Hemorrhoids: symptoms, treatment
- Why does hemorrhoids appear?
- Examination with hemorrhoids
- Symptoms of hemorrhoids
- Stages of chronic hemorrhoids
- Treatment of hemorrhoids
- Prevention of hemorrhoids
Hemorrhoids are a varicose enlargement of the venous plexuses of the rectum, anus, leading to the appearance of characteristic hemorrhoids, prone to inflame, bleed and fall out of the anus. The disease is equally common among women and men. Specialists distinguish between internal and external hemorrhoids.
Moderate increase in hemorrhoids can be present in many people, but with the increase in the influence of adverse factors on the veins, they can greatly increase in size, bleed, lead to anemia, jam and require emergency surgical care. In the early stages, hemorrhoids can be treated with conservative methods.
Why does hemorrhoids appear?
The exact causes of hemorrhoids are difficult to determine. Most often, inflammation and an increase in hemorrhoids occur under the influence of several adverse factors. Studying the nature of the disease, conducting a survey of patients, specialists were able to identify a number of factors that most often provoke the appearance of disorders in the lymphatic system of the rectum and the anus.
So, what contributes to the expansion of hemorrhoidal vessels:
- increased pressure in the peritoneum, leading to an increase, inflammation of the hemorrhoids and their loss: this happens with prolonged constipation, during labor, when lifting weights;
- sedentary lifestyle: during prolonged sitting, blood stagnation occurs in the pelvic organs, prerequisites for the progression of the inflammatory process appear;
- alcohol abuse, excessively acute food: acuity increases blood circulation in the hemorrhoidal vessels, which often leads to their expansion;
- professional hazards (weightlifting, equestrian sport, cycling, drivers);
Examination with hemorrhoids
Hemorrhoids are easy to see at the usual finger research at a doctor-proctologist's. For the detection of internal hemorrhoids, anascopy can be performed, a procedure that allows detailed study of the lower divisions of the rectum and anus. Sigmoid and rectum can be examined with the help of sigmoidoscopy. This study is necessary to exclude the risk of development of oncological pathology.
Symptoms of hemorrhoids are similar to some other diseases. Therefore, the diagnosis should be thorough, because there is a risk to prescribe the wrong treatment. Hemorrhoids can be confused with:
- anal fissure, which is also accompanied by minor bleeding, pain during defecation;
- cancer of the rectum (malignant tumors of the intestine flow with bleeding);
- prolapse of the rectum;
- colitis, polyps and condylomata.
Depending on the results of diagnosis and examination, the doctor is determined with the tactics of treatment. At any stage of hemorrhoids, symptomatic therapy should be used to reduce pain, stop bleeding, and improve the quality of life of the patient.
Symptoms of hemorrhoids
- burning in the anus;
- splashes of blood on toilet paper, darkening of feces;
- pain during defecation;
- mucous discharge from the rectum;
- prolapse of inflamed nodes from the anus;
- Thrombosis is possible, sometimes an infection is attached.
Hemorrhoids can be acute when the hemorrhoids become inflamed, pain and discomfort appear, and chronic: the illness lasts for many years and months, with the possibility of bleeding, loss of nodes and their entrapment. Many patients do not notice the development of the disease.
How does the inner and outer hemorrhoids look like you can see in the photo.
Hemorrhoids progress gradually, manifested by a slight burning sensation in the anal area, discomfort, a feeling that there is a foreign body or lump in the anus. An alarming symptom is the bleeding of any intensity from the rectum. It is the detection of blood on toilet paper that causes people to immediately consult a proctologist. The doctor, having access to modern diagnostic methods, will be able to examine the patient, determine the stage of the disease and assess the risks of occurrence of dangerous complications. Hemorrhoids are a complex disease, but many people are embarrassed to turn to doctors, use ineffective recipes of traditional medicine, or refuse treatment altogether, than only aggravate their situation.
Stages of chronic hemorrhoids
During the course of chronic hemorrhoids, 4 stages are isolated. Each of them has its own characteristics and differences. The first stage of enlargement and inflammation of the hemorrhoids is characterized by the appearance of spots of scarlet blood after any overstrain. Usually bleeding is short-term, occurs after hard work, hypothermia or act of defecation.
