Pharyngitis: symptoms, treatment
- Types of pharyngitis
- Factors of acute pharyngitis
- Causes of chronic pharyngitis
- Symptoms of pharyngitis
- Diagnosis of pharyngitis
- Pharyngitis treatment
- Pharyngitis during pregnancy
- Pharyngitis in children
- Complications of pharyngitis
- Prevention of pharyngitis
Pharyngitis is an acute or chronic inflammatory process, localized in the pharynx, affecting its mucous and deeper layers, as well as the tissues of the soft palate, lymph nodes. Even a severe disease in itself is not dangerous for life. This is a very common ailment, some forms of which are very difficult to cure.
Types of pharyngitis
The course of the disease secrete acute forms of pharyngitis, as well as chronic.
They are divided according to the degree and depth of destruction of the structure of the mucous membranes of the pharynx: catarrhal OB, purulent OF,
- Acute catarrhal pharyngitis - is externally characterized by the appearance of puffiness and hyperemia (redness) of the mucous membranes of the pharynx. At the same time, a large number of red follicle grains sometimes form on its back wall, as well as transparent or slightly cloudy mucus. There is swelling, redness of the tongue.
- Purulent forms of acute pharyngitis - accompanied by the appearance on the surface of the posterior pharyngeal wall clusters of purulent masses with the possible formation of ulcers.
Acute pharyngitis is able to proceed independently, as well as accompanied by acute inflammations covering the upper respiratory tract: rhinitis or inflammation of the nasopharyngeal mucosa.
The forms of chronic pharyngitis vary in the depth of the lesion of the structure of the mucous membranes of the pharynx to: catarrhal, hypertrophic and atrophic.
- Chronic catarrhal pharyngitis - differs by hyperemia, slight swelling of the layers of tissues of the pharyngeal mucosa. Separate sites are sometimes covered with transparent or slightly muddled mucus.
- Chronic hypertrophic pharyngitis - a significant severity of hyperemia, mucosal edema. Additionally, there is a thickening of the tongue and swelling of the soft palate.
- Chronic atrophic pharyngitis - differs in some thinning (atrophy) of the throat. They are usually pink and pale, sometimes brilliantly lacquered. Some of their areas are covered with crusts, viscous mucus, often with pus.
Factors of acute pharyngitis
The main cause of acute pharyngitis (OB) is inhalation by the mouth of polluted, contaminated or cold air, as well as exposure to the surface of the pharynx of various stimuli. That is why PF is additionally divided according to etiological signs (origin):
- traumatic - operative medical intervention, hit on the mucous membrane of a foreign body;
- infectious - fungal, viral bacterial.
Acute pharyngitis can cause a variety of stimuli: tobacco smoking, alcohol-containing beverages, radiation, inhalation of hot vapors contaminated with dust, air chemicals.
The development of the disease can provoke:
- microbes - staphylo, strepto-pneumococci and others;
- viruses (almost 70% of cases of PF) - adenoviruses, influenza viruses, rhinoviruses, coronoviruses;
- Mushrooms - Candida.
UF is able to develop due to the spread of infections from any inflammatory foci adjacent to the throat area. For example, in the case of rhinitis, dental caries, sinusitis, sinusitis. There are forms of PF that have been named for specific pathogens: Leptotrix buccalis, Epstein-Barr virus, Yersinia enterocolitica, or with gonococcus (gonorrhea pharyngitis).
Causes of chronic pharyngitis
Extremely rarely, chronic pharyngitis is diagnosed as independent inflammation. Usually, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, gastritis, or other gastrointestinal pathologies manifest themselves in this way. To provoke the development of inflammatory processes in the mucous membrane of the pharynx is capable of tonsillectomy (removal of palatine tonsils), as well as smoking. Catarral CP may develop due to frequent ingestion of acidic gastric contents into the pharynx, for example, in the case of a hernia of the esophageal diaphragm. Chronic pharyngitis may develop as a result of:
- sufficient duration of difficulty in nasal breathing - rhinitis, antritis , curvature of the nasal septum, polyps;
- use vasoconstrictor drops for a long time.
There are several more common factors that stimulate the emergence and development of HF:
- individual features of the constitution, pharyngeal mucosa structure, gastrointestinal tract;
- long-term or very strong exposure to the mucous membrane of the throat chemicals, burning hot, cold, dry, dusty or smoky air and other exogenous factors;
- hormonal disorders - menopause, diabetes, hypothyroidism;
- vitamin A deficiency;
- diathesis, allergies;
- alcohol abuse, tobacco smoking;
- renal, pulmonary, hepatic, and heart failure.
The development of chronic forms of pharyngitis stimulate severe inflammatory processes, covering the pharynx, frequent colds. It is promoted by adherence to existing viral, bacterial infections. Chronic pharyngitis is often accompanied by inflammation of the tonsils of the pharynx (tonsillitis).
Symptoms of pharyngitis
The very first signs of pharyngitis is the appearance inside the throat unpleasant, painful sensations: tickling, scratchy, burning. In the morning, the need to get rid of viscous mucous accumulations - expectorate, cough, can cause nausea, vomiting. Patients complain of pain when swallowing.
The severity of symptoms depends on the etiology and forms of pharyngitis. Typically, OF and HF are accompanied by:
- hyperemia of the mucous membranes of the pharynx;
- "Granularity" of lymphoid pharyngeal tissues;
- the formation on the back of the pharynx, sometimes extending to the surface of the tonsils, mucopurulent raids;
- general weakness;
- periodic, sometimes persistent headaches;
- persistent, often dry cough;
- temperature increase - up to 37.5 0 ;
- muscle pain.
