoction of chamomile flowers, irrigated with local antibiotics, for example, spray "Bioparox", as well as "Miramistin"
  • If itching is present on the body from eruptions, washing with warm water gives a good effect. You can moisten the skin with a sponge soaked in a strong decoction of chamomile. It is important not to comb the rash - in this case, the rate of its disappearance will decrease significantly. With severe itching, you can take light sedatives, and for children special anti-scratches will be effective - thick cloth gloves worn on the hands.
  • Ribavirin, an antiviral drug, showed a good therapeutic effect in the treatment of measles. But it is worth remembering that research on the effect of Ribavirin on the measles virus was carried out under laboratory conditions, and information on how effective it is in reality does not exist today. You can also use other antiviral drugs, however, this should be done only after consulting an infectious diseases specialist or a therapist.

Patients must comply with strict bed rest. A special diet is not required, but it is necessary to understand that intoxication accompanying any inflammatory process in the body is removed by a large amount of drunk liquid. You can drink water, fruit drinks from the berries, broth hips. The exception to the rule are people with a history of kidney disease and endocrine disorders, accompanied by edema. In this drinking regime, it is necessary to reduce the amount of salt consumed to 1 gram per 10 kg of body weight. To control the amount of salt, it is better not to add it in the cooking process, but add salt to taste the finished dish. It is not recommended to use a large amount of strong tea and coffee. It is also worth refusing from sweet carbonated drinks and completely eliminate alcohol.

The nutrition of the patient should be rich in vitamins, but nevertheless be easy for a weakened organism. Chicken and vegetable broths, cereals, fresh fruit give a good effect. It is necessary to eat often in small portions.

Usually, this therapy gives a good effect, and the patient recovers from the fifth day after the appearance of a rash on the skin. But, if the recovery is delayed, it is necessary to start taking antibiotics, which the prescribing physician will prescribe to prevent complications. In stationary conditions before the appointment of the drug is sampled for sensitivity to certain groups of antibiotics. At home, the most common choice is in favor of benzyl penicillin preparations.

In exceptional, especially severe cases, the appointment of corticosteroids is required. This group of drugs allows you to quickly and effectively arrest any inflammatory processes in the body. But the appointment of these funds is fraught with a large number of side effects, so the appointment occurs only when absolutely necessary: ​​complications or concomitant measles severe pathologies of internal organs.

Prevention of measles in adults

Although the measles virus is highly contagious, infection can be avoided. For this purpose, the following complex of measures is carried out:

  • Vaccination. Today, injections that protect themselves against the measles virus are being given to adults and children almost all over the world. They are absolutely safe, and for several decades have managed to establish themselves as highly effective means. However, people suffering from autoimmune diseases and other pathologies of the immune system need to consult with a physician before delivering the vaccine. You can not vaccinate pregnant women, people suffering from tuberculosis, leukemia, AIDS. According to the classic vaccination schedule, children are vaccinated against measles twice - at 1 year and at 6 years. If a person has not received these vaccinations, he can deliver them at any age with no contraindications. Do not be afraid if a couple of days after vaccination appear unwell or a slight rash - such manifestations are quite natural for the introduction of the measles virus with weak activity.
  • Immunoglobulin vaccination. After contact with the diseased, in order to avoid the development of measles with the entire clinical picture, it is recommended that immunoglobulin against measles be introduced into the blood. This is done without fail for children aged 0–3 years, pregnant women, people with pathologies of the immune system. This method is officially called “passive immunoprophylaxis”.
  • Avoid contact with the diseased. People who do not have immunity to the measles virus are not recommended to place large concentrations of people in the period of epidemics, hospitals and children's institutions (cages, schools, swimming pools, sports facilities). In addition, measles vaccination is very poorly developed in developing countries, therefore, when buying travel vouchers, it is worth remembering the possible risks of infection. It should be understood that it is impossible to completely protect yourself against measles by this method.

Features of the course of measles during pregnancy

Pregnant women at risk of infection with measles are subject to compulsory immunization with immunoglobulin. But if the infection still happened, then, unfortunately, it threatens with disastrous consequences for the health of the child. Therefore, for women whose gestational age does not exceed 12 weeks, abortion is categorically shown. However, the final resolution of this issue always takes place individually, since it depends on many factors.

In later periods, careful observation of the diseased fetus is shown. The fact is that even if the future mother passes measles easily, it can cause the development of various pathologies of the child’s nervous system. Modern technologies allow us to establish whether the fetus's brain is affected and how severe the pathology is. The study is conducted using ultrasound and is absolutely safe for the child. In the critical case, the pregnancy is terminated for medical reasons.

Together with the infected mother, the fetus itself can become sick with measles. In this case, the child is born with signs of the disease. Although measles can be successfully treated, babies with congenital measles often die.

Measles can cause miscarriage, premature birth, or fetal death. That is why the planning of variability includes compulsory vaccination against diseases that the expectant mother has not previously suffered and as a result, has not developed immunity. In terms of the course of the disease in pregnant women and therapy, it can be said that the picture of symptoms and prescribed drugs during pregnancy differ little from the classical cases.

In conclusion, we note that measles in pregnant women, fortunately, is a very rare phenomenon. The frequency of cases does not exceed the figures of 0.005% among the entire female population of the planet.


| 26 June 2015 | | 1 614 | Infectious diseases
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Carolann Cannuli-Denton: What was suggested as a plant based toxin..to prevent German measles beginning 1900's..for pregnant females in Germany??Leading to brain disorders causing precursor to psychopathic tendencies..resulting in..etc etc etc etc etc etc ...and so on.

Da Da Da: Wooooah...Praying for the peeps who are getting the measles that’s spreading all over NZ and Samoa 🇼🇸 Big Big news...We need to probs make a charity

Pippa pig: My partner’s baby had the MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) jab. When he was 6mths old and died because of it. I wouldn’t recommend any vaccines to anybody. There’s an agenda going on and it’s not in the interest of the people.

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