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Intestinal dysbiosis

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Intestinal dysbiosis Intestinal dysbiosis (synonym - dysbiosis) is a laboratory-clinical syndrome in which persistent changes occur in the qualitative and / or quantitative composition of microorganisms living in the intestine. Disorders of microbial relationships may be accompanied by digestive, immune, and metabolic disorders.

It should be noted that in practical medicine the generally accepted concept of "dysbiosis" reflects the picture of the microbial landscape of an extremely large intestine. And microbial shifts of the small intestine are designated by the term "excess bacterial growth syndrome."

The issue of the prevalence of dysbacteriosis causes heated debate among specialists. Some believe that it is present in almost 90% of patients with a gastroenterological profile. Others stubbornly deny its existence.

Dysbacteriosis is not an independent disease. Often it is the result of other ailments (sometimes quite terrible).



Normal microflora

Such targeted attention to the tiny inhabitants of the human intestine is due to the fact that these microorganisms have an extremely positive effect on health. They have many beneficial functions. So, useful microflora:

  • synthesizes vitamins (especially group B), antitumor substances, enzymes for the breakdown of proteins and sugars;
  • protect the intestinal mucosa from infectious agents, allergens, excess conditionally pathogenic microbes;
  • activates immunity:
  • neutralizes toxins and harmful metabolic products;
  • reduces cholesterol;
  • stimulates the absorption of the desired substances (water, iron, calcium, gases, vitamins E, D);
  • produces short chain fatty acids, which ensure the integrity of the colonic mucosa.

In addition to beneficial microbes (bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, etc.), conditionally pathogenic microorganisms (Klebsiella, Proteus, Staphylococcus, atypical Escherichia, Serration, Enterobacter, Yeast-like Fungi, etc.) live in the gut. In a healthy person, their number is strictly limited, so they do not harm. But with a drop in immunity, after intestinal infections, stress, etc. these insidious bacteria and fungi are activated, begin to multiply and have an adverse effect, leading to clinical symptoms.

Causes of dysbiosis

There are a huge number of factors that can cause changes in the composition of the normal intestinal microflora. Some of them are easily removable, others are rooted in the unhealthy lifestyle of ordinary residents of megalopolises, and it takes years of regular treatment to get rid of the third.

The appearance of intestinal dysbiosis may be required to:

  • taking certain drugs (antibiotics, laxatives, immunosuppressants, hormones, psychotropic, secretolytics, adsorbents, anticancer drugs, tuberculostatics, etc.);
  • infectious diseases of different origin (bacterial, fungal, parasitic, viral diseases);
  • malnutrition (products with preservatives, dyes, stabilizers, food with a lack of fiber, with an excess of proteins or easily digestible sugars, prolonged fasting, prolonged artificial feeding through a vein, alcohol abuse);
  • the presence of any diseases of the digestive system (peptic ulcer, chronic cholecystitis , Crohn's disease, cirrhosis of the liver , celiac disease, pancreatitis , etc.);
  • congenital malformations or postoperative disorders between the digestive organs (absence of a valve between the colon and small intestine, condition after removal of a part or whole stomach, intestinal sections, gallbladder, etc.);
  • prolonged psycho-emotional overstrain;
  • allergic diseases;
  • immunodeficiency;
  • excessive physical exertion;
  • environmental problems (soil fertilization with chemicals, water and air pollution by industrial emissions, land reclamation, etc.);
  • a sharp change in climatic and geographical conditions.

In babies, dysbacteriosis is often promoted by prematurity, early artificial feeding, feeding with the wrong mixtures, intrauterine infections, and maternal diseases.

