Hemorrhoids: symptoms, treatment
- Why do hemorrhoids appear?
- Examination for hemorrhoids
- Symptoms of hemorrhoids
- Stages of chronic hemorrhoids
- Hemorrhoid treatment
- Prevention of hemorrhoids
Hemorrhoids are a varicose expansion of the venous plexus of the rectum, anus, resulting in the appearance of characteristic hemorrhoids that are prone to inflame, bleed and fall out of the anus. The disease is equally common among women and men. Experts distinguish between internal and external hemorrhoids.
A moderate increase in hemorrhoids can be present in many people, but when the influence of adverse factors on the veins increases, they can greatly increase in size, bleed, lead to anemia, become trapped and require emergency surgical care. In the early stages, hemorrhoids respond well to treatment with conservative methods.
Why do hemorrhoids appear?
The exact causes of hemorrhoids is difficult to determine. Most often, inflammation and an increase in hemorrhoids occurs under the influence of several unfavorable factors. Studying the nature of the disease, examining patients, experts were able to identify a number of factors that most often provoke the appearance of disorders in the lymphatic system of the rectum and the anus of a person.
So, which contributes to the expansion of hemorrhoidal vessels:
- increased pressure in the peritoneum, leading to an increase, inflammation of hemorrhoids and their loss: this happens with prolonged constipation, during labor, with lifting weights;
- sedentary lifestyle: during prolonged sitting there is a stagnation of blood in the pelvic organs, there are prerequisites for the progression of the inflammatory process;
- alcohol abuse, overly spicy food: acuity increases blood circulation in hemorrhoidal vessels, which often leads to their expansion;
- occupational hazards (weightlifting, equestrian sport, cycling, drivers);
Examination for hemorrhoids
Hemorrhoids are easily seen with the usual finger examination at the reception at the doctor-proctologist. To identify internal hemorrhoids, anascopies can be performed - a procedure that allows detailed examination of the lower sections of the rectum and anus. Examine the sigmoid and rectum using sigmoidoscopy. This study is necessary to eliminate the risk of developing oncological pathology.
Symptoms of hemorrhoids are similar to some other diseases. Therefore, the diagnosis must be thorough, because there is a risk to prescribe the wrong treatment. Hemorrhoids can be confused with:
- anal fissure, which is also accompanied by minor bleeding, pain during defecation;
- cancer of the rectum (malignant tumors of the intestine occur with bleeding);
- prolapse of the rectum;
- colitis, polyps and warts.
Depending on the results of diagnosis and examination, the doctor is determined with the tactics of treatment. At any stage of hemorrhoids, symptomatic therapy should be carried out to reduce pain, stop bleeding and improve the quality of life of the patient.
Symptoms of hemorrhoids
- burning in the anal area;
- blood spatter on toilet paper, dark feces;
- pain during stool;
- mucous discharge from the rectum;
- loss of inflamed nodes from the anus;
- possible thrombosis, sometimes joins the infection.
Hemorrhoids can be acute when hemorrhoids become inflamed, pain and discomfort appear, and chronic: the disease lasts for many years and months, with bleeding, knots falling out and pinching. Many patients do not notice the development of the disease.
What is the internal and external hemorrhoids, you can see in the photo.
Hemorrhoids progresses gradually, manifesting a slight burning sensation in the anus, discomfort, feeling that an alien body or lump is present in the anus. An alarming symptom is bleeding of any intensity from the rectum. It is the detection of blood on toilet paper that makes people immediately turn to the proctologist. The doctor, having access to modern diagnostic methods, will be able to examine the patient, determine the stage of the disease, and assess the risks of dangerous complications. Hemorrhoids are a complex disease, but many people are embarrassed to go to doctors, use ineffective recipes of traditional medicine or refuse treatment altogether, which only aggravates their situation.
Stages of chronic hemorrhoids
During chronic hemorrhoids, 4 stages are distinguished. Each of them has its own characteristics and differences. The first stage of expansion and inflammation of hemorrhoids is characterized by the appearance of spots of red blood after any overstrain. Bleeding is usually brief, occurs after heavy work, hypothermia, or an act of bowel movement.
