Dizziness: Causes, Treatment
- In what cases is dizziness (vertigo) considered the norm?
- Weakness, nausea and dizziness in women
- Causes of dizziness
- Symptoms of dizziness
- Diagnosis with dizziness
- Treatment of dizziness
- What if I feel dizzy?
Vertigo is a subjective sensation of a violation of the position of the body in space. In other words, it seems to a person that the objects surrounding him or her rotate at different speeds around it. Such a condition can arise due to obvious physiological causes or be a symptom of a disease.
In what cases is dizziness (vertigo) considered the norm?
It is normal to feel some discomfort after a long ride on a swing or other attractions, during a sea voyage or viewing an overly realistic movie with scenes of flights and falls. Especially often such a vertex is manifested in children and can be associated with attacks of nausea and even vomiting.
Vertigo is a common thing when fasting the brain. This condition occurs during severe diets or with a general exhaustion of the body. Women who, in pursuit of a slender figure, severely restrict their daily diet, often suffer from dizziness associated with weakness up to the hardships. In such a case, it is recommended to suck a sweet candy in your mouth or drink sweet, weak tea.
Weakness, nausea and dizziness in women
It is normal to feel dizzy spells during the menstrual cycle or just before it. This is due to hormonal fluctuations, as well as a small anemia that occurs in many women with significant blood loss. With the end of the cycle, the balance of hormones is restored, and the hemoglobin synthesis processes again begin to predominate over the blood loss - the woman's condition improves and dizziness goes until the next menstruation.
Similarly, the vertex that occurs during menopause is explained. Hormonal imbalance and constant jumps of arterial pressure provoke strong dizziness, fits of weakness and heat. It is necessary to turn to a gynecologist and an endocrinologist for the selection of hormone replacement therapy, which will significantly reduce the manifestation of unpleasant symptoms.
Absolutely normal is the dizziness during child bearing. Moreover, along with bouts of morning sickness and delay in menstruation, they are considered the most reliable signs of pregnancy. Such a condition of the expectant mother usually does not cause anxiety, however, if dizziness occurs too often or precedes a loss of consciousness, then it is recommended to immediately contact a obstetrician-gynecologist to prescribe adequate therapy. Treatment in a particular case is complicated by the fact that during pregnancy, most drugs are contraindicated. For prevention of dizziness of pregnant women it is recommended:
- To increase the rest time;
- Reduce the overall burden on the body;
- Do not make sudden movements, including not getting up off the bed;
- More often to go out in the open air, to make walks in parks and squares located far away from busy highways;
- If necessary and on the recommendation of a doctor, take ginger tea or other herbal remedies.
Causes of dizziness
If the vertigo does not appear due to the causes described above, then it may indicate pathological conditions of varying severity. Diseases that cause dizziness as symptoms or complications include:
- Otitis of the inner ear. The disease usually develops as a complication of the otitis media of the middle ear and is manifested by nausea, dizziness and hearing loss. In this case, you should immediately consult a doctor to prevent the development of sepsis or meningitis, since the focus of the infection is located in close proximity to the brain. Also, slight dizziness may occur due to the formation of a sulfur plug. It is better to provide her with a safe removal to the otorhinolaryngologist, since it is very likely to push the stopper further down the auditory meatus due to inept manipulation of the cotton swab.
- Ménière's syndrome is a specific disease that manifests itself in the pathological accumulation of fluid in the inner ear. In addition to the vertigo, the patient is suffering from nausea, hearing loss, tinnitus and even vomiting.
- Neuritis of the vestibular nerve. The disease debuts sharply, which manifests itself in the form of dizziness when turning the head or abruptly rising. Usually the improvement comes in a few days, however, unpleasant symptoms can manifest themselves for a while, though to a much lesser extent.
- Acute disorders of cerebral circulation due to ischemia and stroke are manifested by severe dizziness. Stroke is life threatening for the patient, therefore, noticing the first signs of a stroke, his relatives should immediately call an ambulance. These symptoms include severe dizziness, which does not disappear at rest, double vision, face paresthesia, speech disturbance and coordination in space.
- Osteochondrosis, protrusion or hernia, which are localized in the cervical spine. Dizziness occurs when the head turns sharply. Other symptoms of the disease include pain in the neck, stiffness of movements and other sensations associated with nerve entrapment and / or blood flow disorders.
- The growth of the brain tumor, which can manifest itself in completely different states, depending on where the neoplasm is located.
- Fistula of the cochlea (perilymphatic fistula) is a pathological condition characterized by the perilymph infection in the middle ear. In this case, the patient may experience discomfort, including vertigo.
- A bruise of the brain, head and spine trauma - all these acute urgent conditions also manifest dizziness.
- Syndrome of benign positional dizziness.
- The pathology of the visual apparatus, in which rapid dizziness on the screen or pictures develops dizziness, which does not require special treatment, since it quickly passes with the normalization of visual sensations.
- A basilar migraine can cause dizziness, which is seen as the precursor of the underlying attack.
It should also be remembered that dizziness is an extremely common side effect in many medicines. Therefore, the first thing a patient should do at a doctor's appointment is to list all the medications taken. Perhaps, it is necessary to correct the scheme or plan of reception a little or completely to replace a medicine for its or his safer analogue.
