- Types of cysts and peculiarities of their formation
- Follicular ovarian cyst
- Yellow body cyst
- Paraovarian Ovarian Cyst
- Dermoid ovarian cyst
- Endometrioid ovarian cyst
- Ovarian cyst: symptoms
- Ovarian cyst and its effect on the course of pregnancy
- The help of nature in the treatment of ovarian cysts
- Prevention of ovarian cysts and prevention of relapses
Translation from Greek quite accurately gives a definition of what a "cyst", literally - a sack or bubble. A dense cavity filled with liquid, which suddenly forms in the tissues of the ovary, can grow even larger than its own volume. This phenomenon is not considered dangerous, although its development is associated with unpleasant symptoms. Often the cyst disappears as unexpectedly as it appears. The nature of their education at the moment has not been fully studied, although physicians found that the factors that provoke the emergence and development of cysts include the processes of natural tissue death and changes in the hormonal background of the body. Since the mechanics of the formation of the cyst of the left or right ovary is directly related to the process of ovulation, the risk group can be called women of childbearing age.
Types of cysts and peculiarities of their formation
In medical practice, there are five main types of cysts:
- cysts of the yellow body;
The first two categories of formations are most often temporary, i.e. periodically arising and disappearing by themselves. The term, which is usually given by doctors before the appointment of surgical treatment is three months. This time is enough to accurately determine whether this education is able to dissolve independently or it will have to be deleted promptly. Paravariasis cyst, dermoid and endometriodal have such properties, the surgeon's help to the patient with such a diagnosis is necessary. In any case, the entire development process should be under the supervision of a doctor, both during the development of the cyst, and after its treatment by any means. This will avoid the recurrence of its appearance and adverse effects on the body. Self-medication and the use of folk methods have no effect, and prolonging the time can lead to a dangerous complication - rupture of the cyst, where emergency medical care is already required.
Follicular ovarian cyst
The reason for the appearance of the follicular cyst is an unexploded follicle in which an egg has ripened. In the normal course of the ovulation process, the egg leaves its bag, but if there are problems with the female reproductive system, this may not occur, and the cavity will continue to expand. This disorder in the ovaries often occurs in girls during sexual maturation. To the provoking such anomaly factors include early menstruation in 10-11 years, previous abortions and menstrual irregularities.
The growth of such a cyst can continue up to a size of 8-9 centimeters in diameter, until its presence is felt due to pressure on neighboring organs. 3-4 centimeter cysts are often not even diagnosed, since their development is asymptomatic, as is the disappearance. Danger of the follicular cyst is present in two cases: with a sharp rupture of its wall and in case of twisting of the leg. At the first trial, a woman experiences severe pain in the ovary region, in the second case, the process can cause irreparable harm to the body. When the legs are twisted, the blood vessels that feed the ovary tissue overlap, which can cause their death. That is why the development of the cyst should take place with the regular monitoring of the process by a gynecologist. Observation is conducted with the help of ultrasound, as a rule, this course of observation is no more than 2-3 months, for which the cyst disappears by itself.
The diagnosis of the "follicular cyst" is done mainly on the basis of complaints, examination of the gynecologist on the armchair and the data obtained with ultrasound, but further doctor appointments depend on the size of the tumor and its age. If there is no reason to suspect a negative development of the cyst, medical intervention may not be required. In the presence of large education more than 8 cm, causing pressure of neighboring organs and discomfort, a small surgical intervention is prescribed. The operation is performed with the help of laparoscopic equipment through a small hole and is not associated with global surgical operations.
If it is possible to avoid even such an operation, doctors use the method of stopping the development of the egg with the help of combined oral contraceptives. The recommended course of admission may be 3-4 months. All this time, an ultrasound procedure is periodically performed, giving the assurance that unforeseen pathological processes in the development of cysts do not occur.
Yellow body cyst
This species is similar in nature to the follicular cyst, but tissue degeneration and filling with hemorrhagic fluid occurs after the egg has left its sac. In the same fluid, blood can also be contained that does not find an outlet to the outside. The volume of such a cyst, as a rule, is small, usually it reaches no more than 4-6 centimeters in diameter. That is why the diagnosis of such education occurs either by accident, by carrying out an ultrasound examination of neighboring organs, or after the tissue rupture, cysts and hemorrhages. The process of rupture is accompanied by sharp pains from one side of the ovary, where the egg was formed.
Diagnosis and removal of the cyst of the yellow body occurs on the same principle as the follicular, with the difference that the use of contraceptives will not produce a result. With the external similarity of these two types, the doctor will easily determine the difference and control the process of formation and dissolution of the cyst occurring within 1-2 months, appointing an operative intervention only in case of a real threat to the patient's health.
