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Eczema: Symptoms and Treatment

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Eczema photo Eczema is a multifactorial chronic skin pathology that occurs with characteristic erythematous-vesicular eruptions and serous inflammation of the papillary layer of the connective tissue part of the skin, itching and focal intercellular edema in the spinous dermis.



Causes of eczema

According to experts, eczema occurs in people with burdened heredity, as well as in patients with complex functional disorders of various systems and organs of the body. However, the leading pathogenetic link at the present stage is considered violations occurring in the immune system.

The main causes of eczema include various internal and external stimuli.

Exogenous (internal) factors, provoking the development of the pathological process, are diseases of internal organs. These are pathologies of the digestive tract, metabolic disorders, and diseases of the excretory system.

Exogenous circumstances include patient contacts with various chemicals, paints and solvents, cement, petroleum products, cosmetics and detergents, etc. However, seasonal factors can cause the disease to develop: overheating, overcooling of the body and excessive insolation. An important role in the development of the pathological process is played by infectious pathogens (staphylococcus, streptococcus, various fungi, etc.). Also, eczema can occur due to neuro-psychic surges and injuries, stress and fatigue. Skin damage (mechanical and thermal) and some medications can provoke the development of the disease.

With the development of the pathological process in the body, instead of immunity, sensitization develops, that is, it acquires increased specific sensitivity to foreign agents (allergens). Initially, it is monovalent (to one allergen), and then, together with a change in the reactivity of the organism, it becomes polyvalent (to several allergens).

According to experts, the development of allergic reactions occurs due to changes in cell membranes.

Eczema Development Mechanism

Most experts are inclined to believe that changes in skin reactivity, that is, an increase in their sensitivity to certain stimuli (a condition preceding eczema), is due not only to neurogenic, but also to allergic mechanisms. Most likely, in the development of true eczema, the main role is played by reflex influences emanating from the internal organs, skin, and the central nervous system. And with the development of microbial or occupational eczema - sensitivity to pathogenic bacteria that provoke the development of chronic infectious skin diseases, or chemicals.

Symptoms of eczema

Acute form of eczema

The acute form of pathology is characterized by rashes of tiny bubbles on a reddened, slightly puffy background. In clinical practice, such rashes are called microvesicles. They resemble air bubbles that occur when boiling water (in Greek ekzeo means boil).

Microvesicles very quickly open, turning into pinpoint erosion. Their them, like dew drops, exudes serous exudate. Over time, the process gradually subsides, the bubbles become smaller, and scaly, scaly-like peeling occurs on the affected surface. Part of the microvesicles dries without opening, leaving behind a crust.

It should be emphasized that eczema is a disease characterized by a wave-like course. Therefore, microvesicles, eczematous wells (erosion with drip moistening), crusts and scales can appear simultaneously on the affected skin area. Such a condition in clinical practice is called evolutionary polymorphism. It is considered the most characteristic sign of eczema.

At the same time, in the case of pronounced polymorphism, one of the morphological elements may prevail over the others, and therefore, clinicians distinguish certain stages of the disease: moist eczema, squamous and crustic.

Chronic Eczema

The transition of the acute form of the pathological process to the chronic occurs gradually. It is accompanied by an increase in infiltration (abnormal penetration of substances into the cell), compaction of the affected skin area and lichenification (increased skin pattern). Also at this stage of the disease, active hyperemia becomes passive, that is, the skin becomes pronounced stagnant. The affected area of ​​the skin flakes off, but at the same time, micro-vesicles, pinpoint erosion and crusts can appear on it in small quantities.

For the chronic form of the disease, periods of exacerbations occur, with active hyperemia, rashes and drip-weeping.

Eczema is a disease that is always accompanied by itching, aggravated by the exacerbation of the pathological process. Eczematous foci may be different in size, and their contours are either sharply defined or do not have clear boundaries.

