- What are gingivitis (classification)
- The causes and development of the disease
- What symptoms indicate the presence of gingivitis?
- How to distinguish gingivitis from other diseases of the gums?
- Gingivitis treatment
- Treatment of gingivitis folk remedies
- How to eat with gingivitis?
- Features of catarrhal gingivitis
- Features of necrotizing gingivitis
- Features of hypertrophic gingivitis
- Features of atrophic gingivitis
- Gingivitis during pregnancy
- How to prevent gingivitis?
The disease affects only the mucous membrane, without reducing the degree of strength of the periodontal ligaments (the teeth do not become mobile), therefore it is considered the easiest form of gum disease. In the early stages, gingivitis does not cause any particular inconvenience and is easily treatable. But if you let the process out of control - it develops into a chronic form, which is much more difficult to get rid of.
If you feel discomfort in the mouth during a meal or worried about bleeding gums when brushing your teeth - consult a doctor immediately.
What are gingivitis (classification)
Professional dentists use the following form of gingivitis classification:
1. The prevalence are distinguished:
- Localized (a small portion of the gum is inflamed)
- Generalized (mucosa of the entire jaw affected)
2. By severity are divided into:
3. By the nature of the flow are:
4. According to the form of the disease, gingivitis is distinguished:
5. In a separate group is allocated:
- Juvenile gingivitis
- Ginigvit pregnant.
The causes and development of the disease
There can be several reasons:
- Poor oral hygiene;
- Reduced immunity;
- Poor or improper dental treatment (improperly placed dentures and braces; overhanging edges of fillings that injure the gums);
- Presence of supragingival dental calculus on the teeth;
- Lack of vitamins and minerals;
- Exhaustion of the body due to severe, prolonged illness;
- AIDS, tuberculosis , hepatitis, diabetes mellitus or other diseases of organs and systems of the chronic form;
- Trauma to the gums.
The main cause of gingivitis is poor oral hygiene. A soft coating that remains on the border of the tooth with the gum gradually turns into tartar . In this place, bacteria that multiply the inflammatory process called “gingivitis” actively proliferate.
The pathogenesis is that the body responds to the invasion of pathogenic bacteria by the occurrence of an inflammatory process.
The tooth is covered with a special biological film, which is involved in the formation of soft plaque. Residues of food linger on it, mineralized and turned into an incubator for the production of bacteria. Bacteria, in turn, penetrate into the gum and begin to release toxins that damage mucous membrane cells. Exactly in the place where intoxication of tissues occurred, edema and redness appear. The gum pocket (the space between the tooth and the adjacent edge of the gum) is expanding. Gradually, the gums begin to bleed.
What symptoms indicate the presence of gingivitis?
The higher the severity, the more pronounced the swelling and redness of the gums. With a severe form of hyperemia captures the entire jaw up to the point of transition of the gums in the mucous membrane of the lips.
All forms of gingivitis are characterized by painful sensations when chewing food, bleeding, the appearance of an unpleasant smell from the mouth, itching and discomfort in the area of localization of inflammation.
In the acute course of the disease, the symptoms appear suddenly and are pronounced. Severe pain and sudden redness of the gums indicate acute gingivitis.
In chronic form, symptoms appear in the acute season (spring and autumn) and are not so pronounced. Discomfort is present, but tolerable. Bleeding gums may increase.
For each form of gingivitis is characterized by certain symptoms, but the general signs are quite enough to go to the dentist. The periodontist will be able to more accurately assess all the criteria for the disease and prescribe the appropriate treatment.
How to distinguish gingivitis from other diseases of the gums?
The task of diagnostics is to distinguish gingivitis from periodontitis, stomatitis and periodontal disease on special grounds, since they have similar symptoms.
Periodontitis is also an inflammatory disease of the gums with bleeding and the formation of periodontal (gum) pockets. It develops due to untreated gingivitis. In contrast to periodontitis, with gingivitis, the teeth are not loosened, and the jaw bone tissue is not destroyed.
Periodontal disease helps to expose the necks of the teeth and destruction (resorption) of the alveolar process of the jaw (part of the jaw in which the roots of the teeth are located). Often, the expanding tartar takes the place that is released when the gums drop. After professional tooth brushing, gaps appear and the roots become bare. Periodontal disease is similar to gingivitis only in that the teeth remain motionless.
