- What are gingivitis (classification)
- Causes and development of the disease
- What symptoms indicate the presence of gingivitis?
- How to distinguish gingivitis from other gum diseases?
- Treatment of gingivitis
- Treatment of gingivitis with folk remedies
- How to eat properly with gingivitis?
- Features of catarrhal gingivitis
- Features of ulcerative necrotic gingivitis
- Features of hypertrophic gingivitis
- Features of atrophic gingivitis
- Gingivitis in Pregnancy
- How to prevent the appearance of gingivitis?
The disease affects only the mucous membrane, without reducing the strength of the dentogingival ligament (the teeth do not become mobile), therefore it is considered the easiest form of gum disease. In the early stages, gingivitis does not cause any particular inconvenience and is easily treatable. But if you release the process from control, it grows into a chronic form, which is much more difficult to get rid of.
If you feel discomfort in the oral cavity during meals, or if you are worried about bleeding gums when brushing your teeth - contact your doctor immediately.
What are gingivitis (classification)
Professional dentists use the following form of classification of gingivitis:
1. In terms of prevalence,
- Localized (inflamed a small area of the gum)
- Generalized (the mucous membrane of the entire jaw is affected)
2. In terms of severity, they are divided into:
3. The nature of the current is:
4. The form of the disease distinguishes between gingivitis:
- Ulcerative necrotic
5. A separate group is distinguished by:
- Youthful gingivitis
- Ginigvit pregnant.
Causes and development of the disease
The reasons can be several:
- Poor hygiene of the oral cavity;
- Decreased immunity;
- Poor or incorrect dental treatment (improperly placed dentures and braces, overhanging edges of seals that injure the gum);
- Presence of over - and subgingival calculus on the teeth;
- The period of puberty;
- Lack of vitamins and minerals;
- Depletion of the body due to a severe, prolonged illness;
- AIDS, tuberculosis , hepatitis, diabetes mellitus or other diseases of chronic organs and systems;
- Gum injury.
The main cause of gingivitis is unsatisfactory oral hygiene. A soft plaque that remains on the border of the tooth with the gum gradually turns into tartar . In this place, bacteria are actively multiplying, which cause an inflammatory process called gingivitis.
Pathogenesis is that the body responds to the invasion of pathogenic bacteria by the occurrence of an inflammatory process.
The tooth is covered with a special biological film, which participates in the formation of soft plaque. The remains of food linger on it, are mineralized and turn into an incubator for the production of bacteria. Bacteria, in turn, penetrate into the gum and begin to secrete toxins that damage the cells of the mucous membrane. It is in the place where there was an intoxication of tissues, there is swelling and redness. The gingival pocket (the space between the tooth and the adjacent edge of the gum) expands. Gradually, the gum begins to bleed.
What symptoms indicate the presence of gingivitis?
The higher the severity, the more pronounced the swelling and redness of the gums will be. In severe form, hyperemia seizes the entire jaw, right up to the place where the gums go into the mucous membrane of the lips.
All forms of gingivitis are characterized by painful sensations when chewing food, bleeding, the appearance of bad breath from the oral cavity, itching and unpleasant sensations in the area of inflammation.
In acute disease, the symptoms appear suddenly and have a pronounced character. Severe pain and sudden reddening of the gums indicate acute gingivitis.
In chronic form, signs appear during the exacerbation season (in spring and autumn) and are not so pronounced. Discomfort is present, but tolerable. Gum bleeding may increase.
For each form of gingivitis, certain symptoms are characteristic, but the common signs are quite enough for a trip to the dentist. The doctor-periodontist will be able to more accurately assess all the criteria for the disease and prescribe the appropriate treatment.
How to distinguish gingivitis from other gum diseases?
The task of diffodiagnosis is to distinguish gingivitis from periodontitis, stomatitis and periodontitis, as they have a similar symptomatology.
Periodontitis is also an inflammatory disease of the gums with bleeding and the formation of periodontal (gingival) pockets. It develops due to untreated gingivitis. In contrast to periodontitis, with gingivitis, teeth are not loosened, and the bone tissue of the jaw is not destroyed.
Periodontal disease contributes to bareing the necks of the teeth and destroying (dissolving) the alveolar process of the jaw (the portion of the jaw in which the roots of the teeth are located). Often, expanding tartar takes up a place that is released when the gum is lowered. After a professional cleaning of teeth there are cracks and bare roots. With gingivitis, parodontosis is only similar in that the teeth remain immobile.
