Gastritis: symptoms, treatment
- What is gastritis?
- Types of disease
- Causes of gastritis
- Symptoms of gastritis
- What diseases can confuse gastritis?
- Gastritis treatment
Gastritis is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases of inflammatory or inflammatory and dystrophic nature, affecting the gastric mucosa. In connection with the many varieties of this disease, the term "gastritis" is a collective one and is used to designate inflammatory and dystrophic changes of different origin in the mucosa of this organ.
What is gastritis?
The stomach is the most vulnerable organ of the digestive system, since it alone performs as many as three important stages of digestion:
- mechanical mixing of food;
- its chemical cleavage;
- nutrient absorption.
With the development of diseases, damage to the inner wall of the stomach is primarily noted, in which the production of two necessary components of digestion - protective mucus and gastric juice occurs.
The great wisdom of nature, which created the human body, manifested itself during the creation of this organ. The stomach of a healthy person not only does not digest its own tissues, but also the gastric juice produced by its different departments has different properties. For example, the pH of the esophagus is neutral, and the duodenum is already alkaline. Impaired acid-base balance in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and acid balance in different parts of the stomach is the root cause of gastritis. This results in gross effects on the digestive process of the most diverse nature. As a result, gastritis occurs - inflammation of the gastric mucosa, which causes a violation of the functions of this organ.
Types of disease
The variety of manifestations of the disease is expressed in their complex classification.
Considered pathological processes in the stomach lining can be primary and considered as a separate independent disease and secondary that are associated with or caused by other diseases or intoxications.
According to the duration of the course and the intensity of the damaging factors, the disease can be acute and chronic.
Acute gastritis occurs when acid or alkali poisoning, while taking large doses of certain drugs, especially aspirin. After treatment, such a disease can turn into chronic gastritis, but more often the chronic form develops as an independent disease.
Acute gastritis can have the following varieties:
In this case, the catarrhal form of the disease is associated with mild food poisoning and poor nutrition. Necrotic and fibrinous gastritis develops as a result of poisoning with heavy metals, concentrated alkalis and acids. Phlegmonous gastritis is most often caused by traumatic damage to the walls.
The prolonged effect of acute diseases on a weakened patient leads to the development of chronic gastritis. They are divided into the following types:
- NSAID conditioned;
- caused by chemicals;
- of unknown origin.
Depending on the secretory activity of the stomach, gastritis is released:
- with increased or normal acidity;
- with low or no acidity.
It is quite possible to distinguish the symptoms of these conditions, but the final diagnosis is made on the basis of an analysis of gastric juice taken by sensing. In some cases, the pH of the gastric juice is determined by indirect methods using urine tests.
Causes of gastritis
If acute gastritis results from the ingestion of large quantities of ulcerogenic substances and their damaging effects on the gastric mucosa, the causes of chronic disease are more diverse. Of interest is the fact that some people have gastritis rather slowly, despite the presence of obvious reasons. Apparently, the disease is most likely caused by many factors or their specific combinations.
Factors contributing to the development of this disease are divided into external and internal.
The main external causes of gastritis
For almost the entire past century, it was believed that chronic gastritis is caused by irregular nutrition, alcohol intake and stress. Australian doctors R. Warren and B. Marshall in 1981, after experimenting with themselves, proved that the cause of the disease in most cases is a microbe called Helicobacter pylori. Approximately 80% of patients with gastritis contain acid-resistant bacteria in the body, which have the ability to actively invade the wall of the stomach, release substances that irritate its membrane, cause inflammation and a local pH change. The most common of these are Helicobacter pylori. But it still remains unexplained, why, in some people, they cause the disease, but not in others.
- the effects of bacteria and fungi on the walls of the stomach;
- eating disorders;
- alcohol abuse;
- drug intake;
- the presence of worm infestations;
- chronic stress.
Malnutrition, overeating and other eating disorders are also a common cause of gastritis. At occurrence of the initial stages of the disease, it is necessary to exclude food containing coarse fiber, canned food, marinades, and hot spices.
In a separate reason for the appearance of gastritis of the stomach allocated alcohol abuse. In small amounts, ethanol is a necessary component of biochemical processes, but an excessively large amount of it causes an imbalance of acid-base balance in the body. With regular use of alcohol, there is a negative impact on such organs as the liver, pancreas, kidneys, and also on metabolic processes.
Many medicinal substances related to antiplatelet agents, painkillers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have the ability to irritate the mucous membrane of the organ and cause gastritis. In this regard, they are recommended to take after meals, in small doses, with large quantities of water.
