Cystitis: symptoms, treatment
- Causes of cystitis
- Types of cystitis
- Symptoms of cystitis
- Treatment of cystitis
- Treatment with folk methods
- Possible complications
- Cystitis in Pregnancy
- Prevention of cystitis
Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder. Most often this problem is overtaken by women, because in comparison with men the urethra is shorter and wider. This circumstance makes penetration of the infection easier and quicker. In total, in different periods of life, cystitis is affected by 20 to 40% of the female population of the planet.
Causes of cystitis
Cystitis is a disease common to all ages. It is caused mainly by the following reasons:
- supercooling of pelvic areas;
- trauma to the mucosa of the urinary bladder;
- passive lifestyle;
- acute and fatty foods;
- presence of chronic gynecological or venereal diseases;
- presence of foci of infection in the body;
- unprotected sex;
- lack of hygiene.
The main cause of this disease is the hypothermia of the body. The most dangerous is the freezing of the legs and the pelvic area. Therefore, one should not sit on cold surfaces, wear thin silk underwear in the cold season, and shoes that are too light.
Risk factor is also sedentary work, which causes stagnation of blood in the veins of pelvic areas. You can not sit continuously in one place for, for example, 4-5 hours. If your job requires it, you should try to get up more often and do 15-minute breaks.
The presence of chronic female diseases in the pelvic area creates a favorable environment for the transition of infection to the organs of the urinary system, including the bladder. For this reason, gynecological inflammatory diseases, as well as venereal diseases, should be carefully treated by a specialist before full recovery.
Predisposing factors for the occurrence of this disease are hormonal disorders, as well as beriberi.
A special category of causes that can cause cystitis are violations of hygiene rules. You risk acquiring this disease if:
- rarely change tampons or sanitary pads during menstruation;
- practice transitions from anal intercourse to vaginal;
- often wear synthetic tight-fitting underwear;
- constantly apply daily pads;
- After defecation, wipe in the direction from the anus forward;
- do not observe the mode of urination.
You need to empty the bladder at least 5 times a day, otherwise getting the infection into the bladder is facilitated by stagnation or decomposition of urine.
In 90% of cases, the disease is caused by E. coli, another typical representative of the pathogenic flora that causes this disease are staphylococci. Germs penetrate the ascending path - from the rectum or skin through the urethra.
Types of cystitis
Depending on the nature of the disease, cystitis is divided into acute and chronic. The acute form occurs in the presence of pronounced symptoms and arises after provoking a sudden factor.
Chronic cystitis is characterized by a less pronounced manifestation and is often caused by other diseases.
Depending on the cause, which caused pathology, the cystitis is divided into primary and secondary, as well as bacterial and non-bacterial.
Bacterial inflammation of this organ can be caused by infections of various origins - streptococci, enterococci, gonococci, etc. In this way, the infection can be hematogenous, lymphogenous, descending or ascending.
Non-bacterial cystitis develops when the walls are irritated with medicinal, chemical or other substances. There are thermal, toxic, radiation, allergic, alimentary cystitis.
If the primary disease is characterized directly by the bladder by any of these factors, then secondary cystitis develops as a result of other diseases of this or nearby organs. So, for example, it usually accompanies urolithiasis, prostatic adenoma, urethral stricture, etc.
Symptoms of cystitis
Symptoms of this disease depend on its form. If in acute cases there is a bright clinical picture with strong cuts with frequent urination several times per hour, then in case of chronic course during the remission period, signs may be absolutely absent.
The most characteristic symptoms of the acute form of the disease are:
- painful and frequent urination;
- Cutting pains above the pubis in the bladder area;
- blurred urine;
- in severe cases, a rise in temperature.
In some patients there is also an admixture of blood in the urine, there is always a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder. In some patients, the urine at the end of urination is so strong that it radiates into the rectum.
If such symptoms occur in a man, you should immediately contact a urologist, since male cystitis is almost always secondary. Their main cause is mostly prostate disease, urolithiasis, diabetes mellitus. Very similar to cystitis symptoms occur with non-gonococcal urethritis.
In the presence of a typical clinical picture in favor of acute cystitis says a rapid improvement in the state under the influence of antibacterial agents. In addition, the results of laboratory studies, as well as ultrasound data, are taken into account.
