Gastritis: symptoms, treatment
- What is gastritis?
- Types of disease
- Causes of gastritis
- Symptoms of gastritis
- With what diseases can you confuse gastritis?
- Treatment of gastritis
Gastritis is one of the most common gastrointestinal inflammatory or inflammatory-dystrophic diseases affecting the gastric mucosa. In connection with the many varieties of this disease, the term "gastritis" is collective and serves to denote various inflammatory and dystrophic changes in the mucosa of this organ.
What is gastritis?
The stomach is the most vulnerable organ of the digestive system, since it alone performs three important stages of digestion:
- Mechanical mixing of food;
- Its chemical cleavage;
- Absorption of nutrients.
In the development of diseases, damage to the inner wall of the stomach, in which the two essential components of digestion - protective mucus and gastric juice - occurs first.
The great wisdom of nature, which created the human organism, manifested itself in the creation of this organ. The stomach of a healthy person not only does not digest its own tissues, but also the gastric juice produced by its different departments has different properties. For example, the pH of the esophagus is neutral, and the duodenum is already alkaline. Violation of acid-base balance in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and acid balance in different parts of the stomach is the root cause of gastritis. This leads to gross effects on the process of digestion of a very different nature. In the end, and there is gastritis - inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach, which causes a violation of the functions of this body.
Types of disease
The variety of manifestations of the disease is expressed in their complex classification.
The examined pathological processes in the gastric membrane can be primary and be considered as a separate independent disease and secondary, which accompany or are caused by other diseases or intoxications.
By the duration of the course and intensity of the damaging factors, the disease can be acute and chronic.
Acute gastritis occurs when poisoning with acids or alkalis, when taking in large doses of certain medicines, especially aspirin. After treatment, such a disease can go to chronic gastritis, but more often the chronic form develops as an independent disease.
Acute gastritis can have the following varieties:
In this case, the catarrhal form of the disease is associated with mild food poisoning and inappropriate nutrition. Necrotic and fibrinous gastritis develop as a result of poisoning with heavy metals, concentrated alkalis and acids. Phlegmonous gastritis is most often caused by traumatic damage to the walls.
The prolonged exposure of acute diseases to the weakened organism of the patient leads to the development of chronic gastritis. They are subdivided into such varieties:
- NSAIDs due to;
- Caused by chemical substances;
- Of unknown origin.
Depending on the secretory activity of the stomach, gastritis is secreted:
- With increased or normal acidity;
- With reduced or zero acidity.
Symptoms of these conditions can be discerned, but the final diagnosis is based on the analysis of gastric juice taken by sounding. In some cases, the pH of the gastric juice is determined indirectly by urine tests.
Causes of gastritis
If acute gastritis occurs as a result of taking large amounts of ulcerogenic substances and their destructive effect on the gastric mucosa, the causes of chronic disease are more diverse. It is interesting that some people develop gastritis slowly enough, despite the obvious reasons. Apparently, the disease is caused, most likely, by many factors or their specific combinations.
Factors contributing to the development of this disease, are divided into external and internal.
The main external causes of gastritis
Throughout almost the entire last century it was believed that chronic gastritis is caused by irregular eating, drinking alcohol and stress. Australian doctors R. Warren and B. Marshall in 1981, putting the experiment on themselves, proved that the cause of the disease in most cases is a microbe called Helicobacter pylori. Approximately 80% of patients with gastritis contain acid-fast bacteria in the body, which have the ability to actively invade the stomach wall, excrete substances that irritate its shell, cause inflammation and local pH changes. The most common of these are Helicobacter pylori. But until now it remains unclear why some people cause disease, while others do not.
- The effect of bacteria and fungi on the walls of the stomach;
- Eating disorders;
- Alcohol abuse;
- Taking medicines;
- Presence of helminthic invasions;
- Chronic stress.
A common cause of gastritis is also malnutrition, overeating and other eating disorders. When the initial stages of the disease should be eliminated food containing coarse fiber, canned food, marinades, spicy spices.
Alcohol abuse has been identified as a separate cause of the gastritis of the stomach. In small quantities, ethanol is an essential component of biochemical processes, but an excessively large amount of it causes an imbalance in the acid-base balance in the body. With regular use of alcohol, there is a negative effect on organs such as the liver, pancreas, kidneys, and also on metabolic processes.
Many medicinal substances related to antiaggregants, analgesic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have the ability to irritate the mucous membrane of the organ and cause gastritis. In this regard, they are recommended to take after meals, in small doses, washing down with large amounts of water.