Symptoms of dysbiosis

Intestinal dysbacteriosis has no specific characteristic symptoms. Its manifestations are identical to the clinical picture of many other gastroenterological ailments. Thus, patients may be disturbed by:

  • diarrhea (liquid or mushy stools, which are often frothy and poorly washed off the walls of the toilet);
  • constipation;
  • unstable chair (persistent constipation changes diarrhea and vice versa);
  • a change in the smell of feces (it becomes sharply putrid or sour);
  • increased gas formation (gases are fetid and odorless, resounding and not);
  • abdominal distention of varying intensity (it is more pronounced in the evenings, may be aggravated after some products);
  • abdominal pain without constant localization (often associated with bloating, after the discharge of accumulated gases, they disappear or significantly decrease):
  • allergic rashes;
  • burning, discomfort and itching in the anus (due to constant irritation of the mucous membrane with a liquid stool, which contains a lot of aggressive organic acids);
  • increased fatigue;
  • signs of a lack of vitamins and / or minerals (icing, cracked lips, dry flaky skin, brittle nails, hair loss, neurological disorders, swelling of the tongue, insomnia, depression, etc.).

In some patients dysbacteriosis does not manifest itself, and is found only by the results of bacteriological and other studies. In such cases, much depends on the skill level of a particular laboratory.

Diagnosis of dysbiosis

Although scientists have developed quite a few methods confirming dysbacteriosis, only one is actively used by doctors - seeding feces (bacteriological examination) for dysbacteriosis. This costly method for the pocket of an ordinary patient, unfortunately, has several significant drawbacks. He assesses a limited number of microflora species (no more than 15, when more than 500 are found in the intestine) of the large intestine. The study itself is laborious, so it takes at least 10 days. Not all doctors, sending a patient to this analysis, clearly explain the rules for its collection and subsequent transportation.

To increase the objectivity of the diagnostic study, you need to send the chair collected with a sterile instrument into the same sterile container. Now in pharmacies for this you can buy special hermetically packed jars, the lids of which are equipped with a spatula. Then feces should be sent to the laboratory within the next 2 hours. If this is not possible, then you can put it in the fridge, but only for 6 hours. In addition, the patient should not use any products containing live microbes. Otherwise they will be planted, and the real microbial landscape will be distorted.

In addition to feces, you can send for bacteriological examination aspirates from the jejunum, pieces of the small intestinal mucosa (they are taken during endoscopic procedures), and scraped.

In addition to crops for the diagnosis of dysbiosis in some clinical and research centers used:

  • coprogram (detection of iodophilic flora when examining a stool under a microscope indirectly indicates the presence of dysbiosis);
  • respiratory tests (hydrogen, with C-14-D-xylose, with C-14-glycocholate) assess the enteric flora;
  • biochemical samples of faeces (an increase in enterokinase, alkaline phosphatase is observed);
  • evaluation of the content of skatole and indole in the urine;
  • chromatography of blood, stool, enteric fluid (registers substances associated with the life of the flora);
  • molecular tests (PCR).

Classification

Practicing doctors use several classifications of dysbacteriosis.

Most of them are based on quantitative characteristics. Depending on the results of sowing, dysbacteriosis can vary from mild (I) to severe (III – IV) degree. Sometimes the type of microorganisms that cause dysbacteriosis and the degree of compensation are noted in the diagnosis.

Dysbacteriosis treatment

Of course, the main therapeutic measures for intestinal dysbiosis should be directed to the underlying disease, which was the cause of changes in the microbial landscape. Otherwise, all efforts will be ineffective, and short-term improvement will be replaced by the resumption of symptoms.

Along with this, correction of existing microflora disorders should be carried out. This task will help solve:

  • diet therapy;
  • drug treatment;
  • phytotherapy.

Diet therapy

Dysbacteriosis treatment Changes in nutrition can not be the only therapeutic effect, but in combination with drugs, diet therapy has an undeniable positive effect on intestinal microbes.

Patients are strongly recommended to remove from the diet or significantly limit all those products that adversely affect beneficial intestinal bacteria. They, as a rule, are stuffed with preservatives, emulsifiers, flavor enhancers and other "chemistry". These include:

  • all industrial canned food (fish, vegetable, meat, fruit);
  • condensed milk;
  • ice cream;
  • carbonated drinks made by industry (Coca-Cola, etc.);
  • chips;
  • croutons with flavors;
  • most candies;
  • some seasoning mixes;
  • soups, mashed potatoes, instant noodles, etc.

In addition, it is necessary to eliminate drinks and foods that contribute to gas formation:

  • white porridges (from semolina, rice);
  • baking;
  • White bread;
  • whole milk;
  • sweets;
  • grapes;
  • turnip;
  • bananas;
  • sweet apples;
  • gas-containing beverages (including mineral waters, sparkling wines), etc.