After the disappearance of acute events in order to clarify the diagnosis of cystoscopy, which is an examination of the internal state of the bladder.
For women, gynecological examination is very important, in which accompanying female diseases that promote the development of cystitis can be identified.
Thus, a complete examination for chronic cystitis consists of:
- general analysis of urine;
- bacteriological culture of urine;
- urinalysis by Nechiporenko;
- PCR diagnostics;
- Ultrasound of the urino-genital organs;
- if necessary, a biopsy.
Cystitis should not be confused with urethritis, which consists in inflammation of the urethra and manifests itself only by scrapes, burning and pain when urinating. In many cases, these diseases accompany each other.
If the inflammatory process does not respond to treatment and the process becomes lingering, it is necessary to find out the cause of this situation in detail. In this case, to determine the correct treatment, it is necessary to differentiate cystitis with other diseases, for example, prostatitis, bladder cancer, tuberculosis.
When making a diagnosis, it should also be taken into account that for a cystitis there is no characteristic increase in temperature above 37.5 degrees. If a patient has this symptom, he needs a urologist consultation to exclude kidney disease.
Treatment of cystitis
To get rid of the outbreak or exacerbation of this extremely unpleasant disease, you should follow the following recommendations:
- to comply with bed rest;
- take prescribed medicines;
- drink plenty of warm liquid;
- observe a diet.
In acute cystitis prescribe antispasmodics, antibacterial drugs, herbs with a diuretic effect. With severe soreness recommend drugs that relieve spasm of the musculature of the bladder - noshpu, drotaverin, papaverine. They can be used both in the form of tablets, and in the form of candles. Helps to eliminate the cuts of the warmer, placed on the lower abdomen.
Widely used in cystitis diuretic herb bearberry, leaf cranberries, kidney tea. Cranberry, cowberries and bilberry fruit are very useful in this situation. There are ready-made phytopreparations for such cases - Kanefron or Cyston tablets, Phytolysin paste. But the use of ready-made pharmacological agents does not cancel the reception of abundant warm drinking.
Help to ease the condition after a painful urination warm baths with herbs or washing the external genitals with warm water with a soda solution.
Diet with acute cystitis should exclude marinades, spices, pickles. Dairy products, fruits, especially watermelon will be useful.
In the chronic course of the disease, procedures are prescribed to restore the outflow of urine. These include, for example, treatment of prostate adenoma, elimination of urethral narrowing. It is mandatory to identify and eliminate foci of infection in the body. In chronic forms of cystitis, antibacterial treatment is performed only after appropriate laboratory tests - urine culture, detection of the pathogen and its sensitivity to antibiotics.
Treatment with folk methods
The people have many tools that have a positive effect in diseases of the urinary tract, including cystitis. The most effective of them are the following:
- Boil 3 liters of milk. Separate a large mug and pour into a basin. The patient should put his feet into it and wrap himself in a blanket to the waist. When the milk in the basin starts to cool, you need to add one more mug. So continue until all the milk has been poured. When the procedure is repeated, the same milk can be boiled again. Repeat until the condition improves.
- Take 2 halves of red brick and heat on a fire. Put them in an empty metal bucket, the edges of which wrap with a cloth. The patient sits on the bucket and wraps the lower body in a blanket or blanket. Sit in this position until the heat comes from the brick. After the procedure, go to bed. Repeat it several times.
Not all patients are allowed thermal procedures in the pelvis. For example, they are contraindicated in women who have fibroids or fibroids. In such cases, the use of diuretic herbs will help, which must be performed within 1.5-2 months. For herbal medicine, it is important to repeat courses to avoid relapses. So, after an acute outbreak of the disease, you need to repeat the treatment in 2-3 months, and in the treatment of chronic forms - after 3-5 months.
A good effect with cystitis is provided by such herbal collection: in equal proportions the herbs of parsley, thyme, St. John's wort, dill and sporich are mixed. 1 teaspoon of the mixture is poured into 1 glass of boiling water and infused. To drink this infusion you need half a glass three times a day for 20 days. It is necessary to conduct 3 such courses with a 10-day break between them. Relief comes already during the first course, and a full cycle helps to get rid of chronic cystitis.
