- Types of cysts and features of their formation
- Ovarian follicular cyst
- Yellow body cyst
- Paraovarial ovarian cyst
- Dermoid ovarian cyst
- Endometrial ovarian cyst
- Ovarian cyst: symptoms
- Ovarian cyst and its effect on the course of pregnancy
- Nature's help in the treatment of ovarian cysts
- Prevention of ovarian cysts and prevention of recurrence
Translation from Greek rather accurately defines what a “cyst” is, literally - a bag or a bubble. A dense cavity filled with fluid, suddenly forming in the tissues of the ovary, with growth can even exceed its own volume. This phenomenon is not classified as dangerous, although its development is associated with unpleasant symptoms. Often the cyst disappears as suddenly as it appears. The nature of their formation at the moment is not fully understood, although doctors have found that the factors that provoke the emergence and development of cysts include the processes of natural tissue death and changes in the hormonal background of the body. Since the mechanics of cyst formation of the left or right ovary is directly related to the ovulation process, women of childbearing age can be called a risk group.
Types of cysts and features of their formation
In medical practice, there are five main types of cysts:
- cysts of the corpus luteum;
The first two categories of formations are most often temporary, i.e. periodically appearing and disappearing by themselves. The term, which is usually given by doctors before the appointment of surgical treatment is three months. This time is enough to accurately determine whether this formation is capable of dissolving on its own or will have to be removed promptly. A paraovarial cyst, dermoid and endometrial, do not possess such properties, the surgeon's assistance to the patient with such a diagnosis is necessary. In any case, the entire development process should take place under the supervision of a physician, both during the development of the cyst and after its treatment in any way. This will avoid the recurrence of its appearance and adverse effects on the body. Self-treatment and the use of folk methods have no effect, and delaying time can lead to a dangerous complication - rupture of a cyst, where emergency medical care is already required.
Ovarian follicular cyst
The cause of the follicular cyst is the unexploded follicle in which the egg cell has matured. In the normal course of the ovulation process, the egg leaves its bag, but if there are problems with the female reproductive system, this may not happen and the cavity will continue to grow. Such a disorder in the ovaries often occurs in girls during puberty. The factors that provoke such an anomaly include early menstruation at 10-11 years old, previous abortions and menstrual disorders.
The growth of such a cyst can continue up to a size of 8-9 centimeters in diameter, until its presence is felt due to pressure on neighboring organs. 3-4 cm cysts are often not even diagnosed, as their development is asymptomatic, as well as disappearance. Danger follicular cyst is in two cases: with a sharp rupture of its wall and in the case of twisting the leg. During the first process, the woman experiences a sharp pain in the area of the ovary, in the second case, the process can cause irreparable damage to the organ. When twisting the legs overlap the blood vessels that feed the ovarian tissue, which can cause them to die. That is why the development of a cyst should take place with regular monitoring of the process by a gynecologist. Observation is carried out using ultrasound, as a rule, such a course of observation is no more than 2-3 months, during which the cyst disappears by itself.
The diagnosis of a “follicular cyst” is made mainly on the basis of complaints, an examination by the gynecologist on the chair and the data obtained by ultrasound, but further prescription depends on the size of the tumor and its age. If there is no reason to suspect negative cyst development, medical intervention may not be necessary. In the presence of a large formation of more than 8 cm, causing pressure of neighboring organs and discomfort, minor surgical intervention is prescribed. The operation is performed using laparoscopic equipment through a small opening and is not associated with global surgical operations.
If it is possible to avoid even such an operation, doctors use the method of stopping the development of the egg with the help of combined oral contraceptives. The recommended course of admission may be 3-4 months. All this time, an ultrasound procedure is periodically carried out, giving confidence that unforeseen pathological processes in the development of a cyst do not occur.
Yellow body cyst
This species is similar in nature to a follicular cyst, but tissue degeneration and filling it with hemorrhagic fluid occurs after the egg has left its sac. In the same fluid may contain blood, not finding the way out. The volume of such cysts, as a rule, is small, usually it reaches no more than 4-6 centimeters in diameter. That is why the diagnosis of such formation occurs either by chance, during an ultrasound examination of neighboring organs, or after the rupture of cyst tissue and hemorrhage. The process of rupture is accompanied by sharp pains on one side of the ovary, where an egg cell was formed.
Diagnosis and removal of cyst of the corpus luteum occurs on the same principle as follicular, with the difference that the use of contraceptives will not result. With the external similarity of these two types, the doctor will easily determine the difference and control the process of formation and dissolution of the cyst, occurring within 1-2 months, prescribing surgery only in the event of a real threat to the patient's health.
