Pharyngitis: symptoms, treatment
- Types of pharyngitis
- Factors of development of acute pharyngitis
- Causes of chronic pharyngitis
- Symptoms of pharyngitis
- Diagnosis of pharyngitis
- Treatment of pharyngitis
- Pharyngitis in pregnancy
- Pharyngitis in children
- Complications of pharyngitis
- Prevention of pharyngitis
Pharyngitis is an acute or chronic inflammatory process localized in the pharynx, affecting its mucous and deeper layers, as well as soft-tissue palate, lymph nodes. Even a severely leaking disease in itself is not dangerous for life. This is a very common ailment, some forms of which are very difficult to cure.
Types of pharyngitis
In the course of the disease, acute forms of pharyngitis are isolated, as well as chronic.
Separate the degree and depth of damage to the structure of the mucous pharynx: catarrhal, pyogenic,
- Acute catarrhal pharyngitis - externally characterized by the appearance of swelling and hyperemia (reddening) of the mucous membranes of the pharynx. At the same time, a lot of red follicles are formed on its back wall, as well as transparent or slightly turbid mucus. There is swelling, redness of the tongue.
- Purulent forms of acute pharyngitis - accompanied by the appearance on the surface of the back of the pharyngeal wall clusters of purulent masses with the possible formation of ulcers.
Acute pharyngitis can flow independently, and also be accompanied by acute inflammation, covering the upper respiratory tract: rhinitis or inflammation of the mucous nasopharynx.
Forms of chronic pharyngitis differ in the depth of damage to the structure of the mucous membranes of the pharynx: catarrhal, hypertrophic and atrophic.
- Chronic catarrhal pharyngitis - is characterized by hyperemia, small swelling of the layers of tissues of the pharyngeal mucosa. Individual sites are sometimes covered with a transparent or slightly turbid mucus.
- Chronic hypertrophic pharyngitis is a significant severity of hyperemia, swelling of the mucous membrane. In addition, thickening of the tongue and swelling of the soft palate are observed.
- Chronic atrophic pharyngitis - differs by some thinning (atrophy), integuments of the pharynx. They are usually pink-pale, sometimes brilliantly varnished. Some of their areas are covered with crusts, viscous mucus, often with pus.
Lateral pharyngitis is one of the forms of hypertrophic chronic pharyngitis, characterized by hypertrophy of lymphadenoid tissues located inside the pharyngeal lateral folds behind the palatine arches.
Factors of development of acute pharyngitis
The main cause of acute pharyngitis (PF) is the inhalation of contaminated, infected or cold air with the mouth, as well as the effect on the pharyngeal surface of various stimuli. That is why the PF is further divided according to etiological characteristics (origin):
- traumatic - operative medical intervention, getting on a mucosa of a foreign body;
- infectious - fungal, viral bacterial.
Acute pharyngitis can cause a variety of irritants: smoking, alcohol-containing drinks, irradiation, inhalation of hot vapors, contaminated with dust, air chemicals.
The development of the disease can provoke:
- microbes - staphylo-, strepto-, pneumococci and others;
- viruses (almost 70% of cases of PF) - adenoviruses, influenza viruses, rhinoviruses, coronoviruses;
- mushrooms - candida.
OB is able to develop due to the spread of infections from any of the nearby inflammatory foci with the region of the pharynx. For example, in the case of rhinitis, dental caries, sinusitis, sinusitis. There are forms of PF that have been named for specific pathogens: Leptotrix buccalis, Epstein-Barr virus, Yersinia enterocolitica or with gonococcus (pharyngitis gonorrhea).
Causes of chronic pharyngitis
Very rarely chronic pharyngitis is diagnosed as an independent inflammation. Usually, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, gastritis, or other pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract are manifested. Provoke the development of inflammatory processes in the pharyngeal mucosa is capable of tonsillectomy (removal of palatine tonsils), as well as smoking. Catarrhal HP can develop as a result of frequent ingestion of acidic gastric contents into the pharynx, for example, in the case of a hernia of the esophagus. Chronic pharyngitis can develop as a consequence:
- sufficient duration of obstruction of nasal breathing - rhinitis, sinusitis , curvature of the nasal septum, polyps;
- the use of vasoconstrictive drops for a long time.
We can identify several more common factors that stimulate the emergence and development of HF:
- individual features of the constitution, structure of mucous pharynx, gastrointestinal tract;
- long-term or very strong effect on the surface of mucous throat chemicals, burning hot, cold dry, dusty or smoky air and other exogenous factors;
- hormonal disorders - menopause, diabetes, hypothyroidism;
- lack of vitamin A;
- diathesis, allergies;
- abuse of alcohol-containing beverages, tobacco smoking;
- renal, pulmonary, hepatic, as well as heart failure.
The development of chronic forms of pharyngitis stimulates severe inflammation, covering the pharynx, frequent colds. It is facilitated by joining to existing viral, bacterial infections. Chronic pharyngitis is often accompanied by inflammation of the tonsils of the pharynx (sore throats).
Symptoms of pharyngitis
The very first signs of pharyngitis is the appearance in the throat of unpleasant, painful sensations: tickling, perspiration, burning. In the morning, the need to get rid of viscous mucous clusters - expectorate, cough, can cause nausea, vomiting. Patients complain of pain when swallowing.
The severity of symptoms depends on the etiology and forms of pharyngitis. Usually the PF and HF are accompanied by:
- hyperemia of the mucous membranes of the pharynx;
- "Granularity" of lymphoid pharyngeal tissues;
- formation on the posterior surface of the pharynx, sometimes extending to the surface of the palatine tonsils, mucopurulent raids;
- general weakness;
- periodic, sometimes permanent headaches;
- persistent, often dry cough;
- increase in temperature - up to 37.5 0 ;
- muscle pain.
