Dysbacteriosis of the intestine in adults: symptoms, treatment
- Causes of dysbiosis
- Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis in adults
- Methods for diagnosis of dysbiosis
- Treatment of intestinal dysbiosis in adults
- Prevention of dysbiosis
- Features of intestinal dysbiosis during pregnancy
The abundance of advertising offering to get rid of dysbacteriosis of the intestines with the help of medications, makes you wonder - what is dysbiosis , whether it is treatable and, if so, what measures should be taken.
Our entire body, from the skin to the internal organs, is densely populated with bacteria. When the number of their species and the total number of microorganisms is in a state of balance, we do not feel any discomfort and our body functions correctly. But when some bacteria die in mass, and the population of others, as a consequence, increases, a pathogenic process begins, which we call a dysbacteriosis.
It should be understood that there is not officially such a somatic disease, and what we consider a dysbacteriosis of the intestine is in fact nothing more than a functional disorder. Usually it is a sign of another disease of the digestive tract. In addition, experts argue that a significant change in the number of bacteria in the intestines that can not be restored on their own is a rarity, and the excitement around this disease is created by marketers to sell pharmaceuticals.
Causes of dysbiosis
The causes of dysbiosis in adults can be:
- Reception of antibiotics is the most popular cause of dysbiosis. The active substances of this group of medicines can destroy pathogenic bacteria, but with them other microorganisms peacefully dwelling in the intestine of a healthy person get under the sight.
- Irrational nutrition. In the process of digestion, bacteria play an important role. The correct diet provides for certain restrictions on caloric content and the distribution of the number of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. When these norms are systematically violated, the body is difficult to cope with the process of digestion due to fermentation (excess carbohydrate) or putrefaction (excess proteins). As a result, dysbiosis develops. It is also important to mention the quality of the food you eat. A large number of synthetic additives, dyes, stabilizers and flavors are an exorbitant load on the intestinal tract, since it is not designed for digestion of such substances. And, finally, the amount of food consumed: the optimum is the volume of the portion, which is placed in the palm of a person. Eat often, every three to four hours, and three hours before sleep should eat only light food - kefir or apples (in the absence of swelling). If the patient exceeds these norms, the food does not have time to be digested, and again there comes a dysbacteriosis due to putrefaction and fermentation in the intestine.
- Infection. Intestinal infection causes dysbacteriosis for two reasons: first, because of antibiotic therapy, and secondly, because of the work of our own immune system, which, in an effort to destroy the infection, also kills useful bacteria.
- Chronic diseases of the digestive tract. Food enters the intestine in a partially digested form (the effect of saliva in the mouth and gastric juice), favorable for the life of bacteria. If there are somatic and as a consequence functional disorders, the food entering the intestine is not properly prepared. Constantly accumulating toxins adversely affect the biocoenosis of the intestine.
- Severe systemic diseases. HIV infection, oncology, rehabilitation after surgery - with these conditions, any functional disorders of the digestive system, including dysbiosis, are possible.
In order to develop an adult dysbacteriosis, you need only one factor, or a combination of several reasons. It depends on the specific organism, the presence of chronic diseases, genetic predisposition and age. That's why one person can go through a long course of antibiotics and not face dysbacteriosis, and another - to experience the full range of intestinal discomfort even with a slight violation of the rules of healthy eating.
Separately it is worth noting that very often a woman's desire for harmony and beauty leads to dysbiosis. The craze for advertised diets, cleansing methods, the use of laxatives and strange diet pills have a disastrous effect on the functioning of the digestive tract and the body as a whole.
Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis in adults
- Sensations of discomfort in the abdomen - the most frequent and subjective sign of dysbiosis. The patient can feel heaviness, rumbling, boiling, regardless of food intake. The degree of symptom severity can be any, it depends on the patient, his attention to his own body and level of suspiciousness.
- Flatulence. At a dysbacteriosis the stomach often inflates and gases leave. But do not diagnose a dysbacteriosis if these symptoms are fickle. Gas formation in the intestine when consuming certain foods is the norm, and paying close attention to this factor is possible only if the symptom causes severe physical discomfort.
- Violations of the stool. The most common patient with dysbiosis is diarrhea, however, it is sometimes possible to develop constipation. Because of the disorder of the stool, other diseases can develop - hemorrhoids and anal fissures, which need immediate therapy.
- Weight loss. This is due to the fact that the food is not digested properly, which means that the body receives less nutrients. As a result, the body weight may decrease.
- General malaise. This factor depends on the general condition: a weakened organism can react violently to an imbalance in the intestines, which will cause headaches, asthenia and drowsiness. In addition, digestive disorders make it difficult to absorb certain vitamins and microelements that are vital to a person.
- Unpleasant taste in the mouth, which indicates an intoxication of the body or problems with the liver.
- Pain in the abdomen is a very disturbing sign, saying that because of the disturbance of microflora in the intestine, inflammation and even ulcers develop.
Symptoms of dysbiosis in adults can be permanent, and can appear periodically, after eating certain foods: milk, fruit, sugar, and others. In order to suspect a dysbacteriosis, it is necessary that the clinical picture includes several of the features described above, with a duration of symptoms of at least one week.