As for stomatitis, it gives the place of localization. Inflammation of the entire mucous membrane of the mouth (cheeks, tongue, palate) is typical for stomatitis, and gingivitis affects only the marginal part of the gum.
Treatment of gingivitis
If you identify gingivitis at an early stage, treatment will be quick and easy. Modern methods used in dentistry, can cure acute form within 10 days. But the disease, which has passed into the chronic stage, requires a long and persistent treatment.
There are many methods of treatment, and the choice of a certain method depends on several factors:
- From the form of the disease;
- From the degree of severity and neglect;
- From the age category of the patient;
- From the cause of the occurrence.
Immediately before the beginning of treatment it is necessary to carry out professional cleaning and clean the teeth from mineralized and non-mineralized deposits (tartar and soft plaque). When the gum is released from the root cause of the disease, the clinical picture dramatically improves. Some patients stop treatment inspired by this fact. This should not be done. It is very important to bring the treatment to completion, otherwise a recurrence of gingivitis will occur in the near future.
Bearing in mind that oral hygiene plays a decisive role in successful treatment, the periodontist should refer the patient to a special room for hygiene training, or explain the rules of dental care himself.
If the gingivitis is of a local nature, the cause may be an overhanging edge (sharp, unpolished area) of the seal. To eliminate symptoms, the doctor adjusts the seal or changes it to a new one.
All known methods of treatment of gingivitis include the point of use of medicines, and in the case of a high severity of the disease, a small surgical intervention may be necessary.
Drugs used to treat gingivitis
The compulsory order of the patient appointed complex vitamins, as gingivitis often occurs against a background of reduced immunity. Especially important is vitamin C, which strengthens the walls of blood vessels and reduces bleeding.
A periodontist can prescribe injections of vitamins. For this, lincomycin, cyanocobalamin and lidocaine are used. Vitamins are needed for local symptom relief, and lidocaine is intended to alleviate pain.
Sometimes gingivitis treatment requires antibiotics. They can effectively fight the disease in the acute stage and prevent the occurrence of complications. You should take antibiotics only as prescribed by the doctor, since you may have contraindications to them.
Gels and ointments in the complex treatment of gingivitis
For local treatment, gels and ointments are used, which reduce the intensity of inflammation and alleviate the symptoms. Such ointments as "Metragil denta" and "Solcoseryl" can permanently remove pain and itching for a long time. They cover the gum with a thin film, which protects it from chemical and temperature irritants, thereby preventing the occurrence of unpleasant sensations.
Selection of toothpaste
The patient should brush his teeth twice a day, no matter how unpleasant it might be to touch the painful place with a brush. You can not gum the gum, but it is not recommended to injure with a rigid brush.
Toothpaste should be chosen with a therapeutic and anti-inflammatory effect, which includes medicinal herbs (sage, chamomile, yarrow, calendula). They strengthen the gums, reduce swelling and bleeding.
With gingivitis, whitening toothpastes are contraindicated, since they contain a large number of abrasive substances and mechanically irritate the gingival margin. They should be abandoned until the gums are completely healthy again.
Treatment of gingivitis with folk remedies
Those who prefer traditional medicine traditional, one should know that without the help of a dentist, gingivitis can not be completely cured. But, in conjunction with the appointment of a periodontist, folk methods can speed up treatment.
For a quick recovery, it is important to keep the mouth clean. This will help oral baths and gargles from decoctions of medicinal herbs.
Recipes for cooking rinses:
- One tablespoon of sage leaves pour 200 ml of boiling water and leave for 20 minutes. Cool at room temperature, strain and rinse the mouth after each meal.
According to this recipe you can prepare a decoction of chamomile flowers. Chamomile accelerates the process of regeneration (healing) of the gum and has a bactericidal effect.
- A positive effect with gingivitis is rinsing with a solution of baking soda. It is necessary to dissolve one teaspoon of soda in a glass of warm, boiled water and rinse each mouth after each meal.
- Purity and bark of oak have astringent properties, reduce bleeding and relieve swelling with gum disease. To prepare the broth, take two tablespoons of crushed oak bark and dry herb celandine, and pour two cups of boiling water. The broth cools down at room temperature. Four times a day, rinse with this broth oral cavity, until the withdrawal of symptoms.
How to eat properly with gingivitis?
The diet of a person suffering from gingivitis should include as much fresh fruit and vegetables as possible.
- A large amount of vitamin C, which helps to strengthen blood vessels and reduce the degree of bleeding, is found in citrus fruits.