Internal causes of gastritis
Internal causes of the disease include:
- Hereditary predisposition to gastrointestinal diseases;
- Presence of duodenal reflux;
- Violation of the protective properties of cells at the immune level;
- Disturbances of hormonal metabolism;
- Reflex transmission of pathogenesis from neighboring organs.
Duodenal reflux refers to the phenomenon of pathological casting of bile from the 12th intestine into the stomach. Penetrated into it bile irritates the mucous walls, and also changes the pH of gastric juice. Usually, the initial inflammation occurs in the antral part, and later other departments may be involved.
If the protective properties of the stomach cells are damaged at the immune level, they lose their original properties and normal functioning. As a result of this phenomenon, a whole cascade of small reactions is activated that affects the pH of the juice and ultimately leads to irritation of the walls of the organ. There is endogenous intoxication, the resistance of the gastric mucosa to the aggressive environment of its own gastric juice is disturbed.
Symptoms of gastritis
Gastritis is characterized by a variety of its manifestations, which are determined by the form and type of the disease.
The most characteristic symptoms of an acute illness are:
- Pain in the epigastric region;
The most important symptom that indicates a gastritis is pain in the solar plexus area, it has the property to intensify after taking certain types of food or medicine. Often, stomach pain intensifies in the intervals between meals. Adoption shortly before a painful attack of any aggressive liquids, medicines, food serves as a sign of gastritis.
This form of the disease can appear at the age of 20 years and continue to a very old age, manifesting itself as periods of remission and exacerbation.
Symptoms of a chronic form of gastritis are less expressive:
- Irregular stools;
- Rumbling in the abdomen;
- Plaque on the tongue;
- Alternation of constipation and diarrhea.
These are the signs of a chronic illness without exacerbation. When this occurs, the patient is disturbed by the following complaints:
- Periodic or persistent epigastric pain;
- Belching with air;
- Metallic taste in the mouth;
- Vomiting in the morning half-digested food;
- Nausea, increased salivation;
- Dyspeptic phenomena;
- Dizziness, heart palpitations;
- Weakness, headache.
Severe erosive forms of the disease are supplemented by vomiting with dark contents or containing blood clots. A terrible complication is the occurrence of gastric bleeding, which manifests itself as feces of black color. Massive internal bleeding can also be felt by the pallor of mucous membranes and skin, noise in the ears, dizziness.
Gastritis with high acidity
Several manifestations of gastritis in high and low acidity. So, for example, in addition to common symptoms with gastritis with high acidity, there are:
- Pain in the epigastrium, disappearing after eating;
- Heartburn after eating acidic foods;
- Frequent belching;
The disease is characterized by severe aching pain of paroxysmal nature, localized in the solar plexus or navel. They are amplified between meals, and cease after ingestion. Pain can give to the right hypochondrium, which indicates the throwing of gastric juice into the duodenum.
The type of disease is established through medical research. The increased acidity is indicated by the need for alkaline products and the relief of the condition after they are consumed.
Gastritis with low acidity
With gastritis with reduced or zero acidity, the patient most often experiences:
- Feeling of heaviness in the stomach after eating;
- Eructation of rotten contents;
- An unpleasant bite in the mouth;
- Bad breath;
- Nausea in the morning;
- Irregular stools.
With a low acidity of the juice, there is a delay in the cleavage and denaturation of proteins. The consequence of this process is the deterioration of intestinal peristalsis. For this reason, along with the painful sensations with such types of gastritis, fermentation processes in the stomach, constipation, bad breath from the mouth are an important sign.
With what diseases can you confuse gastritis?
The main symptom of gastritis is abdominal pain. But, at the same time, they can point to a completely different disease.
Pain in the abdomen, observed with cholecystitis, pancreatitis, stomach cancer, intestinal obstruction, is often combined with other symptoms characteristic of gastritis - nausea, vomiting, belching, stool disorders.
Pain sensations resembling gastritis may indicate myocardial infarction, fracture of ribs, lung disease.
Pain in the stomach can also occur with diseases of the intestine, parasitic pathologies, female diseases, as well as diabetes, neuroses.
How to distinguish all these cases from the pain caused by gastritis?
The characteristic features of gastric pain in gastritis are their strengthening after:
- Food intake;
- The adoption of drugs related to ulcerogenic;
- Alcohol intake;
- A long break between meals.
Treatment of gastritis
Treatment entirely depends on the type of gastritis. An important part of it is diet. With exacerbations, pains, nausea, you should take the most sparing food. It should be wiped, comfortable in temperature, free of spices and plenty of salt. The nature of food should be fractional, small portions up to 5-6 times a day.