Internal causes of gastritis
Internal causes of disease include:
- hereditary predisposition to gastrointestinal diseases;
- the presence of duodenal reflux;
- violation of the protective properties of cells at the immune level;
- hormonal metabolic disturbances;
- reflex transmission of pathogenesis from neighboring organs.
Duodenal reflux is called the phenomenon of pathological reflux of bile from the 12th intestine into the stomach. The bile infiltrating it irritates the mucous walls and also changes the pH of the gastric juice. Typically, the initial inflammation occurs in the antrum, and other departments may later be involved.
If the protective properties of stomach cells are damaged at the immune level, they lose their original properties and normal functioning. As a result of this phenomenon, a whole cascade of small reactions is triggered, affecting the pH of the juice and leading, ultimately, to irritation of the walls of the organ. Endogenous intoxication occurs, the resistance of the gastric mucosa to the aggressive environment of its own gastric juice is broken.
Symptoms of gastritis
Gastritis are characterized by a variety of manifestations, which are determined by the form and type of the disease.
The most characteristic symptoms of an acute illness are:
- epigastric pain;
The most important symptom of gastritis, pain in the solar plexus, tends to increase after taking certain types of food or medicine. Often, stomach pain is aggravated between meals. The adoption shortly before the painful attack of any aggressive liquids, medicines, food is a sign of gastritis.
This form of the disease can appear at the age of 20 years and continue into extreme old age, manifesting itself as periods of subsiding and exacerbations.
Signs of chronic gastritis less pronounced:
- irregular stools;
- rumbling in the stomach;
- tongue plaque;
- alternation of constipation and diarrhea.
These are signs of a chronic disease without exacerbation. When this happens, the patient is concerned about the following complaints:
- intermittent or persistent epigastric pain;
- belching air;
- metallic taste in the mouth;
- vomiting in the morning semi-digested food;
- nausea, excessive salivation;
- dyspeptic symptoms;
- dizziness, rapid heartbeat;
- weakness, headache.
Severe erosive forms of the disease are complemented by vomiting with dark contents or containing blood clots. A terrible complication is the occurrence of gastric bleeding, which manifest themselves black feces. Massive internal bleeding can also be felt as pallor of the mucous membranes and skin, tinnitus, dizziness.
Gastritis with high acidity
The manifestations of gastritis with increased and decreased acidity are somewhat different. So, for example, in addition to the common signs of gastritis with high acidity are observed:
- epigastric pain, disappearing after eating;
- heartburn after eating sour foods;
- frequent belching;
The disease is characterized by strong aching pains of paroxysmal character, localized in the region of the solar plexus or navel. They are amplified between meals, and stop after it is taken. The pain can be given to the right hypochondrium, indicating a reflux of gastric juice in the duodenum.
The type of the disease is established with the help of medical research. The increased acidity is indicated by the need for alkaline foods and the alleviation of the condition after they are consumed.
Gastritis with low acidity
In gastritis with low or no acidity, the patient most often experiences:
- feeling of heaviness in the stomach after eating;
- belching rotten contents;
- unpleasant bite in the mouth;
- bad breath;
- nausea in the morning;
- irregular stools.
With a low acidity of the juice, there is a slowdown in the breakdown and denaturation of proteins. The consequence of this process is the deterioration of intestinal motility. For this reason, along with pain in these types of gastritis, an important symptom is fermentation in the stomach, constipation, and bad breath.
What diseases can confuse gastritis?
The main symptom of gastritis is abdominal pain. But at the same time, they may indicate a completely different disease.
Abdominal pain, observed in cholecystitis, pancreatitis, gastric cancer, intestinal obstruction, is often combined with other symptoms characteristic of gastritis - nausea, vomiting, belching, and impaired stool.
Painful sensations resembling gastritis may indicate myocardial infarction, rib fracture, and lung disease.
Pain in the stomach can also occur with intestinal diseases, parasitic pathologies, female diseases, as well as diabetes, neurosis.
How to distinguish all these cases from the pain caused by gastritis?
Characteristic features of gastric pains in gastritis are their enhancement after:
- food intake;
- taking medications related to ulcerogenic;
- alcohol intake;
- long break between meals.
The treatment depends entirely on the type of gastritis. An important part of it is diet. When exacerbations, pain, nausea should be the most benign food. It should be wiped, comfortable in temperature, do not contain spices and large amounts of salt. The nature of food should be fractional, in small portions up to 5-6 times per day.