In the case of HF, which are only a manifestation of some underlying disease, the symptomatology is "enriched" and its symptoms.
With pharyngitis, the occipital and submandibular lymph nodes may increase, pressing on which can cause quite painful sensations. The spread of infection in the middle ear area is evidenced by the appearance of a feeling of stuffiness, pain in the ears.
Often in children, OBs are confused with various ARVI diseases: scarlet fever, measles. His symptoms are similar to those of angina, which is characterized not only by the greater severity of pain symptoms, but also by a significant increase in temperature - up to 39 0 . The symptomatology of pharyngitis is similar to that of diphtheria. A distinctive feature: the absence of hard-to-separate gray-white and white films.
Diagnosis of pharyngitis
Diagnosis of all forms of pharyngitis is based on pharyngoscopy (visual examination of the pharynx), collection of anamnesis. The minimum diagnostic complex includes:
- the study of the smear from the throat - on diphtheria;
- general blood test - exclusion of blood diseases, infectious mononucleosis;
- the general analysis of urine - an exception of diseases of kidneys (glomerulonephritis).
It is possible to use the methods of specific diagnostics of BGSA.
- Cultural research - sowing of the taken materials on a nutrient medium.
- Express diagnostics - identification of streptococcal antigen in smears from throat.
- Immunoserological diagnosis - the method is specific in the case of streptococcal infection.
The expediency of microbiological research is determined depending on the presence / absence:
- raids on the tonsils;
- soreness of the cervical lymph nodes.
Treatment of pharyngitis
The treatment regimen for ENT disease is determined by its etiology and type. The first task of all medical methods is the relief of unpleasant sensations, therefore, drugs of an analgesic, antiseptic and antibacterial action are actively used.
- Infectious origin - rinsing, pulverizing the pharynx, taking pills and lozenges. The specific drug is determined depending on the pathogen detected. To stimulate immunity, the doctor may additionally prescribe immunomodulators.
- Chronic pharyngitis - treatment begins with the sanation of foci of infection. Surgical methods can also be used: lacerocoagulation, cryodestruction.
- Atrophic pharyngitis is treated with rinses, inhalations, taking iodine and vitamin A preparations.
At the same time, measures are being taken to eliminate the causes of the disease. In the case of HF, treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, cardiovascular system, and hormonal disorders is prescribed.
In addition to drug treatment, otolaryngologists usually recommend:
- sparing regimen - less talking, breathing clean warm moistened air;
- diet - exclusion from the diet of acute, sour food, carbonated drinks;
- abundant warm drink - teas, compotes, decoctions, milk with honey.
Pharyngitis in pregnancy
Virtually all infectious diseases can cause complications of pregnancy. Acute, chronic pharyngitis in a pregnant woman is not just an unpleasant, painful sensation. Inflammatory processes in the pharynx can cause a spontaneous miscarriage in the first weeks of pregnancy, and in later terms contributes to the development of fetal hypoxia, and cause premature birth.
The future mum should address to ENT-doctor at the first signs of an inflammation. The otolaryngologist will appoint the necessary diagnostic measures and select a treatment regimen taking into account the course of pregnancy.
Pharyngitis in children
Pharyngitis is very difficult for young children, especially dangerous for children up to a year. Sometimes RP in children is accompanied by an increase in temperature to 40 0 . Because of the sore throat, the child refuses to eat. Swelling of the mucosa may cause choking symptoms. The presence of a focus of inflammation in the pharynx in young children often leads to the development of acute otitis media.
Complications of pharyngitis
If the pharyngitis itself is not dangerous, then their complications are a serious threat. In the absence of adequate treatment, there may be increased sensitivity to pathogens. Streptococcal pharyngitis can provoke non-purulent and purulent complications.
- Nonspotent - rheumatism (formation of inflammatory nodules in any tissues of the heart, musculoskeletal system), post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis.
- Purulent - a pharyngeal or peritonsillar abscess. In the second case, the development of sepsis, which poses a threat to the life of the patient, is possible.
Externally, a harmless disease can develop into:
- inflammation of the cervical lymph nodes (cervical lymphadenitis ) - especially severe in adults;
- inflammation of the salivary glands (sialadenitis) - surgery may require surgery;
- inflammation of the inner ear, auditory tube - threatens partial or complete loss of hearing;
- laryngitis - the focus of inflammation covers the laryngeal mucosa;
- tracheitis - inflammation of the mucous trachea, which in turn can go to bronchopneumonia, bronchitis ;
- chronic bronchitis - penetration of infection in the bronchi requires long-term antibiotic treatment.
Prevention of pharyngitis
The first basic preventive measure is observance of rules of a healthy way of life:
- tempering the body - walking in the fresh air, playing sports, swimming;
- refusal from bad habits - smoking, alcohol consumption;
- strengthening immunity - the introduction of a maximum amount of fruits and vegetables in the diet, taking vitamin complexes (according to the doctor's prescription).
Doctors are strongly advised not to inhale the frosty air, to protect the respiratory system when in a gassed or dusty environment. It should be promptly treated with a runny nose, tooth decay, diseases of the genitourinary system. Any focus of infection in the body "opens" the way to pharyngitis.
The second preventive measure can be called timely treatment for qualified medical care when there is perspiration, dryness, sore throat. Only the ENT can, on the basis of the results of diagnostic measures, prescribe competent treatment of pharyngitis.
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