Gastroduodenitis: symptoms and treatment
- Causes of gastroduodenitis
- Symptoms of gastroduodenitis
- Gastroduodenitis in children
- Diagnosis of gastroduodenitis
- Treatment of gastroduodenitis
- Diet with gastroduodenitis
- Folk remedies for gastroduodenitis
Like the names of all diseases gastroduodenitis comes from the Latin words: stomach - gastro and duodenum - duodenum, and the ending -it means inflammation of these organs. If you consider this disease in general terms, then it for many symptoms is similar to gastritis, but the inflammatory process goes to the duodenum.
Causes of gastroduodenitis
Among the reasons leading to the development of gastroduodenitis, we can distinguish the following.
1. Endogenous. In this group, the following factors can play a major role:
- Insufficient production of mucus;
- Increased acid formation;
- Violations of the regulation of hormonal secretion;
- Liver disease, as well as biliary tract;
- Chronic diseases of the pharynx and oral cavity (inflammation of the tonsils, carious teeth);
- Hereditary predisposition.
2. Exogenous. They are based on various external factors, which under certain conditions can cause gastroduodenitis. We list the main exogenous causes of this disease:
- Excessive consumption of hot, fatty, spicy, rough or cold food;
- Irregular eating habits and eating dry;
- Alcohol abuse;
- Psychological factor (frequent stresses);
- Infection of the body with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori;
- Long-term use of certain medicines (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics).
Gastroduodenitis can be:
A marked difference between these forms of gastroduodenitis in the pain syndrome. In the first case, unstable and short-term pains are noted, and in chronic course, the pain is less pronounced, but is almost constant.
Also gastroduodenitis can be divided depending on the type of pathological process. There are four forms.
1. Superficial. With this type of marked thickening of the folds of the mucous membranes of the stomach and duodenum, as well as swelling of the mucosa.
2. Hypertrophic. In addition to puffiness, hyperemia and small hemorrhagic hemorrhages join. The mucous membrane is covered with a fibrinous-mucous coating.
3. Erosive. Swelling, hemorrhagic hemorrhages, erosion on the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum are observed.
4. The mixed form. There may be small areas of atrophy, but externally mucous resembles a hypertrophic form.
Finally, gastroduodenitis can be subdivided depending on the secretory function. In this case, three types are distinguished:
- With a normal secretory function;
- With a decreased function of secretion;
- With increased secretory function.
Symptoms of gastroduodenitis
Among the main clinical manifestations of gastroduodenitis are the following:
- Soreness in the stomach (pain often is aching or cramping);
- Decrease or loss of appetite;
- Unpleasant taste in the mouth;
- Feeling of fullness of the stomach;
- Constipation or diarrhea.
There may also be symptoms of a general nature - irritability, fatigue, pale skin, dizziness, weight loss, sleep disturbances. Upon examination, the doctor may note abdominal tenderness during palpation, a yellowish-white coating on the tongue with possible imprint of the teeth. The tongue itself looks puffy.
If we talk about the pain syndrome with gastroduodenitis, then it is characterized by increased pain after eating (as a rule, this occurs after 1-1.5 hours).
In addition to nausea, heartburn and belching sour, vomiting can occur. Violations of the stool are expressed both in the form of constipation, and diarrhea.
Exacerbations of chronic gastroduodenitis occur, as a rule, in autumn and spring. This is largely due to the transfer of infectious diseases at this time, as well as with disruption in nutrition and increased psychological stress. The duration of exacerbated gastroduodenitis is from 1 to 2 months. As for the pain syndrome, the sensation of pain may stop after 10 days, but the abdominal tenderness during palpation is often maintained for another two weeks.
Gastroduodenitis in children
This disease is not uncommon in children. Among the causes of the disease, nutritional errors, and excessive psychological stress, are at the forefront here. These factors can increase if there is a hereditary predisposition, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and also if the child has a food allergy.
As for the clinical manifestations of gastroduodenitis in children, the pain is the main symptom. It is located more often in the epigastric region, but can give in the right hypochondrium or the navel area. There is also nausea, which is often noted in the morning hours after awakening.
Diagnosis of gastroduodenitis
To identify gastroduodenitis, a variety of research methods can be used. Therefore, we list the main them.
This method allows you to visually assess the condition of the mucosa and duodenum using an endoscope. At the same time, biopsy, chromoscopy and other medical manipulations can be performed. During the procedure, you can take a photo or video. According to the results of endoscopic examination, the doctor can tell about the pathological process taking into account the appearance of the mucous membrane.
To perform this examination, you need to take a biopsy from the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum. After this, the obtained material is studied under a microscope, which allows to assess the degree of dystrophic and inflammatory processes.
