Bronchial asthma: symptoms, treatment, prevention
- Who is affected by the disease?
- Symptoms of bronchial asthma
- Types and causes of the disease
- Treatment of bronchial asthma
- Bronchial asthma and air travel
- Hygiene and bronchial asthma
Bronchial asthma is a chronic disease of the respiratory tract, in which there is a narrowing of the respiratory tract due to irritants, accompanied by attacks of suffocation. Due to excessive production of mucus in asthma, normal air circulation is disturbed, which makes the respiratory process difficult.
Who is affected by the disease?
Bronchial asthma is a common disease that occurs in people of any age and social group. The most affected are children who later "outgrow" the problem (about half of the patients). In recent years, there has been a steady increase in the incidence of the disease worldwide, because there are a huge number of programs, both global and national, to combat asthma.
Young children are more sick with asthma boys.
Children of adolescence, the percentage of patients is equal.
Residents of megacities are leaders (more than seven percent). Villagers are sick less - less than five percent.
In patients with asthma, disability decreases and disability often occurs, because a chronic inflammatory process forms sensitivity to allergens, various chemical irritants, smoke, dust, etc. Because of what the puffiness and bronchospasm is formed, since at the moment of irritation there is an increased production of bronchial mucus.
Symptoms of bronchial asthma
The main symptoms of the disease include:
- Painful persistent cough, worsening at night, after physical exertion, in cold air;
- Severe shortness of breath, often accompanied by fear that it will be impossible to exhale;
- Loud wheezing;
- Attacks of suffocation.
If the asthma flows heavily, the patient during the attack has to breathe through the mouth, straining the shoulders, neck and torso. With narrowing of the respiratory tract, it is easier to breathe in than to exhale, because inhaling for the body is an easier process, the exhalation time and the muscles of the chest are better adapted to this movement. Exhalation - passive movement, for exhalation a person does not need to exert effort, because the muscles are not adapted to the removal of air, especially if the airways are narrowed. With bronchospasm in the lungs, air remains, and they swell. Therefore, chronic patients have a specific feature - "pigeon chest." In severe forms of acute bronchial asthma, there is no whistling during breathing, because a person can neither breathe in full or exhale.
Types and causes of the disease
There is a large number of provoking factors that lead to the development of asthma.
The main trigger mechanism is an increase in the reactivity of the bronchi, which develops in connection with an allergic reaction.
It is accepted to divide two main forms of the disease:
The initial stage of the disease with these two forms varies. The further stages are similar.
It is formed against the background of an allergic reaction, when immunity detects an allergen and the body begins to release in response substances interacting with the allergic component. The presence of these substances in the human body, which are antibodies, indicates sensitization. We all interact anywhere and everywhere with a huge number of different allergens, but not every organism triggers an asthma defense mechanism.
The main factors in the formation of asthma atopic form
There are two such factors:
- Genetic predisposition;
- Physiological features.
Features of the course of asthma atopic form
This form of asthma is characterized by an almost instantaneous reaction to the allergen. In the absence of an irritating factor, there are no complaints.
- Apartment dust;
- Wool of domestic animals;
- Some food.
Attention! Atopic form of asthma is more often sick young children, in whom it can be combined with eczema, urticaria and alimentary allergy. Parents should understand that the reason for this is a malfunction in the immune system of the child. Parents are obliged to pay attention to the characteristic symptomatology and visit a doctor.
With the long course of the process and the absence of treatment, there are changes in the bronchial tubes that cause irregularities in their work and contribute to a multiple increase in the risk of infection. Infectious-allergic form of asthma develops.
Doctor's recommendation . With the diagnosis of "bronchial asthma", regular monitoring is necessary for the therapist and allergist.
The tendency to allergic reactions and the presence of respiratory diseases, for example, chronic sinusitis, inflammation of the middle ear and nasal polyps, have a close relationship with bronchial asthma. People suffering from various allergies and having a history of bronchial asthma are more likely to wake up at night due to asthma attacks, lose their ability to work and need more serious therapy with strong medications to reduce symptoms.
The mechanism of the disease is a chronic infection of the respiratory system, because this form of the disease is diagnosed in adults, and much less often in children. Pathogenic microorganisms and inflammatory processes lead to bronchial pathology, their anatomical structure and functions change, namely:
- There is an increase in the amount of muscle tissue;
- Connective tissue;
- There is a gradual decrease in the internal diameter of the bronchi;
- The pathological reaction to irritating factors increases.
All these changes lead to a violation of the respiration process. After a while, allergic manifestations also join, which are formed under the influence of changes in the work of local immunity. Asthma is characterized by the fact that the defense mechanism works separately from the whole organism and is not regulated by it. The disease lasts for many years, wavy, the periods of remission are replaced by exacerbations, during which numerous pathologies of the respiratory system join. Infectious-allergic form often "goes in pairs" with chronic obstruction of the lungs and chronic bronchitis.
