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Ovarian follicular cyst


Ovarian follicular cyst Ovarian follicular cyst is a pathology characterized by the appearance of a benign neoplasm on the ovary, which develops as a result of a hormonal imbalance in the body. Most often, this pathology is observed in women of reproductive age.

Causes of ovarian cyst formation

The main reason for the development of follicular ovarian cyst is a disruption in the endocrine system, which leads to increased ovarian production of the hormone estrogen and the development of anovulatory single-phase menstrual cycle.

Predisposing factors for the formation of ovarian cysts are:

  • Constant stress;
  • Disruption of the ovaries;
  • Pregnancy;
  • Abortion;
  • Inflammation of the uterus ( adnexitis , oophoritis, salpingitis, salpingoophoritis);
  • Uncontrolled intake of oral contraceptives;
  • Diseases transmitted by sexual contact;
  • Preparing for the IVF procedure, due to ovarian hyperstimulation before the collection of donor eggs;
  • Diseases of the endocrine system.

Ovarian follicular cyst tends to disappear on its own. This happens without taking any medications, against the background of the restoration of hormonal levels in the body of a woman.

Symptoms of ovarian follicular cyst

As a rule, the follicular cyst develops without manifestations of any clinical symptoms. In a larger number of patients, these symptoms are not specific, which most often go unnoticed. The characteristic manifestations of ovarian cysts include:

  • Violations of the menstrual cycle (delays or, conversely, earlier menstruation);
  • Abundant transparent discharge from the genital tract, without odor (often a woman does not pay attention to them, believing that it is thrush or vaginitis);
  • The appearance of intermenstrual bleeding (in rare cases);
  • Pulling pains in the abdomen, worse before the onset of menstruation.

Complications of follicular ovarian cyst

Follicular cyst is dangerous for its complications. Complications of ovarian cysts include:

Torsion legs cyst

This complication develops due to a sharp change in the position of the body, injuries to the abdomen. It is characterized by the cessation of blood flow along the cyst stem, due to its twisting. Against the background of this condition, ischemia develops rapidly in the cyst, and necrosis of her body occurs.

Cyst rupture

With the development of this complication, the cyst contents erupt into the abdominal cavity. The rupture of a cyst leads to irritation of the peritoneum and increasing symptoms of intoxication of the body. If a woman is not immediately helped, death can occur.

One of the complications of the follicular ovarian cyst is hemorrhage in its cavity. This occurs as a result of damage to the blood vessels that feed the body of the cyst.

With the development of any of the above complications, the clinical picture is acute. The woman is rapidly growing such symptoms:

  • Sharp abdominal pain, sharp, unbearable;
  • Tachycardia , a drop in blood pressure;
  • Nausea and vomiting;
  • Dyspnea and pallor of the skin;
  • Increased body temperature;
  • Cold and sticky sweat;
  • Increasing weakness and dizziness, loss of consciousness.

Patient care should be provided immediately. Complications of ovarian follicular cyst are treated only surgically.

Diagnosis of ovarian follicular cysts

Diagnosis of this pathology at the initial stage of development is very difficult, since the clinical symptoms of the disease are absent or very weak. In most cases, an ovarian follicular cyst is detected quite by chance during a routine examination by a gynecologist or on an pelvic ultrasound. Most women get to the gynecology department by ambulance with complications of a cyst, and only then they will know that they had this pathology.

Diagnosis of an ovarian cyst is based on a thorough collection of anamnesis, a gynecological examination of a woman and additional research methods. On palpation of the anterior abdominal wall, an experienced gynecologist may find a cyst in the area of ​​the uterus in the form of a small formation with smooth walls. When pressing on the formation of a woman does not have pain, but by its consistency the cyst is elastic. To confirm the diagnosis, the gynecologist sends a woman to a pelvic ultrasound.

Ultrasound of the reproductive organs and the additional use of Doppler can most accurately determine the presence of an ovarian cyst, calculate its size and severity of the pathological process.

The most effective and accurate method for the diagnosis of ovarian cyst is laparoscopy. A great advantage of laparoscopy is that during the examination, you can immediately perform a surgical removal of a cyst. Laparoscopy is resorted to only when other treatments have not brought the expected effect.

Ovarian follicular cyst: treatment

Small-sized cysts (not exceeding 5 cm in diameter), as a rule, resolve themselves, without the use of any medication. Women diagnosed with a cyst should be under the supervision of a gynecologist for another 3-4 months after the resorption of education.

In the case when a follicular cyst recurs or grows in size, the woman is prescribed treatment with combined oral contraceptives. As a rule, this method of treatment is indicated to young girls who have not yet given birth. In addition to contraceptive drugs, anti-inflammatory treatment is mandatory, a complex of multivitamin preparations and homeopathic remedies.

Physiotherapeutic treatment of ovarian cyst is the appointment of procedures for magnetic therapy, SMT-phoresis, electrophoresis, phonophoresis and other methods.

Gynecologists are trying by all means not to resort to surgical intervention, but if none of the listed methods for treating a follicular cyst brought the expected result, laparoscopy is indicated to the woman.

With the development of complications of a cyst, a surgical operation is abdominal and is performed in an urgent (emergency) manner. With the development of ovarian apoplexy (torsion of the legs of the cyst) a woman is removed an ovary.