With regard to stomatitis, it gives the place of localization. Inflammation of the entire oral mucosa (cheeks, tongue, palate) is characteristic of stomatitis, and gingivitis affects only the marginal part of the gums.
If gingivitis is detected early, treatment will be quick and easy. Modern methods used in dentistry, can cure the acute form within 10 days. But the disease, which has passed into the chronic stage, requires a long and persistent treatment.
There are many methods of treatment, and the choice of a particular method depends on several factors:
- From the form of the disease;
- From severity and neglect;
- From the age category of the patient;
- From the cause.
Immediately before starting treatment, it is necessary to carry out professional cleaning and clean the teeth from mineralized and non-mineralized deposits (tartar and soft plaque). When the gum is released from the root causes of the disease, the clinical picture improves dramatically. Some patients discontinue treatment, inspired by this fact. This should not be done. It is very important to finish the treatment, otherwise gingivitis will recur in the near future.
Bearing in mind that oral hygiene plays a crucial role in carrying out successful treatment, the periodontist must send the patient to a special room for hygiene training, or explain the rules of dental care for himself.
If gingivitis is local, the cause may be a hanging edge (sharp, unpolished area) of the filling. To eliminate the symptoms, the doctor corrects the filling or changes it to a new one.
All known methods of treatment of gingivitis include the point of use of drugs, and in case of a high degree of severity of the disease, minor surgery may be necessary.
Drugs used to treat gingivitis
Compulsory vitamins are prescribed to the patient as gingivitis often occurs against the background of decreased immunity. Especially important is vitamin C, which strengthens the walls of blood vessels and reduces bleeding.
A periodontist may prescribe injections of vitamins. To do this, use lincomycin, cyanocobalamin and lidocaine. Vitamins are needed for local relief of symptoms, and lidocaine is designed to alleviate pain.
Sometimes gingivitis treatment requires antibiotics. They allow you to effectively deal with the disease in the acute stage and prevent the occurrence of complications. You should take antibiotics only as directed by your doctor, since you may have contraindications to them.
Gels and ointments in the gingivitis treatment complex
For local treatment, gels and ointments are used, which reduce the intensity of inflammation and alleviate the symptoms. Such ointments as Metragil Denta and Solcoseryl can relieve pain and itching for a long time. They cover the gum with a thin film that protects it from chemical and temperature irritants, thereby preventing the occurrence of discomfort.
The patient must brush his teeth twice a day, no matter how unpleasant it is to touch the sore spot with a brush. It is impossible to spare the gum, but it is not recommended to injure with a stiff brush.
Toothpaste should be chosen with a healing and anti-inflammatory effect, which consists of medicinal herbs (sage, chamomile, yarrow, calendula). They strengthen the gums, reduce swelling and bleeding.
When gingivitis whitening toothpastes are contraindicated, as they contain a large number of abrasives and mechanically irritate the gingival margin. They should be discarded until the gums become healthy again.
Treatment of gingivitis folk remedies
Those who prefer traditional traditional medicine should be aware that without the help of a dentist, gingivitis cannot be completely cured. But, in conjunction with the appointment of a periodontist, traditional methods can speed up treatment.
For quick recovery, it is important to keep your mouth clean. Oral baths and rinsing from decoctions of healing herbs will help.
Recipes for making decoctions for rinsing:
- One tablespoon of sage leaves pour 200 ml boiling water and leave for 20 minutes. Cool at room temperature, strain and rinse the mouth after each meal.
According to this recipe, you can make a decoction of chamomile flowers. Chamomile accelerates the process of regeneration (healing) of the gums and has a bactericidal effect.
- Rinsing with baking soda solution has a positive effect on gingivitis. You need to dissolve one teaspoon of soda in a glass of warm, boiled water and rinse your mouth with it every time.
- Celandine and oak bark have astringent properties, reduce bleeding and relieve swelling with inflammation of the gums. To prepare the broth, take two tablespoons of chopped oak bark and dry herb celandine, and pour two cups of boiling water. The broth is cooled at room temperature. Four times a day, rinse with this decoction of the mouth, until the withdrawal of symptoms.
How to eat with gingivitis?
The diet of a gingivitis sufferer should include as much fresh fruit and vegetables as possible.
- A large amount of vitamin C, which helps strengthen the blood vessels and reduce bleeding, is found in citrus fruits.
