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Gastroduodenitis: Symptoms and Treatment

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Like the names of all diseases, gastroduodenitis comes from Latin words: the stomach - gastro and the duodenum - duodenum, and the ending - it means inflammation of these organs. If we consider this disease in general terms, then it is similar in many symptoms to gastritis, but at the same time, the inflammatory process passes to the duodenum.



Causes of gastroduodenitis

Among the reasons leading to the development of gastroduodenitis are the following.

1. Endogenous. In this group, the following factors may play the main role:

  • insufficient mucus production;
  • increased acid production;
  • dysregulation of hormonal secretion;
  • liver and biliary tract diseases;
  • chronic diseases of the pharynx and oral cavity (inflammation of the tonsils, carious teeth);
  • genetic predisposition.

2. Exogenous. They are based on various external factors that, under certain conditions, can cause gastroduodenitis. We list the main exogenous causes of this disease:

  • excessive consumption of hot, fatty, spicy, rough or cold foods;
  • food irregularity and food without a meal;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • psychological factor (frequent stress);
  • infection of the body with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori;
  • long-term use of certain drugs (non-thyroid anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics).

But most often gastroduodenitis develops under the combined influence of several factors.

Classification

Gastroduodenitis can be:

  • acute;
  • chronic.

A noticeable difference between these forms of gastroduodenitis in pain syndrome. In the first case, non-permanent and short-term pains are noted, and in the chronic course the pain is less pronounced, but is almost permanent.

Also, gastroduodenitis can be divided according to the type of pathological process. Here there are 4 forms.

1. Surface. With this type of marked thickening of the folds of the mucous membranes of the stomach and duodenum, as well as swelling of the mucous membranes.

2. Hypertrophic. In addition to puffiness, hyperemia and small hemorrhagic hemorrhages are associated. The mucosa is covered with a fibrinous-mucous coating.

3. Erosive. Observed swelling, hemorrhagic hemorrhages, erosion on the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum.

4. Mixed form. There may be small areas of atrophy, but externally, the mucosa resembles a hypertrophic form.

Finally, gastroduodenitis can be divided depending on the secretory function. In this case, there are 3 types:

  • with normal secretory function;
  • with reduced secretion function;
  • with increased secretory function.



Gastroduodenitis symptoms

Among the main clinical manifestations of gastroduodenitis are the following:

  • pain in the stomach (pain is often aching or cramping);
  • nausea;
  • decrease or loss of appetite;
  • heartburn;
  • belching;
  • unpleasant taste in the mouth;
  • feeling of fullness in the stomach;
  • constipation or diarrhea.

Symptoms of a general nature can also be observed - irritability, fatigue, paleness of skin, dizziness, weight loss, sleep disturbances. On examination, the doctor may note tenderness of the abdomen on palpation, a yellowish-white plaque on the tongue with possible tooth imprints. The language itself looks edematous.

If we talk about pain syndrome in gastroduodenitis, then it is characterized by increased pain after a meal (as a rule, this happens after 1-1.5 hours).

In addition to nausea, heartburn and belching, sour vomiting may occur. Stool impairment is expressed in both constipation and diarrhea.

Exacerbations of chronic gastroduodenitis occur, as a rule, in the fall and spring. This is largely due to the transmission of infectious diseases at this time, as well as nutritional disorders and increased psychological stress. The duration of aggravated gastroduodenitis is from 1 to 2 months. With regard to pain, the feeling of pain may stop after 10 days, but the tenderness of the abdomen on palpation often persists for two weeks.

Gastroduodenitis in children

This disease is not uncommon in children. Among the causes of the disease here in the forefront errors in nutrition, as well as excessive psychological stress. These factors can increase in the presence of hereditary predisposition, taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and also if the child has food allergies.

As for the clinical manifestations of gastroduodenitis in children, pain is the main symptom. It is located more often in the epigastric region, but can give in the right hypochondrium or navel. There is also nausea, which is more often observed in the morning after waking up.

Often this disease in children is accompanied by psycho-emotional and autonomic disorders. The child gets tired quickly, his sleep is disturbed, headaches and dizziness may occur.

Diagnosis of gastroduodenitis

A variety of research methods can be used to identify gastroduodenitis. Therefore, we list their main ones.

Endoscopy

This method allows you to visually assess the condition of the mucous membrane and duodenum using an endoscope. At the same time, biopsy, chromoscopy and other therapeutic manipulations can be performed. During the procedure, you can take a photo or video. According to the results of endoscopic examination, the doctor can tell about the pathological process, taking into account the appearance of the mucous membrane.

Histological examination

To perform this examination, you need to take a biopsy from the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum. After that, the resulting material is studied under a microscope, which allows to assess the degree of dystrophic and inflammatory processes.

Study of the motor function of the stomach

For these purposes, peripheral electrogastrography is used. With it, you can register a reduction in smooth muscles in the wall of the stomach. For this purpose, skin electrodes are used, which are placed in the epigastric region and on the extremities. All the data is analyzed and displayed on the computer.