Rapid improvement of the condition can be obtained if a handful of dried cornflower flowers brew 300 g of boiling water and insist for 30 minutes. Half of the portion is drunk in small sips in the evening, the second half in the morning.
Fast acute manifestations of cystitis, if at one time to eat 0.5-1 l cranberries. But this does not mean that further treatment on this need to be completely stopped.
With properly administered therapy, symptoms disappear within 5-10 days. But often after a home or hastily performed treatment, the symptoms disappear only for a while. The true cause of the disease remains in the body and makes itself felt immediately after the slightest supercooling. In this case, it is said that the cystitis has passed into a chronic form.
Particularly dangerous is the chronic type of the disease for girls, as it can lead to scarring of the posterior wall of the urethra and a decrease in its volume. In this case, there is a vicious circle, which consists of constantly fostering each other foci of infection.
In addition, if not enough to cure cystitis, an infection from the bladder can penetrate the kidneys, resulting in a more serious disease - pyelonephritis. In addition, frequent urination is accompanied by pain in the lumbar region, fever, edema.
A serious complication of the disease, which occurs in the absence of proper treatment, is the development of interstitial cystitis. In this case, the infection penetrates not only into the mucous membrane, but also the submucosa, and also the muscular wall of the organ. His tissues are scarred and deformed, which entails the wrinkling of the bladder and the loss of its volume. The only way to save a patient is an operation to completely remove the organ from the plastic of a new one, consisting of the tissues of the large intestine.
Cystitis in Pregnancy
This disease, which already primarily affects women, often occurs during pregnancy. Every tenth woman learns about the existence of this disease in the difficult period of bearing a child.
Its occurrence in the early stages is explained by changes in the hormonal background, as well as by the phenomenon of immunosuppression of the pregnant woman, i.e., suppression of immunity. It is the weakened immunity that allows microorganisms to multiply freely and cause inflammation of the mucosa of the bladder. Therefore, the slightest hypothermia, violation of hygiene rules and even a sharp change in climate can cause a future mother's acute cystitis in all its glory.
The emergence of this disease contributes to the constantly growing uterus, which compresses the bladder and leads to a violation of the outflow of urine, which causes the active multiplication of pathogens.
The difficulty of treating cystitis during pregnancy is that the medications taken can adversely affect the future child's body. But, at the same time, treatment should be carried out immediately, because the infection can spread to the kidneys. Therefore, it is necessary to take such medicines that will act exactly in the bladder. Of those antibiotics that are usually prescribed in such cases, pregnant women are allowed to take only Monural. He has very great dignity over other antibiotics, which consists in the fact that enough of his one-time intake is sufficient for treatment. In some cases, Kanefron and Amoxiclav are added to it.
Often, for the treatment of cystitis in pregnancy, instillations are prescribed. This procedure consists in the introduction of antibacterial compounds into the bladder through the catheter. These include protargol, rivanol, medicinal oils. After the administration of the solution, the patient withstands with a filled bladder for about 5-10 minutes. This procedure is performed in a hospital under the supervision of a doctor. Despite the powerful therapeutic effect, it is not always safe for the fetus.
If the disease with cystitis is simply unpleasant for ordinary patients, then for pregnant women it can be dangerous. Kidneys, which during this period and so are experiencing increased stress, if there is an inflammatory focus in the bladder, fall under a double blow. Infection can move up the ureters, and cause the development of acute pyelonephritis - a disease requiring immediate hospitalization of a pregnant woman.
Prevention of cystitis
To prevent the disease, it is enough to follow some simple recommendations:
- observe intimate hygiene;
- avoid hypothermia of the feet;
- Do not sit on cold surfaces;
- do not eat spicy or salty foods;
- promptly cure sexual infections;
- refuse the underwear of synthetic materials.
With a sedentary lifestyle every 20-30 minutes, you should get up and warm up and, of course, you should not be lazy in time to empty the bladder.
A good prevention of cystitis is the daily drinking of a glass of cranberry juice or the reception of cranberries in any other form. This natural remedy has a diuretic and disinfectant property and, as it were, prevents the infection from sticking to the walls of the bladder.
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