The second stage of chronic hemorrhoids is characterized by loss of hemorrhoids. Bleeding may be absent. Dropped out nodes at this stage of the disease develop on their own. But after another exertion, sneezing, coughing and an increase in intra-abdominal pressure, hemorrhoids are again shown outside the anus. At the third, fourth stage of the disease, the independent reposition of the knots that have fallen out is impossible; Conservative treatment is not possible. We have to resort to one of the methods of minimally invasive or surgical treatment of hemorrhoids.
The treatment of hemorrhoids involved proctologists. Medical tactics depend on the stage of the disease, severity of clinical manifestations and diagnostic results. Conservative therapy is effective only in the first two stages of the pathology. In most cases, patients need surgery. But in the acute period of inflammation of hemorrhoids, operational techniques do not apply. First, experts prescribe remedies that relieve inflammation, reduce symptoms, and only after the inflammatory process subsides, they resort to surgical methods for the treatment of hemorrhoids.
Therapeutic treatment of hemorrhoids
The approach to the treatment of hemorrhoids should be comprehensive. It is recommended to revise the diet, to increase the amount of fiber (if constipated) in vegetables, fruits, and cereals by 10–20%. Exclude from food very spicy foods, alcohol, because they can irritate the intestinal wall, increase blood circulation in hemorrhoids and increase the symptoms of hemorrhoids.
To relieve inflammation and reduce bleeding, local preparations are prescribed in the form of suppositories, ointments and applications. Also used phlebotonic agents that strengthen the walls of the veins of the anus and rectum, preventing the emergence of new hemorrhoids. When bleeding candles are prescribed, containing adrenaline, powerful anti-inflammatory, analgesic components.
After subsiding of acute inflammation, it is recommended to adhere to the recommendations of the proctologist, avoid constipation, weight lifting, alcohol intake, spicy dishes. If your work involves a long sitting at your desk, train yourself to take a break every 2-3 hours to stretch your legs and relieve tension from the rectum area. Blood stasis provokes an increase in hemorrhoids, complicates the course of the disease and leads to complications.
Combating constipation with hemorrhoids
Constipation is one of the main causes of hemorrhoids. With systematic straining, intra-abdominal pressure rises, lymphatic vessels dilate, hemorrhoidal bumps appear, which over time will surely make themselves felt. With chronic constipation, abdominal massage helps well. In the morning on an empty stomach it is recommended to drink a glass of cool water, to do exercises and massage the abdomen. These simple activities will "start" the work of the intestines, improve motility and improve digestion.
Include in your diet foods rich in vegetable fibers: apples, pears, cabbage, beets, prunes. Limit baking, bean, carbonated drinks. In chronic constipation, it is not recommended to take drugs that increase intestinal motility, as they can irritate hemorrhoids, causing an aggravation of the inflammatory process. To obtain a laxative effect, eat more boiled beets, prunes, you can fill the salads from fresh vegetables with natural olive oil, which cleans the intestines well, fights free radicals (contains vitamin E) and facilitates the excretion of feces.
Therapeutic treatment of hemorrhoids will be ineffective if you do not eliminate the effects of adverse factors (constipation, childbirth, sedentary lifestyle, lack of movement, lack of fiber in the diet). At 1-2 stages of hemorrhoids, many experts recommend resorting to minimally invasive treatment methods, when getting rid of pathologically expanded hemorrhoids occurs without massive surgical interventions and a long rehabilitation period.
Minimally invasive procedures for hemorrhoids:
- ligation with latex rings;
Minimally invasive treatment allows you to quickly and without serious injury get rid of such delicate problems as hemorrhoids. Therapeutic methods in most cases only muffle the symptoms of the disease, delay the moment when it is necessary to apply more radical techniques. Before the appointment of a procedure, the doctor examines the patient's history, conducts a comprehensive examination, assesses all possible risks.