Single lesions of the skin with eczema in clinical practice is very rare. As a rule, skin eruptions, arising at one site, quickly spread to others (sometimes the entire skin is affected).

The very first rash of eczema occurs on the back of the hands and face. It should be emphasized that the transition from the acute to the chronic form often lasts for years, and even in the course of treatment a patient may develop new eczematous foci.

Eczema classification

Idiopathic (true) eczema

This is a pathological process characterized by the above symptoms. It can be localized on any part of the skin, gradually acquiring a chronic course, and accompanied by constant skin itching.

Dyshidrotic eczema

The clinical picture of eczema in various locations of the pathological process remains unchanged. However, as elsewhere, there are exceptions. On the palms and on the soles of the stratum corneum of the epidermis is much thicker than in other areas of the skin, and therefore on these sites eczema manifests itself in dishydrotic form.

For this form of the disease is characterized by the appearance of dense bubbles, the size of a small pea, similar to the boiled sago kernels. Due to the thickness of the epidermal layer on the palms and on the soles, the inflammatory coloring of the skin is poorly pronounced. Opened bubbles can turn into erosion, or dry up, forming flat yellowish crusts, which can merge into large multi-chamber formations.

With the occurrence of further lesions on the skin, sharply limited lesions are formed, which have a distinct inflammatory color. On its background, new, smaller microvesicles, moist erosion, crusts and scales appear.

The lesion in dyshidrotic eczema is clearly separated from healthy skin, and it is also often surrounded by the so-called “collar”, which is a flaking horny layer. During the period of exacerbation, new, resembling sago kernels, bubbles appear outside it. The lesion, gradually increasing, can cover the back of the hands or feet. In such a situation, the clinical picture characteristic of eczema (microvesicular eruptions) develops.

Sometimes in patients suffering from the dyshidrotic form of the disease, transverse furrows appear on the nails.

Patients with a chronic form of eczema of the soles and of the palms develop hyperkeratosis (corn-associated eczema).

Critical (tylotic or horny) eczema

Cerebral eczema, or hyperkeratosis is a chronic form of dyshidrotic eczema, as it is limited only by the area of ​​the palms and soles. Due to the thickened stratum corneum, the erythematous stage of the disease is insignificantly expressed, and instead of microvesicles on the skin, calluses and areas of hyperkeratosis appear.

Microbial eczema

This form of the pathological process is usually localized around infected wounds, trophic ulcers, fistulas, abrasions, or scratches. It is characterized by the formation of low-inflammatory, large and large-fancy, sharply delineated foci, which have a well-shaped horny layer rejected along the edges, consisting of the remains of streptococcal flichen (small bubbles with serous contents). On the surface of eczematous foci, in addition to microvesicles and weeping erosions, there is a massive layering of purulent crusts. Pathological process is accompanied by severe itching. As a rule, foci of microbial eczema are located on the lower extremities.

Plaque (coin-like or nimmular) eczema

Nimmune eczema is considered to be a type of microbial eczema. In this case, sharply defined lesions are formed on the patient's body, having a rounded shape, reaching a diameter of 1.5-3.0 cm and slightly elevated above healthy skin. Their surface is a bluish-red color, with abundant drip moistening. Plaque eczema is very difficult to treat and prone to relapses.

Seborrheic Eczema

In almost 80% of cases, this form of eczema develops in patients who have a lesion found in the lesions of the lesion Pityrosporum ovale. Also, seborrhea and the neuroendocrine disorders associated with it can provoke the development of the disease.

Itching and inflammation in seborrhoeic eczema are insignificant, the boundaries of eczematous foci are clear. Often the pathological process extends to the scalp and is accompanied by dandruff. Patients with seborrhoeic eczema have oily, dull, and sticking hair.

