Cystitis: symptoms, treatment
- Causes of Cystitis
- Types of cystitis
- Symptoms of cystitis
- Cystitis treatment
- Treatment by folk methods
- Possible complications
- Cystitis during pregnancy
- Prevention of cystitis
Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder. Most often, this problem befalls women because, compared with men, their urethra is shorter and wider. This circumstance makes the penetration of the infection easier and faster. In total, from 20 to 40% of the female members of the planet suffer from cystitis at different periods of life.
Causes of Cystitis
Cystitis is a disease common to all ages. It is mainly caused by the following reasons:
- hypothermia pelvic areas;
- bladder mucosa injury;
- passive lifestyle;
- spicy and fatty foods;
- the presence of chronic gynecological or venereal diseases;
- the presence of foci of infection in the body;
- unprotected sex;
- lack of hygiene.
The main cause of this disease is hypothermia. The most dangerous frostbite of the legs and pelvic area. Therefore, you can not sit on cold surfaces, wear thin silk underwear in the cold season, as well as too light shoes.
The risk factor is also sedentary work, causing stagnation of blood in the veins of the pelvic areas. You can not sit continuously in one place for, for example, 4-5 hours. If this is required by your official duties, you should try to get up more often and take 15-minute breaks.
The presence of chronic female diseases in the pelvic area creates a favorable environment for the transfer of infection to the organs of the urinary system, including the bladder. For this reason, gynecological diseases of an inflammatory nature, as well as venereal diseases, should be carefully treated by a specialist until complete recovery.
Predisposing factors for the occurrence of this disease are hormonal disorders, as well as avitaminosis.
Violations of the rules of hygiene are a special category of causes that can cause cystitis. You risk getting this disease if:
- rarely change tampons or sanitary pads during menstruation;
- practice the transition from anal to vaginal intercourse;
- often wear synthetic, tight-fitting underwear;
- constantly use daily pads;
- after stool wipe in the direction from the anus forward;
- do not observe urination.
It is necessary to empty the bladder at least 5 times a day, otherwise the infection in the bladder is facilitated due to stagnation or decomposition of urine.
In 90% of cases, the disease is caused by E. coli, another typical representative of the pathogenic flora that causes this disease is staphylococcus. Microbes penetrate in an ascending way - from the rectum or skin through the urethra.
Types of cystitis
Depending on the nature of the disease, cystitis is divided into acute and chronic. The acute form occurs in the presence of pronounced symptoms and occurs after a provoking sudden factor.
Chronic cystitis is characterized by less severe manifestations and is most often caused by other diseases.
Depending on the cause of the pathology, cystitis is divided into primary and secondary, as well as bacterial and non-bacterial.
Bacterial inflammations of this organ are caused by infections of different origin - streptococci, enterococci, gonococci, etc. At the same time, the pathways of infection can be hematogenous, lymphogenous, descending or ascending.
Non-bacterial cystitis develops when the walls are irritated with drugs, chemicals or other substances. There are thermal, toxic, radiation, allergic, alimentary cystitis.
If the primary disease is characterized by damage to the bladder directly by any of these factors, then secondary cystitis develops as a result of other diseases of this or nearby organs. So, for example, it usually accompanies urolithiasis, prostate adenoma, urethral stricture, etc.
Symptoms of cystitis
Symptoms of this disease depend on its form. If in acute cases there is a bright clinical picture with strong cuttings when urination is increased up to several times per hour, then in chronic course during the period of remission the signs may be completely absent.
The most characteristic symptoms of the acute form of the disease include:
- painful and frequent urination;
- cutting pains over the pubis in the bladder area;
- turbidity of urine;
- in severe cases, fever.
In some patients, there is also an admixture of blood in the urine, the feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder is constantly present. In some patients, cramps at the end of urination are so strong that they radiate into the rectum.
If such symptoms occur in a man, you should immediately contact a urologist, since male cystitis is almost always secondary. Their main cause is most often prostate disease, urolithiasis, and diabetes. Symptoms similar to cystitis occur in non-gonococcal urethritis.