Also for the registration of motor function of the stomach can be used probes with built-in strain gauges. The probes themselves are catheters that are inserted through the lower nasal passage and then installed under the control of fluoroscopy in different parts of the stomach. Strain gauges register intracavitary pressure, and display the results on a paper tape using a recorder.

Study of the evacuation function of the stomach

The most accurate information allows to obtain the radionuclide method. Its essence lies in the fact that the patient is given a "test breakfast" (often porridge), containing a substance labeled with a radionuclide. After that, a special device registers the time spent on the evacuation of this food. According to the results and estimated evacuation function of the stomach.

Study of the secretory function of the stomach

For this, two methods are more commonly used:

  • suction probe with extraction of gastric juice;
  • intragastric pH-metry.

In the first method, gastric juice is extracted using a probe inserted through the mouth. Then all its properties and parameters are studied in laboratory conditions, after which they make a conclusion about basal and stimulated secretion.

A variation of this method is aspiration-probe, but with the continuous production of gastric contents. In this way, it is possible to obtain more information about the secretory function of the stomach.

But still, the most objective method, experts call intraventricular pH-metry. What are the advantages of this method? Here are some of them:

  • it gives objective and quick information about the pH in the stomach;
  • pH data can be recorded over a long period of time (up to 24 hours);
  • at the same time it is possible to carry out various pharmatosecretory tests
  • at any given time, you can determine the amount of hydrochloric acid;
  • You can also evaluate additional indicators.

Directly for the procedure, micro probes equipped with pH electrodes are used. Due to their small size, such electrodes can be inserted not only through the mouth, but also through the nose.

Gastroduodenitis treatment

For the treatment of gastroduodenitis used several groups of drugs.

1. Antacids. They have a direct effect on hydrochloric acid, reduce spasms, reduce intracavitary pressure and reverse peristalsis. In this group of drugs can be divided into 2 subgroups:

  • Absorbed antacids, which are characterized by speed of action, low cost, but there is also a drawback - increased acid-forming function of the stomach, which is accompanied by increased symptoms;
  • nonabsorbable antacids - these drugs are well tolerated and are more often used for long-term treatment.

2. Antisecretory agents. Among these drugs can be divided into three subgroups:

  • histamine blockers - used earlier in the treatment of gastroduodenitis. Now there are new generation tools that are transferred more easily, but they also have their drawback - with prolonged use, they are used to them.
  • proton pump inhibitors - their action is based on the reduction of the formation of hydrogen protons, which leads to a decrease in gastric acidity. Can be appointed by long courses, as well tolerated. But some side effects are not excluded. In particular, during treatment with prolonged courses, an increased level of gastrin in the blood and hyperplasia of ECL cells are noted. But after the abolition of these drugs, these symptoms disappear. Also among the side effects include headaches, dyspeptic disorders and allergic reactions.
  • M-holinoblokatory often used in emergency cases and can not be used for a long period of time, as they have noticeable side effects. Among the most serious are the effects on the central nervous system, increased heart rate, intestinal atony, dry mucous membranes, and others.

2. Antibacterial and antimicrobial agents are prescribed to act on Helicobacter pylori bacteria. But this therapy has its drawbacks, as it leads to intestinal dysbiosis and digestive disorders.

In addition to the basic drugs, auxiliary agents are usually prescribed for gastroduodenitis. The main purpose of these drugs is to reduce the side effects of products from the main group.

Among these drugs can be noted antispasmodics, probiotics, vitamin complexes, as well as fixative or laxatives. The whole course of treatment of gastroduodenitis with medical preparations implies a significant load, which often negatively affects the work of other organs. Therefore, people often pay attention to traditional methods of treatment, which can be carried out together with traditional therapy.

Diet with gastroduodenitis

Compliance with certain rules of nutrition is one of the basic principles of treatment of gastroduodenitis. The main purpose of the purpose of the diet is to restore impaired gastric function (both motor and secretory), as well as positively affect the structure of the mucous membrane.

Generally speaking, food should be varied, full and balanced. At the same time, diet No. 2 is the basis of therapeutic nutrition, which can be administered during all periods of the disease, except for exacerbations. Let us consider in more detail this diet and the products allowed and prohibited in this disease.

Bread and flour products

It is best to eat dried or yesterday's bread. Allowed dry biscuit and rolls biscuits. Pies with eggs, boiled meat, apples, rice and jam are allowed. The banned are flour products from puff and sweet dough, as well as fresh bread.

Soups

It is recommended to cook them on a low-fat and not-strong fish or meat broth. Also, as a basis, you can take decoctions of mushrooms and vegetables. Season soups should be finely chopped vegetables, grated grits or noodles. Fresh cabbage soup, borscht and beetroot soup are allowed, but all vegetables must be finely chopped. Under the ban - pea, bean, milk soups and okroshka.

Meat and poultry

You can use low-fat varieties without skin and tendons. It is best to bake or boil the meat. If roasting is planned, then it is not recommended to use the breading, it is better to fry in the egg. Preference should be given to veal, rabbit meat, chickens and turkey. From offal allowed boiled tongue. Under the ban, all meat is rich in connective tissue and fat. It is also recommended to limit the lamb and pork.