Varicose eczema

The lesions during the development of this form of pathology are localized on the lower extremities. Varicose eczema is a condition that occurs in patients with varicose symptom complex (dermatosis, developing on the background of varicose veins of the lower extremities). In this case, eczematous foci are localized around varicose ulcers and in the sclerosing sites of the saphenous veins. This condition can be provoked by injuries, as well as increased patient sensitivity to prescribed medications. The clinical picture of varicose eczema is very similar to microbial and near-edge eczema.

Professional eczema

This form of the pathological process occurs due to skin contact with various industrial stimuli. Most often it develops in people working in the chemical industry, builders, hairdressers, nurses and weavers.

In the early stages of the disease, eczematous foci occur in open areas of the body (palms, forearms, face and neck, less often - the legs and feet). Their boundaries are quite clear, the skin in the affected areas is swollen and hyperemic, and microvesicles and nodules with drip weeping appear on its background. Patients complain of very severe itching. After some time, signs characteristic of idiopathic eczema develop, and the pathological process spreads to closed skin areas. It should be noted that after the cessation of contact with the allergen, professional eczema completely disappears.

Seciforme eczema

This form of pathology is diagnosed in patients suffering from sycosis (chronic recurrent inflammation of hair follicles) complicated by eczematization. With the development of cycloform eczema, the pathological process extends beyond the limits of hair growth and is accompanied by the formation of eczematous wells, severe itching and weeping. On the affected areas, the skin thickens, and follicles continuously appear on it. Most often eczematous foci are localized in the pubic region, under the armpits, on the upper lip and on the chin.

Eczema nipples and the pigment mug in women

This disease is considered to be a type of microbial eczema. It usually develops when the baby is breastfed due to injury, and can also become a complication of scabies. Eczematous foci with this form of pathology have a crimson color, in some places they are covered with scales and layers of crusts, which constantly crack and get wet.

Children's eczema

Children's eczema is a disease of an allergic nature, which develops most often in newborns with malnutrition, exudative diathesis and metabolic disorders. As a rule, this form of pathology is hereditary, and, moreover, it can manifest itself with different intensities.

Often, close relatives of the child suffer from eczema, urticaria, allergic reactions to medications or food, as well as from bronchial asthma.

Often, the transition from normal to hypersensitivity to allergens occurs even in the prenatal period, during their penetration through the placental barrier from the mother's body.

However, eczema in children can develop against the background of focal chronic infection, bronchial asthma, hay fever, gastrointestinal disorders, keratitis and conjunctivitis, as well as acute respiratory diseases.

Note: With the development of eczema in early childhood, this term is replaced by "exudative diathesis."

According to experts, exudative diathesis is not a disease, but only a tendency to the disease because of this or that anomaly. This may be reduced resistance to infections, increased irritability of the skin and mucous membranes, susceptibility to the development of a pathological process. That is why very often exudative diathesis can occur without skin lesions.

Diagnosis of eczema

The basis of the diagnosis of eczema is the clinical picture of the disease. Each patient with characteristic symptoms should be carefully and comprehensively examined. Particular attention is paid to the state of the nervous and endocrine systems, as well as the nature of the metabolism.

However, of no small importance in the diagnosis of eczema is the identification of allergens that provoked the development of the pathological process. Microbiological research methods to identify the pathogen and determine its sensitivity to antibiotics are prescribed to patients with suspected microbial eczema.

In any case, before proceeding to the treatment of eczema, it is necessary to find out the true cause of its occurrence. After a visit to a dermatologist, most likely, the patient will need additional advice from an immunologist, allergist, and nutritionist.

Often, when clarifying the nature of eczema, a complex allergological and immunological examination is prescribed.

Eczema: treatment

Eczema treatment Treatment of the disease is made in the complex. It provides for the use of detoxification and hyposensitizing drugs that reduce the body's sensitivity to the allergen, sedatives and drugs that correct the changes in the digestive tract. It is also mandatory for the patient to receive vitamin and immunomodulatory therapy, and if necessary, corticosteroids and antibiotics are prescribed.

However, in the treatment of eczema, physiotherapy techniques and tools for external therapy are used.

