- Pathogen of molluscum contagiosum and infection mechanics
- Symptoms of molluscum contagiosum
- Diagnosis of molluscum contagiosum
- Molluscum contagiosum: treatment
- Preventing the spread of rash and re-infection with molluscum contagiosum
- Folk methods for accelerating the degeneration of molluscum contagiosum
Molluscum contagiosum (molluscum contagiosum) is one of the viral diseases that do not pose a threat to the health and life of the ill, but, nevertheless, needing attention and treatment. The main discomfort caused by molluscum contagiosum is moral, since the external manifestations of the disease are unpleasant visually: pink-orange nodules, reaching a size of up to 1.5 cm with a small whitish core. Their photo is on the right. Most often, the molluscum contagiosum does not require active treatment, disappearing on its own in a few weeks or months, but it is necessary to know the precautions that prevent the disease from reclaiming larger areas of the skin. In addition, visually molluscic formations are similar to many other, more complex and dangerous diseases. Such a symptomatology is, for example, syphilis . To establish the exact nature of the emerging skin rashes and to provide assistance, if it is required, only a specialist can.
Pathogen of molluscum contagiosum and infection mechanics
No relation to the inhabitants of the sea, despite the name, does not have a molluscum contagiosum. His name he received exclusively for the form, with a strong increase, really resembling shell shell.
Disease refers to the category of viral, respectively, the mechanics of infection - contact. The carrier and the diseased can become only a man, the immunity of animals to this disease is 100% stable. By nature, the molluscum contagiosum resembles a smallpox virus, and is also transmitted only by contact, if it hits the area of the fluid contained inside the hollow formation on the skin. Unfortunately, in order to become a carrier of such a parasite, it is not necessary to even come in contact with an already ill person: the virus is rather tenacious and able to maintain its activity in water, so cases of infection through the pool water are not uncommon.
The disease most often affects children, because with active games, close contact with skin damage is normal. An inaccurately damaged ball on the skin, from which the inner contents appear in the form of curds, may not even attract attention, since the pain sensations are not bright. At the same time, getting the squeezed liquid onto the skin of another child causes damage to his body, and after the incubation period, similar "knots" appear on his skin. Further spread of the mollusc in the skin, as a rule, occurs with uncontrolled combing of the affected area.
Outbreaks of diseases by a contagious mollusk within the collective of a particular kindergarten are associated with the ability of the virus to maintain activity for a long time outside the human body, for example, in household dust. With high-quality cleaning of the premises and the observance of personal hygiene measures, such cases are practically excluded, as well as the infection of adult healthy people in this way. A group of risk for this type of spread of the disease is children under the age of five, less often the elderly.
The principle of distribution of molluscum contagiosum in adults is most often sexual, and the differences in localization of the mollusc papules are also associated with this. In adults, these are areas of intimate zones: thighs, crotch, lower abdomen and even external genitalia; in children, the mollusc often affects the face, arms, neck, shoulders and abdomen. The number of skin elements and the density of localization are often directly related to the state of immunity: people who do not have health problems rarely suffer seriously from this disease, most often the number of mollusks is not large and they disappear without external medical intervention.
Symptoms of molluscum contagiosum
Medicine subdivides the viruses of molluscum contagiosum into four main types, but their external clinical manifestations for a person familiar with the intricacies of the individual do not have significant differences. MCV-1, MCV-2, MCV-3, MCV-4 are the main types of viruses, while MCV-1 and MCV-2 usually affect adults, others are more vulnerable to children. Externally, the mollusk looks initially small dermal nodules gradually forming into a volumetric cavity reaching in size 1.5 cm with a liquid center in which it is possible to distinguish white curdled mass - actually the environment of the virus. Their photo is presented by reference. The incubation period, which can last from 2-3 weeks to unlimited time, passes absolutely asymptomatic. The active stage can be triggered by a decrease in the immunity of the human carrier.
Internal organs can not affect the mollusc, its habitat is exclusively the external surface of the skin. Clams are also not formed on the skin of the palms and feet.
The first stage of development of the mollusc papules:
- The appearance on the skin of dome-shaped rigid seal-nodules from 1 mm in diameter;
- Formation of the core of the waxy-curdish consistency, visually manifested by a change in color from a homogeneous bodily to a watery one with a white droplet in the center;
- An increase in papules of up to one and a half centimeters.
Subsequently, the mollusc bubbles darken in color, acquiring a bright pink color, and begin to disturb the patient with a slight itch.