In the case of CP, which is only a manifestation of any underlying disease, the symptoms are “enriched” and its symptoms.
With pharyngitis, the occipital and submandibular lymph nodes may increase, the pressure on which can cause quite painful sensations. On the spread of infection in the middle ear indicates the appearance of a feeling of congestion, pain in the ears.
Often, OP in children is confused with various acute respiratory viral infections: scarlet fever, measles. Its symptoms are similar to signs of angina, which is distinguished not only by the greater severity of pain symptoms, but also by a significant increase in temperature - up to 39 0 . Symptoms of pharyngitis similar to symptoms of diphtheria. Distinctive feature: the absence of difficult to separate gray-white and white films.
Diagnosis of pharyngitis
Diagnosis of all forms of pharyngitis is based on pharyngoscopy (visual examination of the pharynx), history taking. The minimum diagnostic complex includes:
- a pharyngeal smear test for diphtheria;
- complete blood count - exclusion of blood diseases, infectious mononucleosis;
- urinalysis - the exclusion of kidney disease (glomerulonephritis).
Perhaps the use of methods for the specific diagnosis of GABHS.
- Cultural research - seeding of the taken materials on a nutrient medium.
- Express diagnostics - identification of streptococcal antigen in smears from the pharynx.
- Immuno-serological diagnosis - the method is specific in the case of streptococcal infection.
The feasibility of microbiological research is determined depending on the presence / absence of:
- plaque on the tonsils;
- pain of the cervical lymph nodes.
The treatment of an ENT disease is determined by its etiology and type. The first task of all medical techniques is the relief of unpleasant sensations, therefore, painkiller, antiseptic and antibacterial drugs are actively used.
- Infectious origin - rinsing, throat spraying, taking pills and lozenges. The specific drug is determined depending on the identified pathogen. To stimulate immunity, the doctor may additionally prescribe immunomodulators.
- Chronic pharyngitis - treatment begins with the rehabilitation of foci of infection. At the same time, surgical methods can be used: laser coagulation, cryodestruction.
- Atrophic pharyngitis is treated with gargles, inhalations, iodine and vitamin A supplements.
At the same time, measures are being taken to eliminate the causes of the disease. In the case of CF, treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, cardiovascular system, and hormonal disorders is prescribed.
In addition to drug treatment, otolaryngologists usually recommend:
- sparing mode - to talk less, to breathe clean, warm, humidified air;
- diet - exclusion from the diet of spicy, acidic foods, carbonated drinks;
- plentiful warm drink - teas, compotes, decoctions, milk with honey.
Pharyngitis during pregnancy
Almost all infectious diseases can cause complications during pregnancy. Acute, chronic pharyngitis in a pregnant woman is not just unpleasant, painful sensations. Inflammatory processes in the pharynx can cause a spontaneous miscarriage in the first weeks of pregnancy, and in the later periods contribute to the development of fetal hypoxia, and cause premature birth.
The expectant mother should consult an ENT specialist at the first signs of inflammation. The otolaryngologist will prescribe the necessary diagnostic measures and select a treatment regimen for the course of pregnancy.
Pharyngitis in children
Pharyngitis is very difficult in young children, this disease is especially dangerous for babies under one year old. Sometimes PF in babies is accompanied by a rise in temperature up to 40 0 . Because of a sore throat, the child refuses to eat. Swelling of the mucous membranes can become the trigger of suffocation symptoms. The presence of inflammation in the pharynx in young children often leads to the development of acute otitis media.
Complications of pharyngitis
If the pharyngitis itself is not dangerous, their complications are a serious threat. In the absence of adequate treatment, hypersensitivity to pathogens may develop. Streptococcal pharyngitis can provoke non-purulent and purulent complications.
- Non-purulent - rheumatism (formation of inflammatory nodules in any tissues of the heart, musculoskeletal system), post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis.
- Purulent - pharyngeal or peritonsillar abscess. In the second case, the development of sepsis, representing a threat to the life of the patient.
Externally, a harmless disease can develop into:
- inflammation of the cervical lymph nodes (cervical lymphadenitis ) - especially severe in adults;
- inflammation of the salivary glands (sialadenitis) - during treatment may require surgery;
- inflammation of the inner ear, auditory tube - threatens with partial or complete hearing loss;
- laryngitis - a nidus of inflammation covers the larynx mucosa;
- tracheitis - inflammation of the tracheal mucosa, which in turn can turn into bronchopneumonia, bronchitis ;
- chronic bronchitis - penetration of the infection into the bronchi requires long-term antibiotic treatment.
Prevention of pharyngitis
The first main preventive measure is to follow the rules of a healthy lifestyle:
- tempering of the body - walking in the fresh air, playing sports, swimming;
- avoiding bad habits - smoking, drinking alcohol;
- strengthening immunity - the introduction of the maximum amount of fruits and vegetables in the diet, taking vitamin complexes (as prescribed by a doctor).
Doctors strongly recommend not to breathe in the frosty air, to protect the respiratory system when in a gas or dusty environment. It should promptly treat runny nose, dental caries, diseases of the genitourinary system. Any foci of infection in the body "open" the way pharyngitis.
The second preventive measure can be called timely treatment for qualified medical care in case of tickling, dryness, and sore throat. Only the ENT can, based on the results of diagnostic measures, prescribe competent treatment of pharyngitis.
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