Such patients should eat more foods rich in fiber. It is a kind of food for beneficial microorganisms, contributes to their reproduction and resistance to negative influences. Therefore, it is desirable that patients certainly include a sufficient amount in their diet:

  • fruits (peaches, plums, apples, citrus, etc.);
  • greens (dill, celery, cress and lr.);
  • berries (strawberries, cherries, etc.);
  • melons (watermelon, pumpkin, squash, etc.);
  • vegetables (turnips, all kinds of cabbage, beets, carrots, etc.);
  • nuts;
  • cereals (rye, buckwheat, millet, corn, oats, etc.);
  • bread with whole grain and / or bran;
  • legumes;
  • unpreserved juices with pulp.

Some plants contain volatile production - substances with antibacterial action, and organic acids that adversely affect representatives of excessive pathogenic flora. They are horseradish, laurel, clove, pepper, onion, lingonberry, garlic, mountain ash, apricot, cumin, cranberry, barberry, black currant, lemon, seaweed.

Not pasteurized fermented milk products with live microflora (bifidobacteria and / or lactobacteria) and the lack of flavoring additives (bifidok, etc.) can have a beneficial effect. They are sold ready-made in pharmacies and grocery stores. They can be made independently at home, using special starters (“Narine”, “Evita”, etc.). Such products are attributed to functional nutrition, which improves individual functions and the general state of the human body.

Drug therapy

Medicines should be prescribed strictly individually, taking into account the age, available diseases and the results of the survey, and not blindly.

If excess opportunistic bacteria and / or fungi are sown in a patient, they must first be eliminated. If at this stage you first start taking funds with living beneficial microorganisms, then they will simply have nowhere to settle, because all the vacant “houses” are occupied. As a result, an expensive drug in transit will sweep through the intestines, having absolutely no effect. Therefore, you should first conduct a course:

  • antibacterial agents (intetrix, furazolidone, enterofuril, biseptol, metronidazole, nevigramone, etc.);
  • bacteriophages (entertibacteriophage, staphylococcal bacteriophage, pyobacteriophage, coliprotein bacteriophage, etc.);
  • antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, penicillins, macrolides, aminoglycosides, etc.);
  • antifungal agents (pimafucin, amphotericin M, nystatin, etc.);
  • probiotics (sporobacterin, enterol, cereobiogen, baktisubtil, etc.).

Usually selected means of one of these groups. In more serious situations, you may need several courses of drugs from different groups. The most optimal tactic is based on the choice of a particular drug based on the result of assessing the sensitivity of bacteria sown from the patient’s feces to different drugs. Most often, doctors recommend the most harmless bacteriophages and antibacterial synthetic drugs. The duration of one course is about a week.

It is better not to get carried away with self-treatment, since all these drugs have significant side effects. And their uncontrolled chaotic use leads to the formation of the strongest resistance (resistance) in microbes, which seriously complicates further treatment.

After the destruction of unnecessary flora or immediately (if only a deficit of representatives of any beneficial microflora is detected in patients), one should start taking medications with bifidobacteria, coli and lactobacilli (probiotics).

With a shortage of bifidobacteria, patients are recommended bifinorm, biovestin, bifilong, bifidumbacterin, liquid or dry, euflorin B, bifiform, etc.

Lactobacillus deficiency is compensated by normoflor, acilact, biobactone, acipol, gastropharm, lactobacillus, lactoflor, liquid or dry lactobacterin, laminolact, etc.

If a decrease in growth and lacto-and bifidobacteria is detected, then ecoflor, Linex, maltidophilus, bion-3, florin-forte, bilaminolact, polybacterin, etc. can be recommended.

Kolideficitny dysbiosis treated with colibacterin, bifikolom, bioflora.

Doctors set the duration of treatment individually, but the shortest course should reach 3 weeks.

When buying a probiotic, be sure to familiarize yourself with its instructions, which set out the temperature conditions for its storage. Many products remain active only when they are in the refrigerator.