The mechanics of mollusc formations have been sufficiently studied by means of a microscope. Falling into the body of the cell of the basal tissue of the epithelium, the infection of the virus gradually fills it with its own environment, displacing the native nucleus and expanding over time.
Completely formed formations in their form are divided into two types. In the first case, the core of the pathological focus is rounded, this type is called giant. In the second case, called the pedicle form of the mollusk, the cells are located on a small foot. The number of such formations, which are considered one group most often from one to ten, in rare forms they can be combined into one plane containing several cores.
The mollusk, like many viruses, is able to live in the body in a latent form for a long time. Weakening of immunity, concurrent disease can provoke its development and external clinical manifestations. The need for treatment is established by the dermatologist in each case individually, since more often the mollusc will disappear without medication. Assistance is required for persons with weakened immunity, in particular HIV patients, undergoing radiation and chemotherapy courses, long-termly ill with severe chronic diseases. In such cases, the body is unable to resist the development of the virus and its spread is not restrained. In other cases, treatment is prescribed only to prevent recurrent manifestations, to which this disease is prone even after complete external disappearance.
Diagnosis of molluscum contagiosum
Diagnosis of this disease requires the delivery of laboratory tests only for clarification and confirmation of the type of molluscum or for diffodiagnosis with other more serious infections. Preliminary diagnosis is made after a visual examination based on a specific clinical picture of the disease. A histological examination using an electron microscope, which is intended to confirm the presence of mollusc bodies in a sample, is performed not only with the symptoms of this disease, but also with other skin lesions in order to rule out the possibility of imposing diseases. Often shellfish ovoid bodies are found in the study of warts and with suspected erysipelas or flat lichen . A differentiated study is designed to identify all types of concurrent diseases in order to select the optimal method of treatment and to exclude drugs capable of provoking the development of other pathological organisms upon exposure to one type of bacteria.
The histological analysis confirming the presence of epidermis epithelial cells in the presence of mollusc bodies is considered to be the main one for the formulation of the final and only true diagnosis. PCR analysis can also be carried out - a diagnostic laboratory method aimed at detecting and determining the activity of viral pathogens by polymerase chain reaction.
Molluscum contagiosum: treatment
A confirmed diagnosis is that the pathological formations on the skin are caused precisely by the molluscum contagiosum, and not by other kinds of pathogens, and are not tumorous, most often the reason to stop worrying about health. Practically in all cases, if it is not a person with a positive HIV status, this means that serious treatment is not required and in a few months the body itself will suppress the virus without help from outside. The complexity is only the fact that the external manifestations of the mollusk cause inconvenience. Because of their convex shape, they are prone to injury even without significant effort, so to avoid damage to the open parts of the body, doctors still recommend that the formations be removed.
Specific drug treatment of the mollusc does not exist, since it can not enter the internal organs and changes in the state of the organism as a whole are not required to get rid of it.
The main methods of getting rid of molluscum contagiosum are:
- Mechanical method;
- Moxibustion or cryodestruction;
- Treatment with immunomodulators or antiviral drugs;
- Antibiotic therapy for multiple and large colonies.
Selection of the method in a specific case depends on the location and abundance of rashes, as well as the recurrence of the manifestation of the disease. If a problem occurs frequently, the methods will include more extensive techniques, including therapy aimed at strengthening the patient's immunity in general.
The mechanical or physical method of removing the mollusc is based on plucking the body of a mollusc using tweezers. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia, for example, with lidocaine. After the mechanical removal of mollusks, the treated surface is necessarily cauterized. Of the painful remedies, iodine is used, for children the dermatologist, most likely, will choose sparing means: hydrogen peroxide or fucocin. They will also serve to prevent the further spread of the disease from the residual fluid, which as a result of the procedure can reach neighboring areas of the skin.
One procedure, as a rule, is not enough, the mollusks appear again, although in smaller quantities. This is due to a long incubation period. "Grow" those education, which at the time of the first operation were not visible to the naked eye. With a qualitative procedure on the site of the removed mollusks, new ones do not form.
After mechanical removal within a week, it is recommended to disinfect the surface, drying out the areas of treatment with iodine or diamond greens. When the last foci dies, the virus is considered to be destroyed, although such destruction does not give immunity to the body, repeated external infection is also possible.