Separately, it is worth mentioning age-related dizziness. Often such symptoms occur in the elderly and are associated with degenerative changes in neurons of the brain, the vestibular apparatus and in other tissues of the nervous system. Unfortunately, it is still impossible to stop this process, however, it is quite possible for modern medicine to stop seizures and significantly slow down the rate of disintegration of nerve fibers. The earlier a patient resorts to a therapist, a neurologist or a gerontologist, the more success can be achieved.
Symptoms of dizziness
If you discard the subjective feelings of the patient, the symptomatology of the vertigo includes:
- Illusion of rotation or movement of the body in space;
- Nausea and even vomiting;
- Loss of orientation in space;
- Noise or ringing in the ears, ear budding.
It is necessary to immediately consult a doctor or call an ambulance if the following signs are observed in a person:
- Severe headache associated with weakness in the limbs;
- Dizziness does not last a long time. If the usual methods do not allow you to get rid of the obsessive condition for an hour, you should immediately consult a doctor.
- If the patient suffers from diabetes mellitus or hypertension, dizziness may be a harbinger of the development of severe emergency conditions - hypertensive crisis or diabetic coma.
- The person fell unconscious after a dizziness and / or got a head injury.
- Vertigo is associated with fever.
- The patient is indomitable vomiting (more than 5 episodes per day).
As already clear from the listed diseases, which can cause dizziness, the latter can be of central origin or peripheral. Central dizziness is associated directly with injuries or brain tumors, as well as stroke or ischemia of any area. Vertigo of peripheral origin is usually associated with disorders in the inner ear or other diseases of the nervous system located outside the brain.
Also, all cases of vertigo can be divided into vertigo, arising for systemic reasons and non-systemic. The first include symptoms associated with vision or hearing impairment. Dizziness of a non-systemic nature includes, for example, motion sickness or toxicosis during pregnancy.
Diagnosis with dizziness
The very fact of dizziness in diagnosis does not need, it is necessary to find out the cause of its occurrence. Sometimes it is obvious - pregnancy, travel by sea, strict non-carbohydrate diet. The remaining cases require the advice of a therapist, lor, neurologist and other specialists of a narrow profile.
First, the doctor will recommend to pass vestibular tests to find out the severity of the disease, as well as posturography.
The ENT assigns diagnostic procedures associated with determining the threshold of hearing and functional hearing impairment.
In order to get exhaustive information about the brain, you need to undergo an MRI or ultrasound of the corresponding vessels. Similarly, the diagnosis of the condition of various parts of the spinal column is carried out.
Treatment of dizziness
Treatment of the underlying disease, which causes dizziness, is possible only with a limited range of pathologies. Often the cause of this condition of the patient remains unknown. In such cases, doctors prescribe symptomatic treatment aimed at eliminating an unpleasant sensation.
In the complex therapy of dizziness, the following medicines are used:
- Antihistamines, as the relationship between the development of the vertigo and the histaminergic system of the body has been proved.
- Tranquilizers, capable of removing the obsessive state of anxiety.
- Antiemetics, if dizziness is associated with nausea and indomitable vomiting.
- Betagistin is a structural analogue of histamine, which most effectively fights with dizziness. It enhances the release of specific neurotransmitters and improves blood flow to the inner ear. The drug is not addictive and does not have any dangerous side effects, so it can be used in long-term therapy.
What if I feel dizzy?
If you are worried about rare dizziness that is not associated with serious diseases, then you need to remember a few simple rules:
- In the case of a nervous overstrain associated with a feeling of dizziness, you need to sit down, relax and inhale the liquid with a pungent odor. It can be ordinary ammonia alcohol, which should be in every medicine cabinet.
- If you feel a specific weakness when you suddenly get out of bed or otherwise change the position of the body in space, most likely, it is an orthostatic hypotension. Avoid rapid rapid movements. On the morning of awakening, sit for a few minutes on the bed before you go up. Do not lean sharply and squat.
- If dizziness has begun after a trauma or stroke, you should immediately contact the hospital.
- If you feel dizzy and have heart problems - pressure, chest pain, numbness of the left arm, then urgent cardiologist consultation is needed.
- If you are cared for in transport, then it is necessary to use special pills from motion sickness or to dissolve mint candies. Almost every tenth person on the planet experiences discomfort during the movement of the vehicle, whether it is an airplane, a ship or a car.
- Dizziness can develop when the neck is strongly compressed, for example, with a tight collar of a shirt or a tie. This phenomenon is called the syndrome of the carotid sinus. If you know this, then just relax the gate a little and it will all go away.
- If you are on a strict diet, then a sweet, weak, warm tea will help or just candy. In the future, however, reconsider the caloric content of the diet in favor of a certain increase or add to the menu products with slow carbohydrates in the composition.
In any case, you should sit in a chair in such a way that around there were no sharp corners and other dangerous details. Unfasten the tight clothing - belt or shirt. Breathe deeply and slowly. You can not close your eyes. A light massage of little fingers or thumbs helps to gain consciousness.