- Apples and pears contain pectin and trace elements, accelerating the regeneration process.
- Berries (blackberries, currants, raspberries) enrich the body with vitamins and minerals, increasing its overall immunity.
- Vegetables are rich in fiber and antioxidants. By including cabbage, carrots and zucchini in the menu, you can speed up metabolic processes in the body and reduce the time of regeneration (healing) of the gums.
Features of catarrhal gingivitis
Catarrhal gingivitis occurs due to poor oral hygiene against the background of decreased immunity (after an infectious disease), endocrine diseases and diseases of the cardiovascular system. The body is depleted and can not effectively deal with a large amount of plaque. For bacteria, this is a favorable period to actively contribute to the development of oral diseases, especially gingivitis.
Acute catarrhal gingivitis manifests itself by the sudden appearance of acute pain, deterioration of well-being and an increase in temperature to subfebrile (37 degrees C). The patient is worried about swelling, redness and burning of the gums. Eating is difficult, as the gum responds to any mechanical irritation.
Unfortunately, many patients try to treat themselves and do not help cure gingivitis, but alleviate the symptoms and turn the disease into a chronic stage.
If you go to a doctor right away, as soon as your gums start to bother you, acute gingivitis will disappear quickly and completely.
Chronic catarrhal gingivitis is an advanced stage of the disease. Symptoms are not so acute and the discomfort appears most often when eating and brushing teeth. But the classic signs (bleeding and hyperemia) indicate the presence of gum disease.
A long course of the disease may contribute to an increase in the depth of the gum pockets and the appearance of cyanosis of the gums.
Chronic catarrhal gingivitis is detected when visiting a dentist during an exacerbation of the disease, or if a person visits a doctor for dental treatment. The exacerbation stage, in symptoms, resembles the acute form of gingivitis.
Treatment of catarrhal gingivitis lasts no more than two weeks. To begin to be a professional teeth cleaning. Then the doctor checks for the presence of abnormal orthopedic structures and sharp edges of fillings in the oral cavity. If any - they need to be replaced. The patient is assigned complex vitamins to strengthen the gums and the whole organism.
The above measures should be sufficient to eliminate gingivitis, but if the disease continues to progress, antibiotics and a course of physiotherapy procedures (electrophoresis, hydromassage and gum automasage) are necessary.
Features of necrotizing gingivitis
Necrotizing gingivitis is called “Vincent's necrotizing gingivitis,” or simply ulcerative gingivitis. As well as catarrhal gingivitis, necrotizing ulcers can proceed in an acute form or go into the chronic stage. Often it is a consequence of the advanced catarrhal form of the disease.
Acute ulcerative gingivitis affects both jaws at once, causing acute pain in the gums' mucous membrane. Main symptoms:
- The appearance of multiple sores on the gums;
- Putrid odor from the mouth;
- Increased temperature and general weakness;
- Severe swelling, redness and spontaneous bleeding of the gums.
The acute stage begins unexpectedly and causes acute pain about itself. It should be noted that ulcerative gingivitis affects the body, weakened after infectious diseases. Sometimes it is a sign of infection with AIDS.
Chronic ulcerative gingivitis is more common in adolescents who pay insufficient attention to the cleanliness of the oral cavity. Symptoms are the same, but less pronounced and more tolerant. The main complaint is bad breath.
Treatment , in addition to the mandatory removal of dental plaque, includes the treatment of each sore with an antiseptic solution, as well as taking antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs (penicillin, metronidazole).
At home, the patient should do mouth baths with chlorhexidine or with hydrogen peroxide. A positive effect on the treatment process have decoctions of medicinal herbs.
Features of hypertrophic gingivitis
Hypertrophic gingivitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is accompanied by the proliferation of periodontal soft tissue. The volume of gum tissue increases so much that it can cover a significant part of the dental crown.
The causes of hypertrophic gingivitis can be:
- Poor quality prostheses;
- Chronic diseases of the endocrine and nervous systems;
- Long-term use of hormonal drugs and antibiotics;
- Hormonal failure of the body;
- Mechanical injury;
A distinctive feature of hypertrophic gingivitis is that in most cases the disease is localized in the region of the front teeth of the upper jaw.
There are fibrous and edematous forms of the disease.
Edematous hypertrophic gingivitis is characterized by enlarged gingival papillae, tenderness and bleeding. The overgrown gum partially covers the crowns of the teeth.