All patients suffering from eczema, shows fractional nutrition. The diet should include foods with a normal fat content and an increased amount of protein. In this situation, carbohydrates, as well as table salt, are limited to a minimum. Essential foods are fresh vegetables and fruits, dairy products. Very useful infusion dogrose.

In the acute period of the disease, anti-inflammatory, keratolytic agents and external preparations with antipruritic effect are prescribed to patients.

Bromine-containing and sedatives are recommended for patients suffering from neurotic disorders, as well as tranquilizers or neuroleptics in small doses.

It is mandatory for those suffering from acute and chronic eczema to enterosorbents that reduce the syndrome of endogenous intoxication, as well as hyposensitizing drugs of calcium and sodium (intravenously and intramuscularly).

The antihistamines that block histamine receptors in the body have proven themselves in the treatment of eczema. With the development of marked edema, osmotic diuretics are prescribed to patients, and in the presence of marked inflammation, corticosteroids are given in short courses. In some cases, it is recommended intramuscular administration of corticosteroids with prolonged action, in combination with calcium or potassium preparations.

Patients with severe forms of eczema are given plasmapheresis and hemosorption (removal of toxic products from the blood).

When relieving the exacerbation, physiotherapeutic procedures (ultrafonophoresis of drugs, endonasal electrophoresis, dioodynamic, UHF-therapy, ultraviolet irradiation therapy or application of therapeutic mud, paraffin or ozocerite) give a good effect. However, in patients with acquired (secondary) immunodeficiency, immunostimulated therapy is carried out under the control of an immunogram.

During exacerbation of dermatoses, vitamin preparations are prescribed that have pronounced immunotropic activity.

В том случае, когда экзема сочетается с нарушениями в работе пищеварительного тракта ( панкреатитом или гастродуоденитом), показан прием ферментативных средств, а при дисбактериозе кишечника назначаются пробиотики (препараты, восстанавливающие кишечный биоценоз).

При нарушении периферического кровообращения (как правило, это наблюдается у пациентов, страдающих атеросклерозом, сахарным диабетом или варикозной экземой), показан прием ангиопротекторов, улучшающих микроциркуляцию крови.

При диагностике варикозной, паратравматической или микотической экземы в обязательном порядке проводится санация очагов грибковой инфекции, параллельно назначается лечение варикоза, а также, при необходимости – свищей. В том случае, когда у пациента экзематозные очаги формируются на половых органах, им показано лечение хронических патологий урогенитального тракта, глистных инвазий или колита, которые могут спровоцировать развитие дерматоза.

Microbial eczema is a disease that requires mandatory antibacterial therapy (it is necessary to first sow microflora and its sensitivity to antibiotics).

When seborrheic eczema inside prescribed sulfur.

In the case when the patient develops edema, erythema, as well as erosions with drip weeping, erosion is required. It involves the use of various lotions, decoctions of chamomile and St. John's wort, aniline dyes and special aerosols.

In the remission stage and in the subacute period, pastes and talkers are prescribed to which keratolytic, plastic, antipruritic or antiseptic preparations are added. Patients who are diagnosed with chronic eczema, are shown indifferent ointment, which can be added to the above funds, or external corticosteroid drugs.

During the rehabilitation period, spa treatment, balneotherapy (medicinal baths and healing mineral waters) and thalassotherapy (sea treatment) have proven themselves well.

Eczema prevention

Patients suffering from a form of eczema are advised to limit water procedures, strictly follow the rules of personal hygiene, avoid neuro-emotional overstrain. At the same time, they are shown a hypoallergenic vitaminized milk and vegetable diet, adequate sleep and adequate physical exertion. In order to prevent the further development of the pathological process, it is mandatory to completely eliminate contact with allergens, normalize the digestive system and treat the associated pathology.