Paraovarial ovarian cyst
Relatively large cyst, the formation zone of which is the mesentery of the fallopian tube. Cyst filling is a clear liquid with a moderate content of protein compounds. The complexity of such education in its structure. The walls of the paraovarial cyst contain blood vessels, as the material for their development was the tissue of the fallopian tubes. On its own, this type of cyst is rarely absorbed, and on the whole, the density of its walls is rather high. This structure affects the speed of development, which is slow in the case of this type of cyst, and the complexity of diagnosis in the early stages.
Treatment of a paraovarial cyst is only surgical, often minimally invasive, with the help of laparoscopy. Appointed only after the final diagnosis based on ultrasound data. If the result of the operation is positive, the cyst does not reappear.
Dermoid ovarian cyst
This type of cyst refers to benign, the prevalence of all cysts is about 20%. Its localization is not limited to the ovaries, as an affected organ can be:
- soft tissues of the mouth;
- occipital part of the head;
- internal organs;
- belly and buttocks;
- ear zone and even eyelids.
In 2 percent of cases, a cyst may degenerate into a cancer, therefore any symptoms, such as the appearance of seals and foreign structures on any tissues, are the reason for urgent medical attention to conduct a detailed examination.
Anomalous development of ovarian tissue begins to occur even at the embryonic stage, as a result of residual embryonic matter. The contents of a dermoid cyst can contain both fat and bone tissue, as well as nervous elements, and even teeth and hair. Unlike other types of cysts, the age of patients who receive such a diagnosis is not limited to childbearing, the development of a cyst can begin even in infancy of their residual embryonic petals, and the period of puberty only stimulates the active development of the process. The size of such a cyst can reach 15 cm, which makes it possible even to grope through the abdominal wall, most often on the right side. A trauma to the formation of a dermoid can also be a stomach injury.
The initial diagnosis of a dermoid cyst is most often made on the basis of the results of a pelvic examination with palpation after the patient’s treatment with complaints of nagging pain in the lower abdomen. Such a reaction occurs when twisting the legs of the cyst. If, when viewed and probed on the front or side of the uterus, the doctor detects a seal, an ultrasound scan will be prescribed, which will determine the exact location and size of the cyst. Removal of such a cyst is imperative, since its contents can cause inflammatory processes and suppuration.
The treatment of this type of cyst consists in surgical dissection and removal of the contents. The operation is usually performed with laparoscopic access and the recovery period does not take much time. A dermoid cyst is not capable of resolving on its own, except for removing the contents and cutting down the tissues that make it up, thorough cleaning of the tissues is required to prevent possible abscesses. The internal organs, in particular the ovaries, do not suffer during the operation, the surgical operation does not affect the further functioning of the childbearing system.
Endometrial ovarian cyst
This benign tumor formation, which is often bilateral, occurs when the tissues of the uterine internal mucosa get into the ovaries, and the processes that lead to the formation of heterotopies develop there. This type of cyst does not develop asymptomatically for long, manifesting itself as aching pains in the lower abdomen and discomfort during intercourse. In the advanced stage, the symptoms become more pronounced: not only pains join with increasing physical exertion, but also temperature increases. This may be due to ingress of infected cyst fluid into the adjacent cavities through the thin tissue of its walls. This type of cyst is also characterized by the ability to infect neighboring organs, not being satisfied with a specific location.
Endometrioid cyst can spread to tissues:
- bladder and ureters;
- small pelvis.
The nature of the course of the disease determines the choice of treatment. Since the foci of cysts can be significantly scattered, then for the diagnosis of ultrasound is not enough, the doctor makes an accurate map of lesions based on laparoscopy. Surgical removal of tumors is necessarily complemented by anti-adherent therapy and hormonal treatment. Patients often refuse to take hormonal drugs, worrying about uncontrolled weight gain. But in this case, for the destruction of all foci of cyst formation, such therapy is necessary, otherwise recurrent formations will nullify the operation.
Most often, a cyst of this kind affects young women who have not given birth and who are ready for this process physiologically. Therefore, treatment is based on the use of hormonal drugs. But the best treatment for this type of cyst remains a natural pregnancy, restoring a healthy hormonal background, as a rule, after birth, re-formation of the tumor does not occur.
Ovarian cyst: symptoms
Moreover, the types of cysts are different, as are the principles of their formation, the symptoms accompanying their origin and development are similar. At the initial stage of development up to 2-3 weeks, the cyst rarely makes itself felt, so its detection is more likely an accident. Regular ultrasound of the pelvic organs is the most reliable way to detect all external formations and with minimal consequences for the body to treat.