After the onset of remission, it is necessary to maintain regularity of nutrition up to 4-5 times a day, without prolonged interruptions. Do not abuse cold snacks, pizzas or hot dogs. It is desirable to completely eliminate strong alcohol. Low-fat dairy products, boiled vegetables, low-fat meat and fish are shown.
It is equally important for the patient to stop smoking. It is advisable to get rid of this addictive habit completely, and, if it is not possible, at least for the period of treatment. The fact is that, formed during the combustion of tobacco, toxic substances along with saliva get on the stomach mucosa and cause its irritation. In addition, the nicotine contained in the tobacco causes vasospasms, which disrupts the circulation of tissues.
Treatment of acute gastritis
Acute gastritis, caused by the intake of concentrated chemicals, is often accompanied by laryngeal edema and kidney failure, requiring urgent medical intervention. Therefore, it is impossible to treat such conditions at home. The main treatment measures for acute gastritis are as follows:
- Gastric lavage. To this end, the patient is offered to drink several glasses of water or a physical solution, and then, pressing on the root of the tongue, cause vomiting. This procedure is repeated until the vomit masses contain food particles.
- Full hunger during the first day, taking only weak tea, decoction of dog rose, chamomile or mint. You can also drink mineral water without gas.
- Appointment after this sparing diet - mucous rubbed soups, omelets, soufflé from low-fat varieties of meat or fish, kissels.
- Relieving pain and eliminating spasms with platyphylline and papaverine.
- Withdrawal of nausea and vomiting, for this purpose recommend motilium or cerucal.
- In severe toxic infections, the appointment of antibacterial therapy.
Gastrites of allergic origin require the maintenance of a diary and the maintenance of an elimination diet.
Treatment of chronic gastritis
In 90% of cases, chronic gastritis is caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Therefore, with this disease, the first thing to do is to examine the patient for the presence of this pathogen in the body. Also no less important is the analysis of gastric juice, which will help to choose the optimal treatment. Its main stages are as follows:
- A suitable diet is selected.
- Anti-Helicobacter therapy is performed. It is performed for 10 days according to the 3-component scheme: hydrogen pump blocker, amoxicillin , clarithromycin. If the effect was not achieved, then after a month and a half treatment is repeated according to the 4-component scheme. At the same time, de-nol is added to the indicated means.
- With increased acidity, drugs are used to reduce it. It reduces pain and heartburn, speeds up the healing process.
- With reduced acidity, enzyme replacement therapy is required. To this end, appoint polyenzymatic agents - enzyme, festal, mezim, abomin.
- In combination with medicines, the use of traditional medicine is permitted.
Modern approaches to the treatment of chronic gastritis have reduced the prevalence of this disease and significantly reduced the frequency of exacerbations. But, despite this, infection with Helicobacter can easily repeat. Therefore, for those who wish to forget about the disease for a long time, it is necessary to take care of the elimination of predisposing factors.
Taking into account the peculiarities of the disease with chronic gastritis, the use of phytotherapy is recommended. With gastritis both with increased and with low acidity, it is useful to collect from herbs that have anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, wound-healing effect:
- Mint leaves, linden flowers are taken in 1 part; Root of calamus, licorice naked and fruits of fennel - 2 parts, seeds of flax seed - 3 parts. Take with increased acidity.
- Herbs of wormwood, celandine, fennel fruits take 1 part; Flowers of calendula, dandelion root - 2 parts, dried wheat flour - 4 parts, oats seeds and rose hips - 7 parts. The finished harvest is taken with reduced acidity.
With increased acidity, an effective and simple remedy is fresh potato juice, which should be taken half a cup three times a day.
Preventive measures are reduced to adherence to diet, exclusion of large doses of alcohol, restriction of fatty, spicy and fried foods. The hardest thing to achieve is to take necessary medications that have a negative effect on the stomach.
So, for example, often aspirin is prescribed to many people as an antiaggregant. This drug perfectly prevents the development of thrombi in the bloodstream. But a very unpleasant side effect of this and similar medicines is an irritating effect on the gastric mucosa. Incorrect use of them can provoke an additional problem in elderly patients. In order to reduce side effects, the following measures should be taken:
- To reduce a single dose, having consulted with the attending physician;
- Drink the medicine in large portions of water;
- Take it before eating;
- In some cases, a joint intake of antacids is necessary.
It is required to inform the doctor about the poor tolerability of such drugs so that he can choose the most sparing analogue.
- Erosive gastritis
- Chronic gastritis
- Acute gastritis
- Catarrhal gastritis
- Hypertrophic gastritis
- Gastritis with low acidity
- Gastritis with high acidity
- Atrophic gastritis