- Apples and pears contain pectin and trace elements that accelerate the regeneration process.
- Berries (blackberries, currants, raspberries) enrich the body with vitamins and minerals, increasing its overall immunity.
- Vegetables are rich in cellulose and antioxidants. Including in the menu cabbage, carrots and zucchini, you can speed up the metabolic processes in the body and shorten the time of regeneration (healing) of the gum.
Features of catarrhal gingivitis
Catarrhal gingivitis occurs due to poor oral hygiene against a background of decreased immunity (after an infectious disease), endocrine diseases and diseases of the cardiovascular system. The body is exhausted and can not effectively fight with a large amount of plaque. For bacteria this is a favorable period to actively promote the development of diseases of the oral cavity, in particular - gingivitis.
Acute catarrhal gingivitis manifests itself by the sudden appearance of acute pain, deterioration of well-being and fever to subfebrile (37 degrees C). The patient is concerned about swelling, redness and burning of the gums. Difficult to eat, as the gum reacts to any mechanical irritation.
Unfortunately, many patients try to heal independently and contribute not to curing gingivitis, but to muffling the symptoms and transition of the disease to a chronic stage.
If you go to the doctor immediately, as soon as the gum starts to disturb you, acute gingivitis will pass quickly and without a trace.
Chronic catarrhal gingivitis is a neglected stage of the disease. Symptoms are not so severe and discomfort appears, most often, while eating and brushing your teeth. But the classic signs (bleeding and hyperemia) indicate the presence of gum disease.
Prolonged course of the disease can increase the depth of the gingival pockets and the appearance of cyanosis of the gums.
Chronic catarrhal gingivitis occurs when you visit a dentist during an exacerbation of the disease, or if a person consults a doctor about dental treatment. The stage of exacerbation, according to symptoms, resembles the acute form of gingivitis.
Treatment of catarrhal gingivitis lasts no more than two weeks. To begin with, professional cleaning of teeth. Then the doctor checks the presence of incorrect orthopedic structures and sharp edges of the seals in the oral cavity. If any, they must be replaced. The patient is assigned complex vitamins to strengthen the gums and the entire body as a whole.
The listed activities should be sufficient to eliminate gingivitis, but if the disease continues to progress, it is necessary to take antibiotics and undergo a course of physiotherapy (electrophoresis, hydromassage and gum auto-massage).
Features of ulcerative necrotic gingivitis
Ulcerative necrotic gingivitis is called "Ulcerative necrotic gingivitis of Vincent", or simply ulcerative gingivitis. Just like catarrhal gingivitis, ulcerative necrotic can take place in an acute form or go into a chronic stage. Often it is a consequence of the neglected catarrhal form of the disease.
Acute ulcerative gingivitis affects both jaws at once, causing acute pain of the gingival mucosa. The main symptoms are:
- The appearance of multiple sores on the gums;
- Putrid odor from the mouth;
- Increased temperature and general weakness;
- Severe swelling, redness and spontaneous bleeding gums.
The acute stage begins unexpectedly and reports itself with acute pain. It should be noted that ulcerative gingivitis affects the body, weakened after infectious diseases. Sometimes it is a sign of infection with AIDS.
Chronic ulcerative gingivitis is more common in adolescents who pay insufficient attention to the purity of the oral cavity. Symptoms are the same, but less pronounced and more tolerant. The main complaint is an unpleasant smell from the mouth.
Treatment , in addition to mandatory removal of dental deposits, includes treatment of each sore with an antiseptic solution, as well as taking antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs (penicillin, metronidazole).
At home, the patient should make oral baths with chlorhexidine or hydrogen peroxide. Positive effect on the treatment process is caused by decoctions of medicinal herbs.
Features of hypertrophic gingivitis
Hypertrophic gingivitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is accompanied by a proliferation of soft periodontal tissues. The volume of gum tissues increases so much that it can close a large part of the dental crown.
The causes of hypertrophic gingivitis can be:
- Prostheses of poor quality;
- Chronic diseases of the endocrine and nervous systems;
- Prolonged intake of hormonal drugs and antibiotics;
- Hormonal body failure;
- Mechanical injury;
A distinctive feature of hypertrophic gingivitis is that in most cases the disease is localized in the region of the anterior teeth of the upper jaw.
Distinguish fibrous and edematous forms of the disease.
Ointment hypertrophic gingivitis is characterized by enlarged gingival papillae, soreness and bleeding. The enlarged gingiva partially covers the crowns of the teeth.