All patients suffering from eczema should be in the dispensary and periodically undergo clinical and diagnostic examinations. In order to prevent occupational eczema, personnel should be provided with personal protective equipment for the skin, as well as constantly monitor the sanitary and technical and sanitary conditions of work at work.


| August 13, 2014 | | 15,793 | Uncategorized
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  • | Olga | October 13, 2015

    If eczema is just beginning, you can use psoryl cream and drink antihistamines for seven days, the cream is not therapy for severe rashes, but at the beginning it heals well and removes inflammatory elements.

  • | Svetlana | November 13, 2015

    tell me please, my friend has treated eczema with losterin, she just had dry plaques, scaly ... can I use this cream for a child? Son is 8 years old. Thanks

Leave your feedback


Kimoya Pottinger: Hi, i have eczema and since i have been taken my multivitamins, and pills to boost the immune system my eczema does not trouble me as much anymore. So if you are allergic to anything, just make sure you are taking your vitamins. If u allergic to dairy, take in your vitamin c and your skin might clear up.

The Fortnite Kid: I have eczema like that but worst it looks almost the same I’ve had it since I was 2 I use Benadryl and Claritin I always itch in parts where I bend myself

Lilli m: Ok can someone please help me i have something on my arm and i dont know if it is eczema or anything else and i am scared cuz this is my first time with it.

Honsol0: for me, I OVERATE and ate extremely fast with large volumes of food. As a result it caused "intestinal permeability" or "leaky gut syndrome" by the food literally expanding my digestive tract. I had terrible, terrible skin issues, that dermatologists called 'ezcema' or 'acne'. The solution? I ate a lot slower and listened to my body and ate less food and I started releasing gas like no tomorrow. I have literally felt parts of my intestines pop in, and the severity of my problems we're in direct correlation to how much my intestines we're shrinking. I had an extreme case (I ate way too much) but it is a spectrum and I think a lot of people might have the same thing just not as severe.

notes hours: I got it in middle school on my upper face. In high school it started to cover my entire chin. It even got to my hands. I kept put eczema lotion it goes away for a few days and comes back even I moisturize every day. It sucks have it

Dana Lim: Eczema's hand itch can be controlled if your symptoms is mild. Beside seeing doctor. Avoid acidic food, such as seafood and processed food. Avoid high sugar intake. Avoid exposure to strong heat. Avoid worrying. Prevent itch, do not scratch. Use 1: 10; Apple Cider Vinegar: Mild Warm Water to dilute. Dry the hands and apply Vaseline Healing Jelly ( Original ) Manage the symptom, once get better, keep the diet healthy and low sugar or no sugar. Rest well, keep mind relax, as far as possible manage our stress. 🙏

Fucking Retard: I have horrible Eczema. I tell myself that I am just like other people, but then I notice some people staring and I have to remind myself that people are wondering what it is. and are either concerned or disgusted. I have it on my neck and it bleeds, and some people have called me inappropriate names because I've heard that it looks like hickies. People think that it is contagious, but it is not and they at times tease. They don't seem to realize that none of my friends have it even though I am in physical contact with them at times. If you do not put cream on it before bed, when you wake up you might not be able to stretch out your arm (or your legs) if it was bent while you were sleeping or else if you do try to stretch it the skin will tear. It is very uncomfortable to sleep, and you will get sweaty and it will irritate the skin. Some of my family see me itching like crazy until I bleed and they tell me to stop, but they also need to understand that it itches so much. They get mad at me saying that I don't put enough cream on, but the cream is clearly not helping me in any way. Eczema causes some peoples self-esteem to go down. Anything will irritate it. At times when I take a shower the water somehow burns. When air hits it has a chance of feeling uncomfortable. There are some foods you can't eat or you will flare-up. If you stress it will cause you to flare up. Some fabrics against it will irritate it and cause it to itch. If you don't have eczema, I want to let you know that you are so lucky.

Pk K: Poor baby dealing with steroids induced eczema. Now they have patient for life. Coz steroids cause addiction just like other drugs. Withdrawal from steroids is horrendous

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