The study of gastric motility
For these purposes, peripheral electrogastrography is used. With her help, you can register contractions of smooth muscles in the wall of the stomach. For this, cutaneous electrodes are used, which are placed in the epigastric region and on the extremities. All received data is analyzed and output to the computer.
Also, probes with built-in strain gauges can be used to register the motor function of the stomach. The probes themselves are catheters that are inserted through the lower nasal passage and then installed under the control of fluoroscopy in various parts of the stomach. Strain gauges register intracavitary pressure, and the results are output to a paper tape using a recorder.
Study of the evacuation function of the stomach
The most accurate information makes it possible to obtain a radionuclide method. The essence of it is that the patient is given a "trial breakfast" (often porridge) containing a substance labeled with a radionuclide. After this, the special device registers the time spent on evacuation of this food. Based on the results, the evacuation function of the stomach is evaluated.
The study of secretory function of the stomach
To do this, two methods are often used:
- Aspiration-probe with extraction of gastric juice;
- Intragastric pH-metry.
In the first method, gastric juice is extracted using a probe inserted through the mouth. Then all its properties and parameters are studied in the laboratory, after which the conclusion is made about basal and stimulated secretion.
A variation of this method is aspiration-probe, but with continuous production of gastric contents. In this way it is possible to obtain more information about the secretory function of the stomach.
But still, the most objective method experts call the intraventricular pH-metry. What are the advantages of this method? We list some of them:
- He gives an objective and quick information about pH in the stomach;
- The recording of pH data can be carried out over a long period of time (up to 24 hours);
- Simultaneously it is possible to carry out various pharmacosecretory assays;
- At any chosen point in time, the amount of hydrochloric acid can be determined;
- You can also evaluate additional indicators.
Directly for the procedure are used microprobe equipped with pH measuring electrodes. Because of their small size, such electrodes can be inserted not only through the mouth, but also through the nose.
Treatment of gastroduodenitis
Several groups of drugs are used to treat gastroduodenitis.
1. Antacids. They have a direct effect on hydrochloric acid, reduce spasms, reduce intracavitary pressure and reverse peristalsis. In this group of drugs, there are 2 subgroups:
- Sucking antacids, which are characterized by quickness of action, cheap, but there is also a disadvantage - increased acid-forming function of the stomach, which is accompanied by increased symptoms;
- Nonabsorbable antacids - these drugs are well tolerated and are more often used for long-term treatment.
2. Antisecretory drugs. Among these drugs, there are three subgroups:
- Gistaminoblokatory - used earlier in the treatment of gastroduodenitis. Now there are funds of a new generation that are easier to transfer, but they also have their own drawback - with prolonged use, addiction to them is noted.
- Inhibitors of the proton pump - their action is based on reducing the formation of hydrogen protons, which leads to a decrease in the acidity of the stomach. Can be appointed long courses, because they are well tolerated. But some side effects are also possible. In particular, in the treatment of long-term courses, there is an increased level of gastrin in the blood and hyperplasia of ECL-cells. But after the withdrawal of these drugs, these symptoms disappear. Also among the side effects can be called headaches, dyspeptic disorders and allergic reactions.
- M-holinoblokatory are more often used in emergency cases and can not be used for a long period of time, since they have noticeable side effects. Among the most serious, one can note the influence on the central nervous system, the increase in heart rate, intestinal atony, dryness of the mucous membranes, and others.
2. Antibacterial and antimicrobial agents are prescribed in order to act on the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. But this therapy has its drawbacks, as it leads to intestinal dysbiosis and digestive disorders.
In addition to basic medicines, a doctor usually prescribes auxiliary equipment for gastroduodenitis. The main purpose of these drugs is to reduce the side effects of funds from the main group.
Among such drugs, we can mention spasmolytics, probiotics, vitamin complexes, as well as fixing or laxatives. The entire course of treatment of gastroduodenitis with medicinal preparations implies a significant load, which often negatively affects the work of other organs. Therefore, often pay attention to folk methods of treatment, which can be carried out together with traditional therapy.
Diet with gastroduodenitis
Observance of certain dietary rules is one of the main principles of gastroduodenitis treatment. The main purpose of the diet will be to restore the impaired function of the stomach (both motor and secretory), and also positively affect the structure of the mucous membrane.
In general terms, nutrition should be diverse, full-fledged and balanced. In this case, the basis of therapeutic nutrition is diet number 2, which can be prescribed in all periods of the disease, except exacerbations. Let us consider in detail this diet and products that are allowed and banned in this disease.
Bread and flour products
It is best to eat dried or yesterday's bread. Allowed a dry biscuit and uncomfortable cookies. Pies with eggs, boiled meat, apples, rice and jam are allowed. Under the ban are flour products from puff and dough, as well as fresh bread.