Paraovarian Ovarian Cyst
Relatively large cyst, the zone of formation of which is the mesentery of the fallopian tube. Cyst filling is a clear liquid with a moderate content of protein compounds. The complexity of such education in its structure. The walls of the parovarial cyst contain blood vessels, as the material for their development is the tissues of the fallopian tubes. Independently this kind of cyst resolves rarely and in general the density of its walls is rather high. This structure also affects the rate of development, which in the case of this type of cyst is slow, and the complexity of diagnosis in the early stages.
Treatment of parovarial cysts is only surgical, often minimally invasive, with the help of laparoscopy. It is prescribed only after the final diagnosis on the basis of ultrasound data. If the result is positive, the cyst does not appear again.
Dermoid ovarian cyst
This type of cyst refers to benign, by the prevalence of all cysts is about 20%. Its localization is not limited to the ovaries, as the affected organ can act:
- soft tissues of the oral cavity;
- occipital part of head;
- internal organs;
- belly and buttocks;
- zone of ears and even eyelids.
In 2 percent of cases, a cyst can degenerate into a cancerous tumor, so any symptoms, such as the appearance of seals and foreign formations on any tissues, are the reason for an urgent call for a doctor to conduct a detailed examination.
Abnormal development of ovarian tissue begins to occur even at the stage of the embryo, as a result of falling residual embryonic matter. In the contents of the dermoid cyst, there may be both fat and bone tissues, and elements of the nervous, and even teeth and hair. Unlike other types of cysts, the age of patients with this diagnosis is not limited to genital, development of the cyst can begin even in infancy of their residual embryonic lobes, and the period of puberty only stimulates the active development of the process. The size of such a cyst can reach 15 cm, which allows even to grope it through the abdominal wall, often on the right side. An impetus to the formation of a dermoid may be a trauma to the stomach.
The initial diagnosis of the "dermoid cyst" is often carried out according to the results of the gynecological examination with palpation after the patient's treatment with complaints of pulling pains in the lower abdomen. This reaction occurs when the cyst is twisted. If a doctor discovers seals when examining and probing on the front or side wall of the uterus, ultrasound will be assigned, which will establish the exact location and size of the cyst. The removal of such a cyst is necessary, as its contents can cause inflammation and suppuration.
Treatment of this type of cyst is the surgical dissection and removal of the contents. The operation is usually performed by laparoscopic access and the recovery period does not take much time. The dermoid cyst is not able to dissolve independently, except for removing the contents and cutting down the tissues that make up it is necessary to thoroughly clean the tissues to prevent possible abscesses. Internal organs, in particular the ovaries, do not suffer during surgery, the surgical intervention does not influence the further functioning of the genital system.
Endometrioid ovarian cyst
This benign tumor formation, often bilateral, occurs when the tissues of the inner mucous membrane of the uterus enter the ovaries, and the development of processes that lead to the formation of heterotopias. This kind of cyst develops asymptomatically for a short time, showing itself aching pains in the lower abdomen and discomfort during sexual intercourse. In the advanced stage, the symptomatology becomes more obvious: not only pain is added when physical exertion increases, but also the temperature increases. This may be due to the ingress of contaminated fluid cysts into adjacent cavities through the thin tissue of its walls. This type of cyst is characterized by the ability to affect adjacent organs, not being content with specific localization.
The endometrioid cyst can spread to the tissues:
- the bladder and ureters;
- small pelvis.
The choice of treatment is also conditioned by the nature of the disease course. Since the foci of cysts can be significantly scattered, then for diagnosis of ultrasound becomes insufficient, the exact card of lesions the doctor makes on the basis of laparoscopy. Surgical removal of tumors is necessarily supplemented with anti-collapsed therapy and hormonal treatment. Patients often refuse to take hormonal medications, worrying about uncontrolled weight gain. But in this case, for the destruction of all foci of cyst formation, such therapy is necessary, otherwise the recurrent formations will negate the performed operation.
Most often, a cyst of this kind affects young women who do not give birth, ready for this process physiologically. Therefore, the treatment is based on the use of hormonal drugs. But the best cure for this kind of cyst remains a natural pregnancy, which restores a healthy hormonal background, as a rule, after the birth, repeated tumor formation does not occur.
Ovarian cyst: symptoms
While the types of cysts are different, like the principles of their formation, the symptoms accompanying their origin and development are similar. At the initial stage of development up to 2-3 weeks, the cyst rarely makes itself felt, therefore its detection is more likely an accident. Regular passage of ultrasound of the pelvic organs is the most reliable way to detect all extraneous formations and with minimal consequences for the body to conduct treatment.
