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Hypertrophic gastritis

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Hypertrophic gastritis Hypertrophic gastritis is a form of chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa, characterized by abnormal growth of the mucous membrane, the formation of cysts and polyps on it. This form of gastritis is very common in recent years, and is increasingly being diagnosed in people of different ages.



Types of hypertrophic gastritis

Depending on the type of deformation of the gastric mucosa, the following types of hypertrophic gastritis are distinguished:

  • Menetria disease - characterized by the identification of huge folds in the gastric mucosa. It is subdivided into 3 forms: dyspeptic, pseudo-tumorous and asymptomatic.
  • Granular form - when diagnosing a cyst on the mucous membrane.
  • Warty hypertrophic gastritis - characterized by the identification of warts on the surface of the gastric mucosa.
  • Polypous gastritis - in the detection of polyps on the mucous membrane.

The growths on the mucosa are single and multiple. Sometimes hypertrophies are arranged in groups.

Causes of gastritis

In order to help a sick person and prescribe him adequate treatment, the doctor must, first of all, determine the cause of the onset of gastritis. Consider the most common causes of inflammation in the stomach.

Helicobacter Pylori bacterium

Today, physicians consider the Helicobacter pylori bacterium to be one of the main causes of the development of the inflammatory process in the stomach. This statement is only half true. According to statistics, in 90% of the population this bacterium is present in the gastric juice, but not all of these people suffer from gastritis. From this we can conclude that in itself Helicobacter pylori does not cause inflammation in the stomach, but is only a predisposing factor for the development of pathology.

The bacterium enters the body with poor-quality food and, thanks to its flagella, moves freely through the stomach. Having reached the mucous membrane, Helicobacter pylori is attached to the cell surface. In the course of its vital activity, the bacterium begins to actively secrete a substance that increases the acidity of the stomach, which in turn strongly irritates the mucous membrane. The mucous membrane in response to the irritant begins to actively produce gastrin, a substance that stimulates the production of hydrochloric acid. Gastric juice becomes more aggressive for the membranes of the gastrointestinal tract, and the bacterium Helicobacter, by contrast, feels great in this environment, and further stimulates the cells of the body to produce hydrochloric acid and pepsin.

Reflux

This reason for the development of the inflammatory process in the stomach is associated with a violation of the movement of the contents of the stomach through the alimentary canal. When reflux occurs in humans, the duodenum is thrown back into the stomach. The main danger to the gastric mucosa is bile, which has the ability to dissolve the protective layer of mucus on the inner surface of the stomach, thereby allowing hydrochloric acid to cause severe chemical burns in the stomach. With this pathology, gastritis begins to develop rapidly.

One of the common causes of gastritis is increased nervousness and emotional instability of a person. Due to constant mental stress in a person, the work of the autonomic nervous system is disrupted, which can provoke the development of diseases of many organs and systems, including the alimentary canal.

Lack of diet

To date, a violation in the diet takes the main and leading role in the development of diseases of the digestive tract. Negative effects on the body and malnutrition, and overeating. Of great importance is the composition of the daily diet and adherence to diet. People who neglect a full meal in favor of snacking are much more likely to develop gastritis.

Increased acidity of the stomach

On an empty stomach, the acidity of the stomach is about 1.5-3.0 pH. This is a rather acidic environment that does not allow the pathogenic microflora to multiply and secrete the products of their vital activity. Frequent stress, neglect of full meals, abuse of spices, spicy dishes, spices and strong coffee, as well as taking certain medications can cause a pathological increase in the level of acidity in the stomach, which is a direct way to the development of gastritis.

Symptoms of hypertrophic gastritis

Hypertrophic gastritis is most common in people from 30 to 50 years old, however, there were cases when this disease was detected in young children. The main symptoms of this disease are:

  • pains in the area of ​​the whining character of the epigastrium, sometimes with periods of exacerbation and cutting attacks;
  • heartburn (this symptom is characteristic of hypertrophic gastritis with high acidity or reflux gastritis);
  • nausea, excessive salivation and vomiting;
  • flatulence and feeling of pain in the stomach;
  • loss of appetite, sometimes to its complete absence;
  • weight loss of the patient;
  • impaired stool;
  • heaviness and discomfort associated with meals.

Diagnosis of hypertrophic gastritis

General examination of the patient does not reveal visible signs of inflammation of the gastric mucosa and the presence of hypertrophic areas in it. However, sometimes the clinical signs of gastritis can manifest themselves so intensely that the patient is forced to occupy a certain position in order to minimize pain. The initial examination of the patient includes:

  • collecting history of the disease,
  • visual inspection of the skin and visible mucous membranes,
  • palpation of the abdomen.

As a rule, during gastritis pain when pressing on the stomach is localized in the epigastric region.

Mandatory research in the diagnosis of gastritis in a patient is to determine the level of acidity of the stomach. This can be done in several ways, but most often gastroenterologists use EFGDS (esophageal gastroduodenoscopy). This study is characterized by conducting sensing of the stomach and duodenum, followed by sampling of bile. If necessary, during an EFGD patient, a biopsy can be performed in parallel (pinch off a piece of growth of the mucous membrane) for the purpose of histological examination of the material obtained.