The second stage of chronic hemorrhoids is characterized by the loss of hemorrhoids. Bleeding may be absent. The missing nodes at this stage of the disease develop independently. But after another overstrain, sneezing, coughing and increasing intra-abdominal pressure, hemorrhoids are again shown outside the anus. At the third, fourth stage of the disease, self-regulating of the dropped nodes is impossible - it is necessary to do this manually. Conservative treatment is impossible. We have to resort to one of the methods of minimally invasive or surgical treatment of hemorrhoids.
Treatment of hemorrhoids
Proctologists are treating hemorrhoids. Medical tactics depend on the stage of the disease, the severity of clinical manifestations and the results of diagnosis. Conservative therapy is effective only in the first two stages of pathology. In most cases, patients need surgery. But in the acute period of inflammation of hemorrhoids, operational procedures are not applied. First, experts prescribe drugs that relieve inflammation, reduce symptoms and only after the abating of the inflammatory process resort to surgical methods of treating hemorrhoids.
Therapeutic treatment of hemorrhoids
The approach to the treatment of hemorrhoids should be comprehensive. It is recommended to revise the diet, increase the amount of fiber (if there are constipation) by 10-20%, which is contained in vegetables, fruits, cereals. Eliminate from food very spicy dishes, alcohol, because they are able to irritate the intestinal wall, increase blood filling in the hemorrhoids and enhance the symptoms of hemorrhoids.
To remove inflammation, reduce bleeding appointed local drugs in the form of candles, ointments and applications. Phlebotonic drugs are also used that strengthen the walls of the veins of the anus and rectum, preventing the appearance of new hemorrhoids. When bleeding, candles containing adrenaline, powerful anti-inflammatory, anesthetic components are prescribed.
After the acute inflammation subsides, it is recommended to follow the recommendations of the proctologist, avoid constipation, lifting weights, drinking alcohol, spicy and spicy foods. If your work involves a long sitting at your desk, train yourself to take a break every 2-3 hours to warm up and relieve tension from the area of the rectum. Stagnation of blood provokes an increase in hemorrhoids, complicates the course of the disease and leads to complications.
Combating constipation with hemorrhoids
Constipation is one of the main causes of hemorrhoid development. With systematic straining, intra-abdominal pressure rises, lymphatic vessels widen, hemorrhoids appear, which eventually will have an effect. With chronic constipation, massage of the abdomen helps well. In the morning on an empty stomach it is recommended to drink a glass of cool water, do exercises and massage of the stomach. These simple activities will "start up" the work of the intestines, increase motor skills and improve digestion.
Include in your diet foods rich in plant fibers: apples, pears, cabbage, beets, prunes. Limit the reception of baking, beans, carbonated drinks. When chronic constipation is not recommended to take drugs that enhance intestinal peristalsis, as they can irritate hemorrhoids, provoking an aggravation of the inflammatory process. To get a soothing effect, eat more boiled beets, prunes, you can fill salads from fresh vegetables with natural olive oil, which cleans the intestine well, fights with free radicals (contains vitamin E) and facilitates excretion of stool.
Therapeutic treatment of hemorrhoids will be ineffective if you do not exclude the influence of adverse factors (constipation, childbirth, sedentary lifestyle, lack of movement, lack of fiber in the diet). At 1-2 stages of hemorrhoids, many specialists recommend resorting to minimally invasive methods of treatment, when disposal of pathologically expanded hemorrhoids occurs without massive surgical interventions and a long rehabilitation period.
Minimally invasive methods for hemorrhoids:
- ligation by latex rings;
Minimally invasive treatment allows quickly and without serious trauma to get rid of such delicate problems as hemorrhoids. Therapeutic methods in most cases only muffle the symptoms of the disease, delay the moment when it is necessary to apply more radical techniques. Before the appointment of a procedure the doctor studies the patient's anamnesis, conducts a comprehensive examination, evaluates all possible risks.