At later stages, when a certain size is exceeded, a cyst can manifest itself as pulling pains or a feeling of heaviness in the lower abdomen or in the region of the ovaries on either side or bilateral. Cysts that are associated with the development of eggs, which are formed alternately in one of the ovaries, make themselves felt on one side. The formation of a cyst associated with pathologies of tissue development may be accompanied by nagging pains throughout the lower abdomen, which often leads to false self-diagnosis and radically wrong treatment methods. So the formation of an endometrioid cyst, giving way to pain in the rectum or discomfort in the intestine as a whole, can be mistaken for digestive problems. Attempts to extinguish painful symptoms with analgesics are especially dangerous, which makes it possible to further develop the cyst, and even the possibility of its degeneration into a malignant tumor.
Sharp pains in the lower abdomen can signal the destruction of the wall of the cyst, which is fraught with penetration of fluid contained in it into the abdominal cavity or twisting the leg of the cyst. Both phenomena are dangerous, since an untimely solution to the problem can lead to tissue necrosis and the removal of the ovary in the future. Exacerbation of pain most often occurs at the beginning of the menstrual period, and may also accompany sexual intercourse.
Briefly, the symptoms, which manifest themselves alone or in combination, should cause a visit to a doctor can be listed as follows:
- painful menstruation;
- discomfort during intercourse;
- regular complaints of pain in the lower abdomen, both acute and recurrent;
- cramps in different parts of the abdomen;
- palpable alien seals;
- unexplained fever;
- irregular menstruation and abrupt changes in their abundance and / or duration;
Ovarian cyst and its effect on the course of pregnancy
A cyst of any kind is a significant danger to the process of the normal formation of the fetus, as it can even cause miscarriage. Taking into account the fact that women who have a tendency to form temporary, self-vanishing cysts most often encounter this problem more than once, they need to undergo an ultrasound either in the early stages or several times during the entire gestation period. Some types of cysts, such as the corpus luteum cyst, have no effect on the course of pregnancy, and after the final diagnosis, the obstetrician-gynecologist only observes its development without taking any measures. Timely removal of a cyst does not affect the ability to bear and give birth to a healthy child.
The ability to become pregnant can be affected only by contraceptives used to limit the development of a follicular cyst, but at the end of the course of treatment problems with conception often do not occur.
In difficult situations, when the development of a cyst seriously affects the functioning of the organs, for example, when extending its foci to the entire reproductive system or if blood circulation is disturbed in the walls of the uterus, the doctor may recommend abortion to avoid abnormalities in the infant. This measure is extreme and rarely used, but that is why doctors recommend to be responsible for planning pregnancy. Preliminary examination will allow to get rid of a cyst in a timely manner and not to solve the problem of its presence in such a difficult period for the body as pregnancy.
Nature's help in the treatment of ovarian cysts
In addition to the main prescription of a doctor, you can resort to the help of traditional medicine, but only as a minor component of treatment. The most popular among women are vegetable fees and bee products.
The most effective traditional methods for treating cysts of small sizes, the course of such therapy lasts about two to three months, then a break for 2-3 weeks is made. Among the frequent components of herbal preparations can be distinguished wormwood, string, chamomile flowers, immortelle.
Bee products can be used in the form of tinctures, tampons and douching. A woman chooses a more suitable way for herself individually. The most common product for the treatment of cysts is propolis, the experience of its use has more than one decade. Also effective in the treatment of cysts and tampons dipped in honey infused with onions.
Prevention of ovarian cysts and prevention of recurrence
A complete list of factors provoking the appearance of cysts has not been compiled. This is connected both with the constant degeneration of the tissues themselves, with the changing ecological situation and the social development of society, and with the individuality of the course of the disease. Nevertheless, the main reasons already studied can be called:
- hormonal leaps and problems of the functioning of the endocrine system, in particular of the thyroid gland;
- early puberty and entry into intimate life;
- genital infections and their neglect;
- inflammatory and infectious diseases;
- abortions and other surgical interventions in the work of the reproductive and reproductive system.
From this list can be derived and the main measures for the prevention of the formation and development of cysts:
- timely contact the medical institution to solve health problems, including those that seem to be non-dangerous and not serious;
- control of overweight and solving the problems of the endocrine system, which often lead to it;
- регулярные медосмотры, включающие УЗИ, особенно, если к образованию кист есть наследственная склонность;
- здоровый образ жизни,
- разборчивость и грамотный подход к сексуальным связям и мерам предохранения.
Основной профилактикой рецидивного образования кист является их качественное удаление и последующее наблюдение. Склонность к образованию опухолей часто является наследственной, поэтому причиной обращения за обследованием может стать и наличие родственников, сталкивающихся с подобной проблемой. Большинство кист после удаления повторно не способны образовываться, но временных это не касается, склонность к ним остается на всю жизнь.
Качественно проведенное операционное вмешательство достигает главной цели лечения – предупреждения перерождения кисты в раковую опухоль. Так как современная медицина не подразумевает серьезных разрезов для удаления кисты, то в среднем нахождение в стационаре медучреждения длиться не более недели, а шрамов после такой операции практически не остается.