It is recommended to cook them on low-fat and weak fish or meat broth. Also, as a basis, you can take broths from mushrooms and vegetables. To fill the soups should be finely chopped vegetables, mashed cereals or noodles. Allowed soup from fresh cabbage, borsch and beetroot, but all vegetables should be finely chopped. Under the ban - pea, beans, milk soups and okroshka.
Meat and poultry
You can use low-fat varieties without skin and tendons. It is best to bake or boil the meat. If roasting is supposed, then it is not recommended to use breadcrumbs, it is better to fry in the egg. Preference should be given to veal, rabbit meat, chicken and turkey. From the by-products boiled tongue is allowed. Under the ban all meat, rich in connective tissue and fat. It is also recommended to limit lamb and pork.
Practical all non-fat fish types are allowed. It is better to boil it whole or a piece, stew, bake or fry without using a breading. It is necessary to exclude all fat, smoked, salted fish.
Welcome yogurt, kefir and other sour-milk products. Cheese can be eaten grated, and fresh curds are allowed. Cream and milk are added to the dishes.
You can prepare a variety of omelets - steam, fried (without crust) or baked. Eggs eat better soft-boiled. Banned - hard-boiled eggs.
Useful will be a variety of cereals, cooked on water or with a small amount of milk. You can also cook porridge on a meat broth. Baked and steam puddings, cooked steamed or roasted without crust are allowed. Under the ban - legumes, and should be limited to pearl, millet, corn and barley cereals.
You can eat zucchini, potatoes, carrots, pumpkin, cauliflower and beets. If there is tolerance, then you can green peas and white cabbage. All vegetables should be stewed, boiled or baked. Serve them better in the form of casseroles, mashed potatoes, puddings. Useful and fresh herbs, but only in finely chopped form and added to the dishes. Not wiped and raw vegetables, salted and pickled, radish, onion, sweet pepper, radish, rutabaga, cucumbers, garlic are not allowed.
Fruits and sweet dishes
All berries and ripe fruits are recommended to be eaten in a grated kind. Only very soft fruits can not be eaten. Prepared jelly, compotes, mousses, jellies. Allowed baked apples and compote of dried dried fruits. Lemons and orange can be added to jelly or tea. Under the ban are all the rough varieties of berries and fruits in their raw form. Not recommended berries, which have large grains - red currants, raspberries. Also excluded gooseberries, figs, dates, cream and chocolate products, ice cream.
Allowed sour cream sauce, as well as white with lemon. From spices you can use cinnamon, vanilla. When preparing dishes, you can add finely chopped herbs (parsley, dill), a little bay leaf. Under the ban all sharp and fatty sauces, pepper, mustard, horseradish.
You can drink tea with lemon, cocoa and coffee with the addition of milk. Fruit, vegetable and berry juices diluted with water are allowed. The broths of the bran and dog rose will be useful. Under the prohibition of drinks kvass and grape juice.
Folk remedies for gastroduodenitis
The treatment of gastroduodenitis is quite long and involves a large number of medications. At the same time, some of them may have negative reactions in some patients. And in this case, the question of alternative methods of treatment is considered, among which the most common is traditional medicine. The use of natural products, as a rule, can be called a reliable and safe way, helping to restore their health.
Most often, phytosols are used that can relieve many of the symptoms of gastroduodenitis and alleviate the course of the disease. What kind of herbs will be useful?
First, mint is widely used. To make medicinal infusion it is required to take fresh or dried leaves of mint (half cup) and pour them with one liter of boiling water. After that, everything should be infused overnight in a thermos bottle, and then you can take an empty stomach with 100 ml of decoction.
Secondly, an effective plant for gastroduodenitis is celandine. On its basis, it is possible to prepare both aqueous and alcoholic infusion. In the first case, take one tablespoon of celandine and pour a glass of boiling water. After this, the resulting mixture should be boiled on low heat for 10 minutes. The resulting infusion should be taken before meals for one tablespoon for one month. The alcoholic infusion of celandine is prepared as follows. Take any enameled container and one-third fill with celandine grass, and then alcohol is poured. It should all last for three weeks. The resulting infusion is used daily, starting with 5 drops, and then every day the dosage is increased by one drop.
Also useful for gastroduodenitis can be flax. Take the ground grass of this plant in the amount of one tablespoon and pour a glass of boiling water in enameled dishes. After this, everything is put on fire and brought to a boil. Allowing to boil a solution of 15 minutes, it should be removed from the plate and let it brew for an hour. Use the infusion obtained before meals three times a day for half a cup. Such treatment is designed for one month. Then you can repeat the course of treatment after a 10-day break.