A fish

Practically all low-fat fish are allowed. It is better to boil it whole or piece, simmer, bake or fry without the use of breading. It is necessary to exclude all fat, smoked, salty fish.

Milk products

Sour milk, kefir and other dairy products are welcome. Cheese can be used in the ground form, permitted and fresh cottage cheese. Cream and milk are added to the dishes.

Eggs

You can cook a variety of omelets - steam, fried (without a crust) or baked. Eggs to use better soft-boiled. Under the ban - hard-boiled eggs.

Groats

Various porridges cooked in water or with a small amount of milk will be helpful. You can also cook porridge in meat broth. Baked and steam puddings, cutlets, steamed or fried without a crust are allowed. The ban - legumes, and should be limited to barley, millet, corn and barley grits.

Vegetables

You can eat zucchini, potatoes, carrots, pumpkin, cauliflower and beets. If there is tolerance, then you can green peas and white cabbage. All vegetables should be stewed, boiled or baked. Serve them better in the form of casseroles, mashed potatoes, puddings. Fresh greens are also useful, but only in finely chopped form and added to the dishes. Uncooked and raw vegetables, salted and pickled, radish, onion, sweet peppers, radishes, rutabaga, cucumbers, garlic are not allowed.

Fruits and sweet dishes

All berries and ripe fruits are recommended to use in the shabby look. Only very soft fruits can be eaten not grated. Kissels, compotes, mousses, jellies are being prepared. Allowed baked apples and pureed dried fruit compote. Lemons and orange can be added to jelly or tea. Under the ban are all rough varieties of berries and fruits in their raw form. Not recommended berries with large grains - red currant, raspberry. Gooseberries, figs, dates, cream and chocolate products, ice cream are also excluded.

Sauces, Spices

Sour cream sauce is allowed, as well as white with lemon. From spices you can use cinnamon, vanilla. When cooking, you can add finely chopped greens (parsley, dill), a little bay leaf. Under the ban, all spicy and fatty sauces, pepper, mustard, horseradish.

The drinks

You can drink tea with lemon, cocoa and coffee with the addition of milk. Allowed fruit, vegetable and berry juices, diluted with water. Useful will be decoctions of bran and wild rose. Under the ban of drinks kvass and grape juice.

Folk remedies for gastroduodenitis

The treatment of gastroduodenitis is quite long and is associated with the administration of a considerable amount of medications. At the same time, some of them in some patients may experience negative reactions. And in this case, the question of alternative methods of treatment, among which the most common is traditional medicine. The use of natural products, as a rule, can be called a reliable and safe way to help restore your health.

The most commonly used fitozbory that can relieve from many of the symptoms of gastroduodenitis and alleviate the course of the disease. What kind of herbs will be useful?

First, mint is widely used. For the preparation of medicinal infusion is required to take fresh or dried leaves of mint (half a cup) and pour them with one liter of boiling water. After that, everything should be infused overnight in a thermos, and then you can take on an empty stomach 100 ml of broth.

Secondly, celandine is considered an effective plant for gastroduodenitis. On its basis it is possible to prepare both water and alcohol infusion. In the first case, one tablespoon of celandine is taken and poured with a glass of boiling water. After that, the resulting mixture should boil on low heat for 10 minutes. The resulting infusion should be taken before meals one tablespoon for one month. Alcohol infusion of celandine is prepared as follows. Any enameled container is taken and one third filled with celandine grass, and then alcohol is poured. All this should be insisted on for three weeks. Полученный настой применяют ежедневно, начиная с 5-ти капель, а затем каждый день дозировку увеличивают на одну каплю.

Также полезен при гастродуодените может быть и лен. Берется измельченная трава этого растения в количестве одной столовой ложки и заливается стаканом кипятка в эмалированной посуде. После этого все ставится на огонь и доводится до кипения. Дав прокипеть раствору 15 минут, его следует снять с плиты и дать настояться в течение часа. Употреблять полученный настой необходимо до еды 3 раза в день по полстакана. Такое лечение рассчитано на один месяц. Затем можно после 10-ти дневного перерыва повторить курс лечения.


17 Март 2014 | 4 615 | Uncategorized
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Carolyn Demello: I went to hospital 1week ago with chest pain back pain stomach pain and black vomitt hopital told me to go home everything was perfect even my blood labs but by the end of the day i was in so much pain i taught i was gona die the hospital this time said why did u leave earler i said u told me i was perfect go home now they tell me im bleeding internal i need a blood transfusion right away i lost alot of blood i better but im very mad at the hospital cause the first time they tell me im fine go home i new something was very wrong if i didnt go back i would have died

Shannonm75: I think mine might be a doudenal ulcer. I'm having a test. Food irritates that area near end of my stomach. Little sharp pains sometimes.

Kayce Esther: I have low back pain that comes and attack for like five minutes then it goes away is that the same disease attacking me to the extent of vomiting

Starman Jay: Fascinating! I had the triple-threat of esophagitis, gastritis, and duodenitis, but after some time & treatment, I only feel the burning sensation in my duodenum. It’s taking a good long while to heal. I wish there was something more I could do about it!

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