Minimally invasive procedures are contraindicated for:
- exacerbation of the inflammatory process in the rectum and anus;
- anal fissures, trauma;
- thrombosis of hemorrhoids.
— это малотравматичное лечение геморроя посредством специальных склерозирующих веществ, которые вводятся внутрь узла, склеивают его стенки, благодаря чему удается добиться прекращения их питания и отмирания в дальнейшем. Sclerotherapy is a low-traumatic treatment of hemorrhoids by means of special sclerosing substances that are injected into the unit, glue its walls, so that it is possible to achieve the cessation of their nutrition and dying in the future. The procedure is carried out only in the 1-3 stages of hemorrhoids. Does not exclude the risk of recurrence of the disease and is effective only for small hemorrhoids.
проводится под контролем аноскопа. Electrocoagulation is performed under the control of an anoscope. The electrode is brought to the leg of the node and coagulated (welded) tissues, after which they quickly die off. For one procedure it is possible to get rid of 1-2 pathological foci. After gluing, the hemorrhoidal node stops eating and growing, and after a while completely disappears.
— один из самых современных способов малоинвазивного лечения внутреннего геморроя 1-3 стадии. Latex ring ligation is one of the most modern methods of minimally invasive treatment of internal hemorrhoids in stages 1-3. Through the anoscope, a latex ligature is applied to the leg of the knot, which results in squeezing the tissues and disturbing the blood circulation in them. After 8-14 days, the hemorrhoidal node dies off and is released outward along with the latex ring.
— кратковременное воздействие на геморрой жидким азотом. Cryotherapy - a short-term exposure to hemorrhoids with liquid nitrogen. After this, the hemorrhoidal node dies and disappears. The procedure is under local anesthesia, so there are no painful sensations.
Minimally invasive methods of fighting hemorrhoids can be used only in the 1-3 stages of the disease, without necessarily exacerbating the inflammatory process. All procedures are performed after local anesthesia. There is no need to use general anesthesia. In one session, you can clean only 1-3 nodes. Sometimes the treatment takes place in several stages, with intervals of several weeks.
Surgical treatment of hemorrhoids
Operative treatment of hemorrhoids is considered the most effective. The main method of operation is hemorrhoidectomy - excision of the hemorrhoidal node together with part of the mucous membrane, with the stitching of its pedicle. The operation is indicated for chronic hemorrhoids of the last stages, marked bleeding, frequent relapses and thrombosis of hemorrhoids.
Hemorrhoidectomy is performed only in a hospital. The period of hospitalization is up to 10 days. The duration of the recovery period is 2-3 weeks. Immediately after surgery, pain can occur, post-operative sutures sometimes get stuck and hurt. To facilitate the well-being, special analgesic drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, sedentary baths are prescribed after each act of defecation.
Prevention of hemorrhoids
The effect of well-planned treatment of hemorrhoids can last up to 3-10 years, but no one will guarantee 100% guarantee of absence of relapses. However, if you pay due attention to standard methods of prevention, you can achieve an excellent result and exclude the re-occurrence of hemorrhoids.
In order to prevent the expansion of hemorrhoids, it is necessary:
- every 2-3 hours break away from sedentary work, take walks or simple physical exercises that can eliminate stagnant phenomena in the pelvis and reduce intra-abdominal pressure;
- Eat right: in your diet, there should be daily vegetables, fruits, greens, containing fiber, which perfectly cleanses the intestines and fights chronic constipation;
- sleep and sit on hard surfaces with orthopedic characteristics;
- avoid taking laxatives, since such remedies irritate the anal area, lead to burning, cracks in the anus, the development of the inflammatory process;
- to abandon alcoholic beverages, spicy, spicy foods, irritating the intestines;
- do gymnastics to strengthen the muscles of the anus and genital organs, which will prevent them from falling out even under heavy loads and age changes.
- Hemorrhoids in women: symptoms and treatment
- Itching in the anus
- Candles from hemorrhoids
- Hemorrhoids in men
- External hemorrhoids
- Internal hemorrhoids