In the presence of a typical clinical picture in favor of acute cystitis says a rapid improvement under the influence of antibacterial agents. In addition, the results of laboratory studies, as well as ultrasound data are taken into account.
After the disappearance of acute events in order to clarify the diagnosis, cystoscopy is performed, which is a study of the internal state of the bladder.
For women is a very important gynecological examination, which can be identified associated female diseases that contribute to the development of cystitis.
Thus, a complete examination for chronic cystitis consists of:
- bacteriological urine culture;
- urine analysis according to nechyporenko;
- PCR diagnostics;
- Ultrasound of the urinary organs;
- if necessary - biopsy.
Cystitis should not be confused with urethritis, which consists in inflammation of the urethra and manifests itself only with cuttings, burning and pain during urination. In many cases, these diseases accompany each other.
If the inflammatory process does not respond to treatment and the process becomes protracted, it is necessary to find out in detail the reason for this situation. In this case, to assign the correct treatment, it is necessary to differentiate cystitis with other diseases, for example, prostatitis, bladder cancer, and tuberculosis.
At statement of the diagnosis it is necessary to consider also that increase of temperature over 37.5 degrees is not characteristic of cystitis. If a patient has this symptom, he or she must consult a urologist to rule out kidney disease.
To get rid of the outbreak or exacerbation of this extremely unpleasant disease, you need to follow the following recommendations:
- comply with bed rest;
- take prescribed medications;
- drink plenty of warm fluids;
- follow a diet.
In acute cystitis, antispasmodics, antibacterial drugs, herbs with diuretic action are prescribed. In case of severe pain, drugs that relieve spasm of the bladder muscles - noshpu, drotaverin, papaverine are recommended. They can be used in the form of tablets, and in the form of candles. Helps to eliminate rezi warmer, placed on the lower abdomen.
Diuretic herbs such as bearberry, cowberry leaf, kidney tea are widely used in cystitis. Cranberry, lingonberry and blueberry fruit drinks are very useful in this situation. There are ready-made herbal remedies for such cases - Canetron tablets or Cystone, Phytolysin paste. But the use of ready-made pharmacological agents does not cancel the intake of abundant warm drinks.
After the painful urination, warm herbal baths or washing the external genitals with warm soda water will help to alleviate the condition.
Diet for acute cystitis should exclude marinades, spices, pickles. Dairy products, fruits, especially watermelon will be useful.
In the chronic course of the disease, procedures are prescribed to restore urine outflow. These include, for example, the treatment of prostate adenoma, the elimination of narrowing of the urethra. It is mandatory to identify and eliminate foci of infection in the body. In chronic forms of cystitis, antibacterial treatment is carried out only after appropriate laboratory tests - urine culture, detection of the pathogen and its sensitivity to antibiotics.
Treatment by folk methods
In the people there are many tools that have a positive effect in diseases of the urinary sphere, including cystitis. The most effective of them are the following:
- Boil 3 liters of milk. Separate a large mug and pour it into a basin. The patient must put his legs in him and wrap himself with a blanket to the waist. When the milk in the pelvis begins to cool, you need to add another mug there. So continue until all the milk is poured. If you repeat the procedure, the same milk can be boiled again. Repeat until improvement.
- Take 2 halves of red brick and glow in the fire. Put them in an empty metal bucket, wrap the edges of the cloth. The patient sits on a bucket and wraps the lower body in a blanket or blanket. Sit in a position until the heat radiates from the brick. After the procedure, go to bed. Repeat it several times.
Not all patients are allowed thermal procedures in the pelvic region. For example, they are contraindicated in women with fibroids or fibroids. In such cases, diuretic herbs will help, which should be performed within 1.5-2 months. When phytotherapy to avoid recurrence, it is important to conduct repeated courses. So, after an acute outbreak of the disease, the treatment should be repeated in 2-3 months, and in the treatment of chronic forms - in 3-5 months.
A good effect in cystitis has such a herbal harvest: parsley, thyme, St. John's wort, dill and knotweed herb mix in equal proportions. 1 teaspoon of the mixture is poured with 1 cup of boiling water and infused. Drink this infusion should be half a glass three times a day for 20 days. There should be 3 such courses with a 10-day break between them. Relief comes already during the first course, and the full cycle helps to get rid of chronic cystitis.