Methods for diagnosis of dysbiosis
When the patient addresses the above complaints, the doctor collects information from the patient's words, conducts palpation of the intestine, and prescribes the analysis of the stool. The analysis is the dilution of one gram of feces in a special solution, after which it is sown on a nutrient medium. If the laboratory assistant sees a decrease in the number of bifidobacteria, and at the same time an increase in the number of staphylococci or fungi, then there is a dysbacteriosis of the intestine.
Among other diagnostic methods, it can be noted:
- A clinical blood test - shows the presence of inflammation and possible bleeding in the intestine. With severe dysbiosis, anemia is noted - a decrease in the hemoglobin level in the blood.
- Colonoscopy. Allows you to assess the state of a segment of the intestine up to one meter in length. It is the introduction of a probe into the anus, so the procedure is very unpleasant for most patients. In some cases, it can be replaced by sigmoidoscopy.
- Irrigoscopy. A contrast agent is injected into the intestine, followed by an X-ray examination. The picture shows the condition of the large intestine, changes in its tissues, and mucous membranes. This method of diagnosis is more accurate in comparison with colonoscopy.
- Gastroscopy. It is required when determining the causes of dysbiosis. If certain signs suggest that imbalance is associated with a digestive disorder in the stomach and duodenum, then the gastroscopy will prove it or disprove it.
Treatment of intestinal dysbiosis in adults
Treatment consists of several methods, each of which can be applied individually or in combination with others.
- Diet. From the diet is excluded fatty, spicy, sweet food. Preference is given to cereal cereals, light soups. Alcohol, snack products, fast food are excluded. Serious role in the treatment of dysbiosis is played by dairy products. But buying them, it is better to focus on natural bifido drugs, rather than on fashion brands.
- Medicinal products. For the treatment of dysbacteriosis, three types of drugs are used:
- Prebiotics are necessary for preparing the intestine for colonization with beneficial bacteria. The simplest and right way to prepare is acidification of the environment.
- Probiotics - contain the most necessary bacteria in the intestines.
- Synbiotics - is a drug combining both prebiotics, and probiotics.
Thus, the standard treatment is as follows: first, a drug is selected that acidifies the intestinal medium - for example, Hilak forte or Lactulose. After its reception the probiotic with live bacteria which are well acquired in a prepared environment is drunk. As an example of a probiotic, Bifiform or Bifidumbacterin can be given. It is important to remember that the probiotic should be stored in a cold place so that bacteria at the time of ingestion into the intestines are viable.
- Normalization of peristalsis. If the patient has constipation, then his peristalsis is reduced, and he needs stimulants of intestinal activity.
- Normalization of the stomach. If in the course of diagnosis the doctor determined that the cause of dysbiosis is poor performance of the stomach, pancreas or gallbladder, then enzyme preparations and cholagogue are prescribed. You may need to take antispasmodics to relax the ducts.
- In the case when the analysis of stool showed the growth of staphylococci, antibiotics are prescribed. After completing the course, it is necessary to clean the intestines from the dead bacteria. For this purpose, sorbents are prescribed: activated carbon, Polyphepan or Enterosgel.
In most cases, with dysbacteriosis, only prebiotics and probiotics are prescribed: the intestine colonized with useful bacteria can independently adjust its work and defeat the pathogenic flora. The remaining methods of treatment are used if the dysbacteriosis is in a very intractable form or there are concomitant diseases.
Prevention of dysbiosis
Prevention of dysbacteriosis should be carried out constantly, since in fact it is a healthy way of life:
- Given that the most common cause of dysbacteriosis is the intake of antibiotics, it is important not to engage in self-medication, prescribing self-medications. If taking antibiotics is necessary, the first for their appointment, you need to drink biokefir. It is important to take antibiotics in combination with other medications, if prescribed by your doctor (antifungal, bifidobacteria and others).
- Proper nutrition. Maintaining the balance of fat, protein and carbohydrates and keeping yourself within the required caloric content is the key to healthy intestinal tract.
- Timely treatment of digestive tract diseases. Proper functioning of all digestive organs reduces the burden on the intestines.
- Physical exercises. Good blood supply enhances peristalsis, and, therefore, allows timely withdrawal of undigested food from the intestine.
Features of intestinal dysbiosis during pregnancy
The fetus is in very close connection with the mother, and any somatic and functional impairment in the woman's body is fraught with trouble for the baby. That is why it's important to pay attention to your health before pregnancy - to prevent dysbacteriosis, to undergo all necessary examinations.
Otherwise, the decrease in the supply of nutrients to the blood in the dysbacteriosis may lead to a delay in the development of the fetus.
Diagnosis of dysbiosis in pregnant women is carried out by collecting information from the words of the patient and conducting biochemical analysis of feces. Functional diagnostics of the gastrointestinal tract during this period (colonoscopy, irrigoscopy) is extremely undesirable.
Therapy includes diet and the administration of special medications. It is important not to engage in self-medication and entrust the matter to the therapist or obstetrician-gynecologist.
It is worth noting that breastfeeding a child allows him to avoid dysbiosis in infancy and significantly reduce the likelihood of his acquisition in adulthood.
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