Low-temperature method of mollusk removal or cryodestruction is the most effective and painless method. Depending on the equipment of the clinic, liquid nitrogen is distributed on the formation with a cotton swab or with the help of a special pulverus. The procedure takes several minutes, and the processing of one formation for its complete freezing takes 10-15 seconds. In this case, the patient does not experience any painful sensations. The method of cryodestruction makes it possible to remove even fairly fresh formations whose removal by mechanical scraping or plucking is almost impossible. The subsequent measures of processing the areas on which the mollusc was located coincide with the previous method.
The method of diathermocoagulation or electrolysis is designed for splitting the body of a mollusc by high-frequency current. This method is also practically painless and the period of recovery of the skin surface after such treatment is faster, since an open hemorrhage does not occur.
Antiviral ointments, for example oxolinic, do not give a quick result, but for the treatment of babies who are more likely to scare the more traumatic procedures, they are given priority. The ointment blocks the core of the molluscum inside the papule, preventing it from reaching adjacent areas of the skin and further spreading.
To increase immunity, immunomodulators (eg, IRS-19, epigen-intima) can be prescribed. It is important to remember that during the sexual route of infection, the examination and treatment of the sexual partner is mandatory.
Preventing the spread of rash and re-infection with molluscum contagiosum
The complexity of getting rid of this disease is related to the structure of its primary source: like all types of pathogens that contain DNA in their structure, the molluscum contaminum does not completely leave the body. All medical measures are aimed only at getting rid of its external manifestations, and preventive measures ensure the impossibility of spreading from one local area to other parts of the body and excluding the risk of infection from other carriers.
To prevent the spread of mollusc on the surface of the skin, you only need to observe basic hygiene measures. They are relevant both for the appearance of the mollusk and the waiting for the time of its independent degeneration, and for the period of treatment. Careful treatment of toys with a disinfectant solution, timely nails cutting and daily change of bed linen will help to eliminate the source of infection. It also requires frequent wet cleaning of the room to eliminate clam shell particles along with dust. Underwear, which can serve as a source of re-infection, must be thoroughly treated with an iron or steamer before each shift.
For adults, the localization of mollusks in which, as a rule, is concentrated in the genital area, the frequent change of underwear is actual.
If there is one patient in the family, first of all it is necessary to prevent the infection of the rest of the family members. To do this, it is necessary to limit the use of one set of hygienic supplies: baits, towels and soap. When using common things, for example, TV consoles or other household appliances or plumbing, their daily treatment with disinfectant solution is required.
For the entire treatment period, baths and swimming pool are strictly contraindicated. Water - the optimal environment for the spread of mollusks, able to maintain its viability for a long time. One patient can become a source of outbreaks. Hygienic procedures, which, of course, can not be completely discontinued, it is recommended that the shower be run under running water, and not when immersed in a bath.
Folk methods for accelerating the degeneration of molluscum contagiosum
To dry the skin, which contributes to the rapid disappearance of pathological foci, formed by the shellfish I use several means:
- Solution of potassium permanganate for rubbing the affected areas;
- Infusion of celandine (both alcoholic and aqueous);
- Tincture of a string or bird cherry;
- Gruel from fresh ground leaves of bird cherry as a compress;
- Juice of garlic (used as a home method of cauterization).
Recipes based on garlic, generally popular with infectious and viral diseases, often contain only two ingredients: any vegetable oil and pounded garlic clove. Daily application of the obtained gruel to the affected area burns molluscum in 3-4 weeks. The procedure is best done in the evening, since an unpleasant smell can cause a negative reaction from others.
Using liquid cleansers, it should be remembered that movements with a cotton swab over the skin should be priming, not rubbing, since in the latter case there is a risk of spreading the virus to neighboring areas. If the affected area is extensive, tampons should be changed several times, preventing contamination.
An important factor that speeds the death of mollusks and reduces the risk of recurrence is an increase in immunity. The patient is recommended to increase vitamins in the diet, tempering procedures and is contraindicated in hypothermia and excessive physical exertion.
Using folk remedies, even tested and recommended by several sources, it should be remembered that the first stage of treatment must necessarily be an appeal to a dermatologist for confirmation of the diagnosis. Self-medication in case of erroneous self-diagnosis can lead to aggravation of inflammatory processes and irreversible consequences for the organism.
In general, treatment of molluscum contagiosum lasts 2-3 months, during which control over affected areas and increased precautions are required. At the end of this period, if the mollusk does not make itself felt again, you can return to the usual rhythm of life.
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