With a fibrous form of pain and bledness, the color of the mucous membrane remains the same. The patient complains only of the aesthetic appearance of the gums.
There are 3 degrees of development of hypertrophic gingivitis :
- The gums begin to expand in volume, the gingival papillae expand.
- The disease progresses, the gum covers the dental crowns by 50%.
- Hyperplasia of the gums and papillae is pronounced, they cover the teeth almost to the cutting edges. The mucous membrane of the gums is covered with granulations, which bleed at the slightest touch.
Особенностью лечения гипертрофического гингивита является обязательное назначение таких физиотерапевтических процедур, как электрофорез с глюконатом кальция или гепарином, массаж десен и дарсонвализация.
Особое внимание уделяется приему препаратов, снижающих сосудистую проницаемость и витаминов Е и С.
Особенности атрофического гингивита
Атрофический гингивит проявляется атрофией десневого края и сосочков, то есть клиническая картина является обратной гипертрофической форме гингивита. Атрофическую форму считают начальной стадией пародонтоза, так как никаких симптомов воспалительного процесса в тканях не наблюдается.
Заболевание развивается при:
- Нейрогуморальных нарушениях в организме;
- Возрастных изменениях тканей пародонта у пожилых людей;
- Аномалиях прикрепления уздечек у детей;
- Неправильном ортодонтическом лечении.
Различают локализованную (атрофия десны в определенном участке) и генерализованную (оголение шеек зубов всей челюсти) формы.
Лечение предполагает устранение первопричины развития атрофии десен и назначение медикаментов, улучшающих кровоснабжение и обмен веществ.
Для этого применяют разные виды массажа, дарсонвализацию, электрофорез с витамином В1 и гидроаэроионизацию.
Гингивит при беременности
More than half of pregnant women suffer from gum disease called "gingivitis of pregnant women". Waiting for a child is fraught not only with positive emotions, but also with serious changes in the hormonal background of a woman. With a lack of vitamins and minerals, the tissues of the teeth and periodontal tissue are weakened (bone tissue of the jaw and gum). A pregnant woman is at risk of developing oral diseases.
Gingivitis appears, most often in the second trimester of pregnancy. The gums become friable, bright red, swell and bleed. The disease occurs not only in those who are poorly monitored oral hygiene, but also in women who are actively caring for their teeth.
It is believed that gingivitis of pregnant women disappears on their own after the birth of the child. This is not exactly correct information. Just the acute stage can go into the chronic and the symptoms will be gone for a while. There is another option: the occurrence of complications. In this case, not only mother, but also the child can suffer.
Preventive maintenance of gingivitis of pregnant women
- Visit the dentist during the first months of pregnancy and remove all dental deposits.
- Care for the purity of the oral cavity both before, during and after pregnancy.
- Use not only toothpaste and brush, but also dental floss and irrigator. It is proved that the irrigator increases the effectiveness of fighting gingivitis by 50 percent, and with bleeding gums - by 90 percent.
Treatment during pregnancy is somewhat difficult, as taking certain medications can harm a baby. But the dentist must necessarily remove all dental deposits and prescribe a vitamin-mineral complex for strengthening the body.
How to prevent the appearance of gingivitis?
Prevention is quite simple and everyone, if desired, will be able to protect themselves from inflammatory diseases of the gums. It is necessary, only, to adhere to several simple rules:
- It is necessary to brush teeth regularly in the morning (after breakfast) and in the evening (before going to bed). The most effective toothbrushes are medium hardness, since soft teeth do not clean teeth properly, and hard ones can injure the gum. Toothpaste can be chosen at its discretion, good, the choice is large enough. It should be noted that the effectiveness of oral hygiene depends not on the high cost of the paste, but on how correctly you brush your teeth: perform half-rotational, pushing movements directed from the junction of the gum and the crown of the tooth. Check with your tongue whether your teeth are smooth. If there are rough places, carefully walk on them with a brush again.
- Use dental floss.
- Twice a year, do a professional tooth cleaning in the dentist's office.
- Eat more solid vegetables and fruits (apples, carrots, etc.). They are not only rich in vitamins, but also mechanically clean teeth from soft plaque.
Following the listed rules, you will protect yourself not only from gingivitis, but also from other diseases of the teeth and mucous membrane of the oral cavity.
- Hypertrophic gingivitis
- Ulcerative necrotic gingivitis
- Catarrhal gingivitis
- Bleeding gums
- Periodontal disease