Minimally invasive procedures are contraindicated in:
- exacerbation of the inflammatory process in the rectum and anus;
- anal fissures, injuries;
- thrombosis of hemorrhoids.
— это малотравматичное лечение геморроя посредством специальных склерозирующих веществ, которые вводятся внутрь узла, склеивают его стенки, благодаря чему удается добиться прекращения их питания и отмирания в дальнейшем. Sclerotherapy is a low-traumatic treatment of hemorrhoids by means of special sclerosing substances that are inserted into the node, glue its walls together, which makes it possible to achieve the cessation of their nutrition and death in the future. The technique is carried out only at 1-3 stages of hemorrhoids. It does not exclude the risk of recurrence of the disease and is effective only with small hemorrhoids.
проводится под контролем аноскопа. Electrocoagulation is carried out under the control of anoscope. An electrode is brought to the knot leg and the tissues coagulate (weld), after which they quickly die. In one procedure, it is possible to get rid of 1-2 pathological foci. After gluing, the hemorrhoid stops feeding and growing, and after a while it completely disappears.
— один из самых современных способов малоинвазивного лечения внутреннего геморроя 1-3 стадии. Ligation with latex rings is one of the most modern ways of minimally invasive treatment of internal hemorrhoids of stages 1-3. Through the anoscope on the knot leg impose latex ligature, which leads to squeezing of the tissues and violation of blood circulation in them. After 8-14 days, the hemorrhoid dies off and goes out with the latex ring.
— кратковременное воздействие на геморрой жидким азотом. Cryotherapy - short-term effects on hemorrhoids with liquid nitrogen. After that, the hemorrhoid dies off and disappears. The procedure takes place under local anesthesia, so the pain is absent.
Minimally invasive methods of dealing with hemorrhoids can be used only at stages 1-3 of the disease, necessarily without exacerbation of the inflammatory process. All procedures are performed after local anesthesia. The use of general anesthesia is not necessary. During one session, only 1-3 nodes can be removed. Sometimes the treatment takes place in several stages, at intervals of several weeks.
Surgical treatment of hemorrhoids
Surgical treatment of hemorrhoids is considered the most effective. The main method of operation is hemorrhoidectomy - excision of the hemorrhoidal site along with a part of the mucous membrane, with flashing of its leg. The operation is indicated for chronic hemorrhoids of the last stages, severe bleeding, frequent relapses, and thrombosis of hemorrhoids.
Hemorrhoidectomy is performed only in a hospital. The term of hospitalization is up to 10 days. The duration of the recovery period is 2-3 weeks. Immediately after surgery, pain may occur, postoperative sutures sometimes suppurate and hurt. To facilitate well-being, special analgesic drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, and sit-down baths are assigned after each defecation act.
Prevention of hemorrhoids
The effect of well-planned treatment of hemorrhoids can last up to 3-10 years, but 100% guarantee no recurrence will not give any one specialist. However, if you pay due attention to standard methods of prevention, you can achieve excellent results and eliminate the reappearance of hemorrhoids.
In order to prevent the expansion of hemorrhoids, it is necessary:
- every 2-3 hours to break away from sedentary work, take walks or simple physical exercises that can eliminate congestion in the pelvis and reduce intra-abdominal pressure;
- eat right: in your diet every day should be present vegetables, fruits, herbs, containing fiber, which perfectly cleans the intestines and fights against chronic constipation;
- sleep and sit on hard surfaces with orthopedic characteristics;
- avoid taking laxatives, as such agents irritate the anal region, lead to burning, cracks in the anus, the development of the inflammatory process;
- give up alcoholic beverages, spicy, spicy food, irritating the intestines;
- to do gymnastics to strengthen the muscles of the anus and genitals, which will prevent them from falling out even with heavy loads and age-related changes.
- Hemorrhoids in women: symptoms and treatment
- Itching in the anus
- Hemorrhoids Candles
- Hemorrhoids in men
- External hemorrhoids
- Internal hemorrhoids