After the onset of remission, one should maintain the regularity of food up to 4-5 times a day, without prolonged interruptions. Do not abuse cold snacks, pizzas or hot dogs. It is desirable to completely eliminate strong alcohol. Low-fat dairy products, boiled vegetables, low-fat meat and fish are shown.
No less important for the patient to stop smoking. It is desirable to get rid of this addiction completely, and, if not, at least for the period of treatment. The fact is that, formed during the combustion of tobacco, toxic substances along with saliva fall on the gastric mucosa and cause irritation. In addition, nicotine contained in tobacco causes vascular spasms, which interferes with the blood circulation of tissues.
Treatment of acute gastritis
Acute gastritis resulting from the intake of concentrated chemicals is often accompanied by laryngeal edema and renal failure, requiring urgent medical intervention. Therefore, it is impossible to treat such conditions at home. The main therapeutic measures for acute gastritis are as follows:
- Gastric lavage. To this end, the patient is offered to drink several glasses of water or a physical solution, and then, by pressing on the root of the tongue, cause vomiting. This procedure is repeated until the emetic masses contain food particles.
- Full hunger for the first day, taking only weak tea, broth hips, chamomile or mint. You can also drink mineral water without gas.
- Appointment after this sparing diet - mucous pureed soups, omelets, soufflé of low-fat meats or fish, kissels.
- Pain relief and elimination of cramps with platifillin and papaverine.
- Removal of nausea and vomiting, for this, recommend Motilium or cerculate.
- In severe toxicoinfections, the appointment of antibiotic therapy.
Gastritis of an allergic origin require keeping a food diary and maintaining an elimination diet.
Treatment of chronic gastritis
In 90% of cases, chronic gastritis is caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Therefore, with this disease, the first thing to do is to examine the patient for the presence in the body of the pathogen. Also no less important is the analysis of gastric juice, which will help to choose the optimal treatment. Its main stages are as follows:
- An appropriate diet is selected.
- Helicobacter therapy is carried out. It is performed for 10 days according to the 3 component scheme: hydrogen pump blocker, amoxicillin , clarithromycin. If the effect could not be achieved, then after one and a half months the treatment is repeated according to the 4-component scheme. At the same time, de-nol is added to these agents.
- With increased acidity, drugs are used to lower it. It reduces pain and heartburn, speeds up the healing process.
- With low acidity, enzyme replacement therapy is required. For this purpose polyenzyme agents are prescribed - enzyme, festal, mezim, abomin.
- In combination with drugs allowed the use of traditional medicine.
Modern approaches to the treatment of chronic gastritis have reduced the prevalence of this disease and significantly reduced the frequency of exacerbations. But despite this, infection with Helicobacter can easily recur. Therefore, for those who wish to forget about the disease for a long time, it is necessary to take care of eliminating the predisposing factors.
Taking into account the characteristics of the disease in chronic gastritis, the use of herbal medicine is recommended. In gastritis with both high and low acidity are useful fees from herbs that have anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, wound-healing effect:
- Mint leaves, linden flowers are taken in 1 part; calamus root, licorice and fruits of fennel - in 2 parts, flax seed - 3 parts. Accepted with high acidity.
- Herbs wormwood, celandine, fruits of dill take 1 part; calendula flowers, dandelion root - 2 parts each, swamp loaf - 4 parts, oat seeds and rosehips - 7 parts each. Ready to take collection with low acidity.
With increased acidity, an effective and simple remedy is fresh potato juice, which should be taken half a glass 3 times a day.
Preventive measures are reduced to compliance with the diet, the exclusion of large doses of alcohol, the restriction of fatty, spicy and fried foods. What is the most difficult to achieve restrictions, so it is in taking the necessary medicines that have a negative effect on the stomach.
So, for example, aspirin is often prescribed to many people as an antiplatelet agent. This drug perfectly prevents the development of blood clots in the bloodstream. But a very unpleasant side effect of this and similar medicines is the irritating effect on the gastric mucosa. Their improper use can provoke an additional problem in elderly patients. In order to reduce side effects, the following measures should be taken:
- уменьшить разовую дозу, посоветовавшись с лечащим врачом;
- запивать лекарство большими порциями воды;
- принимать его перед приемом пищи;
- в некоторых случаях необходим совместный прием антацидов.
Требуется сообщать врачу о плохой переносимости такого рода препаратов, чтобы он мог подобрать наиболее щадящий аналог.
- Erosive gastritis
- Chronic gastritis
- Acute gastritis
- Catarrhal gastritis
- Hypertrophic gastritis
- Gastritis with low acidity
- Gastritis with high acidity
- Atrophic gastritis