In the same period, prebiotics can be added to the treatment - means of stimulating the growth and activity of the body’s own native microflora. They are not destroyed when used together with antibiotics, improve intestinal motility, reduce the formation of gases, strengthen the immune system. Such means are:

  • lactulose;
  • Hilak Forte;
  • lactofiltrum;
  • eubicor;
  • mukofalk;
  • calcium pantothenate;
  • fervital;
  • para-aminobenzoic acid;
  • lysozyme

All kinds of biological additives (BAA), which are filled with pharmacies, may also have significant prebiotic activity. Such dietary supplements should contain dietary fibers, oligosaccharides (galacto-oligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides, lactulose), microbial and plant extracts, antioxidants, lectins, polysaccharides (chitosan, inulin, pectins, etc.), enzymes, unsaturated fatty acids.

The duration of prebiotic treatment is also determined by the specific clinical situation.

Phytotherapy

The healing properties of plants can be used in complex treatment. In the case of dysbacteriosis, reasonably selected fees can:

  • eliminate unwanted microorganisms;
  • reduce gas formation;
  • reduce spastic contractions of the intestine;
  • normalize the stool;
  • activate immune processes.

Oregano, celandine, juniper, sage, graviatat (rhizome), thyme, birch (leaves), blackberry (leaves), St. John's wort, string, eucalyptus, silverweed, Pacific badana possess antimicrobial properties. They eliminate harmful bacteria, due to the content of essential oils, tannin, phenolic compounds.

The fungistatic and fungicidal plants will help fight mushrooms: alder (seed fruit), calamus (rhizome), peppermint, three-leaved violet, veronica drug, lingonberry, birch buds, black currant (leaves).

Fermentation processes and associated gas formation can reduce chamomile, raspberry, dog rose, sage, mint, barberry, calendula, strawberry, cornel, oat stalks.

The herbal blends with dill, anise, coriander, fennel, caraway, mallow, butterbur, immortelle, and dagil have an antispasmodic and simultaneously carminative effect.

The rhizomes of gravilatus and burnet, oak bark, bird cherry (fruit), highlander snake, blackthorn (fruit), blueberry (fruit), horse sorrel (rhizome) contribute to the consolidation of the chair. Laxative herbal teas contain flaxseed, blackthorn (flowers), buckthorn (bark), senna (leaves), sea kale (leaves), zhoster (fruits), mildew, blackberries (fruits), dodder, etc.

Immunomodulatory effects can have nettle, blue cornflower (flowers), coltsfoot, mountaineer, St. John's wort, smooth gryzhnik, deviasil (rhizome).

Herbal preparations should be taken orally or administered in enemas in the form of decoctions and infusions. Begin with a small amount (as herbal teas can provoke allergies), then, provided adequate tolerance, the daily volume is increased to a glass. It is drunk in three doses.

Prevention of dysbiosis

Preventive measures are usually aimed at eliminating the causes of dysbiosis. Therefore, they are:

  • рациональная антибиотикотерапия (многие доктора советую вместе с антибиотиками принимать пребиотики);
  • адекватное питание;
  • своевременное выявление и терапия недугов пищеварения;
  • эпидемиологические меры в инфекционных очагах;
  • нормализация режима отдыха, психоэмоциональных нагрузок и труда;
  • грудное вскармливание и др.

| January 18, 2014 | | 3,924 | Uncategorized
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idkyoutellme7: after about 6. months of antibiotics for sinus infection and a uti that was resistant to antibiotics. i have candida overgrowth and i used to go regular....i dont drink, im on candida diet.and now i smell.my stool smells fishy and i have s rash coming on my.skin that i assume is candida rash

Dan Theman: What if i use levaxin for hypothyroidism , can i still get rid of stomach problems? I use your supplements, i eat clean. I dont stress or drink coffee alot, i have been alcohol free for 6-7 months. But, i do smoke which i think i started to do because of my thyroid issues, because ciggarettes increase metabolism. My sleep quality has Increased, my skin has become better after following your diet and supplments and detoxing candida with spirulina and chlorella.

True Scotsman: why should we trust your supplement when we've tried all of them with no results? I'm having serious problems and I've eliminated all bad foods.

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