Rapid improvement can be obtained if a handful of dried flowers of cornflower brew 300 g of boiling water and insist for 30 minutes. Half of the portion is drunk in small sips in the evening, the second half - in the morning.
Acute manifestations of cystitis pass quickly, if at one time you eat 0.5–1 l of lingonberries. But this does not mean that further treatment with this should be completely stopped.
With proper therapy, the symptoms disappear within 5-10 days. But often after home or hastily performed treatment, the symptoms of the disease disappear only for a while. The true cause of the disease remains in the body and makes itself felt immediately with the slightest hypothermia. In this case, they say that cystitis has become chronic.
A particularly dangerous chronic form of the disease is for girls, because it can lead to scarring of the posterior wall of the urethra and reduce its volume. This creates a vicious circle, which consists of constantly nourishing each other foci of infection.
In addition, if it is not enough to treat cystitis, an infection from the bladder can penetrate the kidneys, resulting in a more serious disease, pyelonephritis. At the same time, pain in the lumbar region, fever, swelling are added to the frequent urination.
A serious complication of the disease, which occurs in the absence of proper treatment, is the development of interstitial cystitis. At the same time, the infection penetrates not only into the mucous, but also the submucosal layer, as well as the muscular wall of the organ. Its tissues scar and deform, which entails wrinkling of the bladder and the loss of its volume. The only way to save the patient is an operation to completely remove the organ with plastic new, consisting of the tissues of the large intestine.
Cystitis during pregnancy
This disease, which already torments mainly women, quite often occurs during pregnancy. Every tenth woman learns about the existence of this disease in a difficult period of carrying a child.
Its occurrence in the early stages is due to changes in the hormonal background, as well as the phenomenon of immunosuppression of the pregnant woman, i.e. immunosuppression. It is the weakened immunity that allows microorganisms to multiply freely and cause inflammation of the bladder mucosa. Therefore, the slightest hypothermia, violation of hygiene rules, and even abrupt climate change can cause acute cystitis in the future mother in all her beauty.
The emergence of this disease contributes to the constantly growing uterus, which squeezes the bladder and leads to disruption of the outflow of urine, which causes the active reproduction of pathogenic microbes.
The difficulty of treating cystitis during pregnancy lies in the fact that medications taken can adversely affect the body of the unborn child. But at the same time, treatment should be carried out immediately, because the infection can spread to the kidneys. Therefore, you need to take such drugs, which will act precisely in the bladder. Of those antibiotics that are usually prescribed in such cases, pregnant women are only allowed to take Monural. He has a very great advantage over the other antibiotics, consisting in the fact that for the treatment of his one-time reception. In some cases, Canephron and Amoxiclav are added to it.
Often, instillations are prescribed for the treatment of cystitis during pregnancy. This procedure consists of the introduction of antibacterial compounds into the bladder through the catheter. These include protargol, rivanol, medicated oils. After the introduction of the solution, the patient stands with a filled bladder for about 5-10 minutes. This procedure is performed in the hospital under the supervision of a physician. Despite the powerful therapeutic effect, it is not always safe for the fetus.
If cystitis is simply unpleasant for ordinary patients, it can be dangerous for pregnant women. The kidneys, which during this period already experience increased loads, in the presence of an inflammatory focus in the bladder, fall under a double blow. The infection can move up the ureters, and cause the development of acute pyelonephritis - a disease requiring immediate hospitalization of the pregnant woman.
Prevention of cystitis
To prevent a disease, it’s enough to follow some simple guidelines:
- observe intimate hygiene;
- avoid hypothermia;
- do not sit on cold surfaces;
- do not eat spicy and salty foods;
- timely cure genital infections;
- give up underwear made of synthetic materials.
With a sedentary lifestyle, every 20-30 minutes should get up and warm up and, of course, you should not be lazy to empty your bladder in time.
A good prevention of cystitis is drinking a glass of cranberry juice daily or taking cranberries in any other form. This natural remedy has a diuretic and disinfectant property and, as it were, prevents the infection from sticking to the walls of the bladder.
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