In later stages, when the size is exceeded, the cyst may manifest as pulling pain or a feeling of heaviness in the lower abdomen or in the ovary region with either side, or bilateral. Cysts that are associated with the development of eggs, which are formed alternately in one of the ovaries, make themselves felt on one side. The formation of a cyst associated with pathology of tissue development can be accompanied by pulling pains throughout the lower abdomen, which often leads to false self-diagnosis and cardinally wrong methods of treatment. So the formation of an endometrioid cyst, giving up pains in the rectum or discomfort in the intestine as a whole, can be mistaken for digestive problems. Especially dangerous are attempts to extinguish the pain symptoms with analgesics, which allows for the further development of cysts, and even the possibility of its degeneration into a malignant tumor.
Sharp pains in the lower abdomen can signal the destruction of the wall of the cyst, which is fraught with the ingestion of the liquid contained in it into the abdominal cavity or about the twisting of the cyst's leg. Both phenomena are dangerous, since an untimely solution of the problem can lead to tissue necrosis and ovarian removal in the future. Exacerbation of pain is most often at the beginning of the menstrual period, and can also accompany sexual intercourse.
Briefly, symptoms that appear singly or in a complex, should be the reason for calling a doctor can be listed as follows:
- painful menstruation;
- discomfort during sexual intercourse;
- regular complaints of pain in the abdomen both acute and periodic pulling;
- spasms in different parts of the abdomen;
- palpation palpable foreign depressions;
- unexplained temperature rises;
- violation of the schedule of menstruation and sudden changes in their abundance and / or duration;
Ovarian cyst and its effect on the course of pregnancy
A cyst of any kind represents a significant danger to the process of normal fetal formation, as it can even become the cause of miscarriage. Given that women who have a tendency to develop temporary, self-destructive cysts, most often face this problem repeatedly, then ultrasound is required to pass them both in the early stages, and several times during the entire gestation period. Some types of cysts, for example the cyst of the yellow body, do not affect the course of pregnancy, and after the final diagnosis the obstetrician-gynecologist only observes its development without taking any measures. Timely removal of the cyst for the ability to bear and give birth to a healthy child is not affected.
The ability to become pregnant can be affected only by contraceptives used to limit the development of the follicular cyst, but at the end of the course of treatment, problems with conception usually do not arise.
In difficult situations, when the development of the cyst seriously affects the performance of organs, for example, when the foci spread to the entire reproductive system or if there is a disturbance in the circulation in the walls of the uterus, a doctor may recommend abortion in order to avoid pathologies in the baby. This measure is extreme and rarely used, but that's why doctors recommend treating responsibly to pregnancy planning. Preliminary examination will allow to get rid of the cyst in time and not solve the problem of its presence in such a difficult period for the body as pregnancy.
The help of nature in the treatment of ovarian cysts
In addition to the main purposes of the doctor, you can resort to the help of traditional medicine, but only as a secondary component of treatment. Vegetables and beekeeping products are the most popular among women.
The most effective folk methods in the treatment of small cysts, the course of such therapy last about two to three months, then a break for 2-3 weeks. Among the frequent components of herbal collections can be distinguished wormwood, a string, flowers of chamomile, immortelle.
Products of beekeeping can be used in the form of tinctures, tampons and syringing. A woman chooses a more suitable way for herself individually. Propolis is the most common product for the treatment of cysts, and its experience has been in use for decades. Also effective in the treatment of cysts and tampons, moistened in honey, infused with onions.
Prevention of ovarian cysts and prevention of relapses
A complete list of factors provoking the appearance of cysts has not yet been compiled. This is due to the constant degeneration of the tissues themselves, to the changing environmental situation and the social development of society, and to the individuality of the course of the disease. Nevertheless, the main, already studied reasons can be called:
- hormonal leaps and problems in the functioning of the endocrine system, in particular the thyroid gland;
- early puberty and entering into an intimate life;
- Sexual infections and their neglect;
- inflammatory and infectious diseases;
- abortion and other surgical interventions in the sexual and reproductive system.
From this list it is possible to deduce and the basic measures of preventive maintenance of formation and development of cysts:
- timely treatment in a medical institution for solving health problems, including those that seem to be harmless and non-serious;
- the control of excess weight and the solution of problems of the endocrine system, which often lead to it;
- regular medical examinations, including ultrasound, especially if the formation of cysts is a hereditary predisposition;
- healthy lifestyle,
- intelligibility and a competent approach to sexual relations and preventive measures.
The main prevention of recurrent cyst formation is their qualitative removal and follow-up. Tendency to the formation of tumors is often hereditary, so the reason for applying for a survey may be the presence of relatives facing this problem. Most cysts after removal are not re-able to form, but temporary it does not concern, the inclination to them remains for life.
Qualitatively conducted surgery intervention achieves the main goal of treatment - preventing the degeneration of the cyst into a cancerous tumor. Since modern medicine does not imply serious cuts for the removal of the cyst, the average stay in the inpatient hospital does not last more than a week, and there are practically no scars after such an operation.