When the fibrous form of pain and bleeding is not, the color of the mucous membrane remains the same. The patient only complains about the aesthetic appearance of the gums.
There are 3 degrees of development of hypertrophic gingivitis :
- The gum begins to increase in volume, gingival nipples expand.
- The disease progresses, gum covers dental crowns by 50%.
- Hyperplasia of the gums and papillae pronounced, they cover the teeth almost to the cutting edges. The mucous membrane of the gums is covered with granulations, which bleed at the slightest touch.
A feature of the treatment of hypertrophic gingivitis is the mandatory appointment of such physiotherapy procedures as electrophoresis with calcium gluconate or heparin, gum massage and darsonvalization.
Particular attention is paid to taking drugs that reduce vascular permeability and vitamins E and C.
Features of atrophic gingivitis
Atrophic gingivitis is manifested by atrophy of the gingival margin and papillae, that is, the clinical picture is the reverse hypertrophic form of gingivitis. Atrophic form is considered the initial stage of periodontal disease, since no symptoms of the inflammatory process in the tissues are observed.
The disease develops with:
- Neurohumoral disorders in the body;
- Age-related changes in periodontal tissues in the elderly;
- Anomalies of attachment of bridles in children;
- Improper orthodontic treatment.
There are localized (atrophy of the gums in a certain area) and generalized (exposing the necks of the teeth of the entire jaw) form.
Treatment involves removing the root causes of gingular atrophy and prescribing medications that improve blood circulation and metabolism.
To do this, use different types of massage, darsonvalization, electrophoresis with vitamin B1 and hydroaeroionization.
Gingivitis during pregnancy
More than half of pregnant women suffer from gum disease called "gingivitis in pregnant women." Waiting for a child is fraught with not only positive emotions, but also serious changes in the hormonal background of a woman. With a lack of vitamins and minerals, the tissues of the teeth and periodontal tissue (bone tissue of the jaw and gums) are weakened. A pregnant woman is at risk for oral diseases.
Gingivitis occurs most often in the second trimester of pregnancy. The gums become loose, bright red, swelling and bleeding. The disease occurs not only in those who poorly monitor oral hygiene, but also in women who are actively caring for their teeth.
It is believed that pregnant gingivitis disappears on its own after the birth of a child. This is not entirely correct information. Just the acute stage can become chronic and the symptoms disappear for a while. There is another option: the occurrence of complications. In this case, not only the mother can suffer, but also the child.
Prevention of gingivitis in pregnant women
- Visit the dentist in the first months of pregnancy and remove all dental deposits.
- Taking care of the cleanliness of the oral cavity, both before and during and after pregnancy.
- Using not only toothpaste and brush, but also dental floss and irrigator. It has been proven that the irrigator increases the effectiveness of the fight against gingivitis by 50 percent, and with bleeding gums - by 90 percent.
Treatment during pregnancy is somewhat difficult, since the intake of certain drugs may harm the baby. But the dentist must remove all dental deposits and prescribe a vitamin and mineral complex to strengthen the body.
How to prevent gingivitis?
Prevention is quite simple and everyone, if desired, will be able to protect themselves from inflammatory diseases of the gums. You just need to follow a few simple rules:
- You should brush your teeth regularly in the morning (after breakfast) and in the evening (before bedtime). Toothbrushes of medium hardness are most effective, as soft ones poorly clean teeth from plaque, and hard ones can traumatize the gums. Toothpaste can be chosen at its discretion, good, the choice is large enough. It should be noted that the effectiveness of oral hygiene does not depend on the high cost of the paste, but on how well you brush your teeth: perform semi-rotary, pushing movements directed from the junction of the gums and the crown of the tooth. Check with your tongue, have your teeth become smooth? If there are rough spots, carefully brush over them again.
- Use dental floss.
- Twice a year do a professional dental cleaning in the dentist’s office.
- Eat more hard fruits and vegetables (apples, carrots, etc.). They are not only rich in vitamins, but also mechanically clean the teeth from soft plaque.
By following these rules, you protect yourself not only from gingivitis, but also from other diseases of the teeth and oral mucosa.
- Hypertrophic gingivitis
- Necrotizing gingivitis
- Catarrhal gingivitis
- Bleeding gums
- Periodontal disease