Laparoscopic removal of a cyst is carried out according to plan, after the patient has been prepared for this operation. This procedure is quite simple and low-impact. On the anterior abdominal wall of the abdomen in the area of ​​the uterus, the surgeon makes several punctures (the woman is under anesthesia at this time), the abdominal cavity is filled with gas, after which a special instrument equipped with a light bulb and a video camera at the end, a laparoscope, is inserted. With this device, the display of the internal organs of the pelvis is displayed on the monitor screen. With the help of special surgical instruments, the surgeon removes an ovarian cyst along with its capsule, while not injuring or touching healthy areas of the organ. If the cyst has a leg, the doctor excises the tumor together with the leg and the capsule, preventing the recurrence of the disease in the future. After removal of the cyst, gas from the abdominal cavity is released, stitches and a sterile gauze bandage are placed on the damaged areas. In some cases, the installation of a drainage system for 1 day is required.

After laparoscopy, there are almost no traces of intervention on the woman’s body.

Ovarian follicular cyst during pregnancy

Every woman who wants to become a mother in the near future tries to go through all the examinations and listen carefully to the recommendations of the doctors. The diagnosis “ovarian follicular cyst” heard from the doctor will not only lead her to bewilderment, but will also become a source of frantic anxiety and anxiety. What if, in the presence of a cyst, the chance of carrying a child and becoming a mother decreases? Now we will understand what is the relationship between pregnancy and ovarian follicular cyst.

Pregnancy and follicular ovarian cyst are mutually exclusive parameters. As a rule, the development of a cyst on one of the ovaries simply prevents the egg from escaping from the follicle. However, there are cases when a woman is very successfully pregnant with only one normally functioning ovary.

Most often, a follicular cyst is detected during the first examination by a gynecologist or during an ultrasound examination of the fetus in the first trimester. If such a pathology is detected, the gynecologist should tell the patient about a possible complication - ovarian apoplexy (twisting the legs of the cyst), which can significantly increase the risk of miscarriage. It is because of the risk of developing complications of a cyst that all gynecologists strongly recommend women to plan conception! Preparation for pregnancy is a diagnostic examination on the gynecological chair, delivery of the necessary smears, blood tests, and of course ultrasound of the pelvic organs. Remember that it is best to treat a cyst before pregnancy, so as not to unduly risk a growing fetus in the womb.

Of course, it happens that a woman was preparing for pregnancy, underwent all the necessary research and everything was normal, and on the first ultrasound at 12 weeks she had an ovarian cyst. This is due to hormonal changes in the body, which could give impetus to the development of a cyst. In any case, the identification of an ovarian cyst during gestation is the basis for continuous monitoring of the pregnant woman and frequent visits to the gynecologist.

If the growth of a follicular cyst progresses during pregnancy, then the question arises about the removal of education. The optimal period for carrying out cyst removal is the second trimester of pregnancy (at about week 17). Gynecologists do not recommend carrying out the operation earlier, since the risk of miscarriage is very high in small periods of pregnancy.

Ovarian cyst removal during pregnancy is performed with laparoscopy, provided that the size of the formation is not large. With a large size of the cyst (more than 7-8 cm), the surgeon makes a small incision of the anterior abdominal wall (laparotomy).

When an ovarian cyst is detected on the leg, the functioning of the ovary itself and the general well-being of the pregnant woman are greatly impaired, therefore gynecologists insist on the surgical removal of the formation regardless of the gestational age. Otherwise, torsion of the cyst legs may happen and then not only the life of the fetus, but also the very future mother will be in danger.

Precautionary measures

When a follicular ovarian cyst is detected and during therapy, sex is not contraindicated for a woman, but it is important to understand that sexual intercourse should not be harsh and intense so as not to provoke torsion of the cyst legs or abdominal pain in a woman.

There are also no peculiarities in the diet when a cyst is detected. Ovarian follicular cyst is not a contraindication to the introduction of the intrauterine device into the uterine cavity.

The only recommendation for a woman during treatment is to eliminate physical exertion, weight lifting, performing sports exercises that require an increased load on the abdominals, as well as abrupt changes in body position.

Prevention of ovarian cyst formation

To prevent the formation of ovarian cysts, a woman should be attentive to her health. Regular preventive examinations at the gynecologist, timely treatment of inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs, correction of hormonal disorders can prevent the development of formations on the ovaries. With a constantly recurrent ovarian cyst, it is necessary to identify and eliminate the cause of the re-development of the pathology.

Detection of a cyst during childbirth obliges the patient more often than usually to visit a gynecologist in order to prevent the development of complications.

| September 28, 2014 | | 7,772 | Diseases in women
  • | Ksyusha | 5 June 2015

    I had a cyst rupture, had an operation. And they took him to the ambulance from the gynecologist's office, allegedly with appendicitis. I don’t know why they didn’t find her before, she visited the doctor regularly, maybe she appeared and grew very quickly. Girls, take care, it is better to be safe once again go to the hospital than not to watch. By the way, in a planned removal, laparoscopy is done, and now I have a big, not beautiful scar.

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G L: Really very good information, but pls can u convert this video in hindi language, so we can understand much more clearly. Pls convert and upload pls mam

--: Jesus Christ people. Instead of just going ahead and assuming you have this, go see a doctor. Don't self diagnose yourself.

jason bishop: Most of this is bull shit. I figured out cyst....on my KNEE...LEG......TELL you this eggs in women , monthly cycle. Is multiple.

wazha thanda: hey ,if anyone else trying to find out ovarian cyst diet plan try Dalz Cyst Discovery (just google it ) ? Ive heard some unbelievable things about it and my co-worker got cool results with it.

Goldengurl85: I feel I might have an ovarian cyst, got cramps out of nowhere, cramps where I was in soo much pain, couldn't walk, I was in tears on how painful it was. Never felt a pain like that before in my life.😭

BigCookie: i have a 1 cm cyst on my right ovary and my doctor hasnt told me to come back for a follow up. should i schedule one anyway? or will it just go away on its own? also funny enough my pain went away after i left the doc appointment so does that mean im ok?