If for some reason it is impossible to probe, then the patient is prescribed an acid test. This test is as follows: the patient is advised to take 2 tablets of a special preparation and, after a certain time, spend several urine samples. Acidity of urine, which is determined in the laboratory, can approximately indicate the level of acidity of the stomach.

Detection of Helicobacter pylori bacteria

In modern gastroenterology, there are several ways to identify the bacterium Helicobacter:

  • Analysis of feces - with the help of special laboratory studies determines the antigen of the bacterium Helicobacter in the body.
  • Respiratory test - the patient is given to take a drug with labeled carbon atoms. After a certain time, the patient is asked to breathe into a special apparatus, which catches the increased content in the exhaled air of the waste products of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.
  • Fibrogastroscopy is characterized by examination of the gastric mucosa with the help of a special apparatus with an optical system at the end. With the introduction of the fibrogastroscope in the stomach, the display of the mucous membrane is displayed on the monitor screen. In addition to the possibility of a visual assessment of the state of the gastric mucosa, gastric juice can be taken for further research in the laboratory.

Treatment of hypertrophic gastritis

In the mild form of the disease can be treated in an outpatient clinic. In the acute period of gastritis, the patient is prescribed symptomatic therapy. To reduce pain and neutralize the inflammatory process in the stomach, prescribed drugs that help reduce the production of hydrochloric acid and exert a protective effect on the affected mucosa. Such drugs include antacids and proton pump blockers (drugs that block receptors responsible for the production of enzymes and hydrochloric acid).

Antacids are available in the form of gels, tablets or syrups, which contain a large amount of aluminum, calcium, bismuth salts and magnesium. Getting on the gastric mucosa, such drugs neutralize the increased acidity in the stomach, enveloping the entire surface, so that the cells of the body can recover. In addition, antacids help reduce the pathological activity of the Helicobacter pylori bacteria. If a Helicobacter bacterium is detected, the patient must be prescribed a course of antibiotic therapy.

With the ineffectiveness of conservative methods of treatment and the progression of gastritis raises the question of surgical removal of growths from the mucosa or partial resection of the stomach.

A prerequisite for the treatment of hypertrophic gastritis is patient compliance with a special gentle diet.

In hypertrophic gastritis, the principle of fractional and frequent feeding is very important (5-6 times a day in small portions). On average, the mass of the accepted portion at a time should not exceed 400 grams. Patients with this form of gastritis need food rich in proteins. After surgery, many patients completely refuse to eat, as most of them have a fear of pain.

During the first 6 months after the operation on the stomach, the patient should eat only the ground form. Special attention is paid to the temperature of food consumed - the dishes should not be too hot or cold so that the body does not spend additional resources on its cooling or heating.

Such products are contraindicated: chocolate, coffee and strong black tea, alcoholic beverages, sausage, sausages, grapes, fish and canned meat, spicy seasonings and spices, sour cream, black bread, lard, pork, mushrooms, fatty fish, products from butter dough, fresh bread.

Recommended: ground grated soups, non-sour cottage cheese, sour milk, low-fat and mild cheese, boiled turkey, rabbit, chicken without skin and fat, lean beef (in the form of meatballs), low-fat fish, yesterday’s white bread, dried fruit compotes, kissels, oatmeal porridge, soft-boiled eggs (no more than 1 piece per day), steam omelet from proteins.

Despite the fact that gastroenterologists recommend patients to use fermented milk products, during periods of exacerbation of gastritis, do not drink kefir. This drink is quite sour and may further irritate the injured gastric mucosa. It is better to replace kefir with ryazhenka or cream.

A very useful product for gastritis is an apple. This fruit is rich in pectin, thanks to which the work of the entire digestive tract is improved. In the period of acute apple is better to use in baked form.

Also, when gastritis gastroenterologists recommend drinking milk with the addition of a spoonful of honey. This tool is great for gastritis with a high level of acidity. An important condition is to use the drink in the form of heat, it is better before bedtime. Milk reduces the acidity of the stomach and envelops the mucous membrane, and honey, thanks to its microelements and vitamins, has an anti-inflammatory effect on the body as a whole.

Forecast

The course of hypertrophic gastritis can be long and will require the patient to be very patient and follow all medical recommendations. During the period of treatment, periods of stable remission and exacerbations of the inflammatory process are possible. Very often, doctors observe the transition of hypertrophic gastritis to the atrophic form. Also in some cases, possible complications in the form of gastric bleeding.

Prevention of hypertrophic gastritis

The prevention of gastritis is as follows:

  • full and rational nutrition;
  • rejection of bad habits;
  • timely treatment of pathologies of the digestive tract.

Remember that any disease is better to prevent than to cure. If you suspect a disease of the stomach, do not hesitate to contact a doctor-gastroenterologist.


| November 29, 2014 | | 7 871 | Diseases of the digestive tract
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