It has exclusively allergic origin and is singled out by doctors to a special group - medical asthma. The cause of development is the abuse of a certain group of drugs. Long-term use of any drug, for example, ordinary aspirin, can change any body functions and lead to the development of the disease. How does this happen? The tissues of the body accumulate a certain substance, which eventually provokes a decrease in bronchial lumens. To clarify the diagnosis and the definition of this substance, consultation of an experienced allergist is necessary. It would seem that everything is simple: the substance will cease to accumulate and the symptomatology will go away. But there is a need to determine whether there is an hereditary form of the disease. Researchers have now established a genetic factor as fundamental in order for a person to develop an atopic form of the disease. If the family members have asthma, then the occurrence of the disease in the child can be prevented provided that the measures taken are taken in a timely manner.
Under this group, attacks occur periodically in people suffering from heart failure with the corresponding chronic diseases. Cardiac asthma does not belong to other types of the disease, with it the lumen of the bronchi does not decrease. Breathing suffers from heart disease.
Important! There are provoking factors of the occurrence of seizures in any form of the disease, of which many are unaware.
To worsen the condition can:
- Change in weather conditions (especially extreme temperature extremes of the environment);
- Various flavoring agents used in the preparation of products (flavor enhancer - sodium glutamate);
- Psychoemotional experiences (laughter, tears, stress, joy, anxiety, singing, crying);
- Various cosmetic products (perfumes, deodorants, soaps, gels, hair varnishes, creams, etc.);
- Acid reflux (with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract).
The disease is classified by a physician on the basis of an external examination of the patient, collection of anamnesis and research. When making a diagnosis, it is necessary to take into account:
- The frequency of seizures;
- Results of studies (volume of forced expiration in 1 second, maximum volumetric expiratory flow rate).
Attention! Self-medication of such a serious disease is unacceptable! A person suffering from bronchial asthma should be constantly observed by a doctor, undergo regular examinations. Correction of treatment is carried out by the attending physician depending on the state of health at a certain stage of life.
What research is carried out with bronchial asthma and how are they conducted?
For accurate diagnosis do the tests:
. Spirometry . Required for breath analysis. The test person exhales forcefully into the special device - the spirometer, which measures the maximum exhalation rate.
. Radiography of the chest . A necessary study, which is appointed by the doctor in order to identify concomitant diseases. Many respiratory diseases have a similar symptomatology to bronchial asthma.
Treatment of bronchial asthma
Medical devices are used to treat bronchial asthma. At the present time, special inhalers have been developed that take off suddenly asthmatic attack and pills. In addition to medical means, a lifestyle correction is necessary, which can several times reduce the risk of developing an attack.
Anti-inflammatory asthmatic inhalers. These funds are intended for the therapy of inflammatory processes caused by asthma. The composition of inhalers include steroids, which have a minimum of side effects provided that the agent is correctly used. The inhaler is an indispensable "first aid" for the patient, as it is able to get into the lungs almost immediately and act on the respiratory tract and stop the attack. It is necessary to ask the attending physician in detail how to use the inhaler correctly and always keep the remedy to yourself. Despite the achievements of modern medicine has not yet invented a tool for a complete cure for bronchial asthma, but the world's leading pharmacologists have developed asthmatic medical products of high quality that facilitate the life of the patient and allow him to lead a normal life and maintain ability to work. Throughout the world, various societies, clubs and support groups for people with bronchial asthma are organized, in which the patient can receive advice, help and support.
Bronchial asthma and air travel
During the flight on an airplane, the possibility of an attack increases. This is due to the excitement, the change in the situation, the stuffiness in the cabin.
In severe cases of bronchial asthma, you should consult your doctor about taking corticosteroid hormones several days before the planned journey. It is necessary to have with the inhaler for the "first aid".
If there are co-morbid conditions, such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis, or pneumonia or an upper respiratory infection has been recently transferred, a doctor's advice before the flight is mandatory. Otherwise, it is better to refrain from air travel. You can use oxygen, if recommended by your doctor (usually used for chronic lung diseases), the issue must be resolved in advance with the airline representatives.
Hygiene and bronchial asthma
The constant growth of patients with bronchial asthma all over the world has given rise to a theory about the cause of this serious problem. The modern man is already protected at birth from a large number of various pathogens, and is in an artificial environment that does not allow immunity to "get involved" correctly.
Interesting results were learned by scientists in the course of research: some diseases of the lower respiratory tract weaken manifestations of bronchial asthma and upper respiratory tract infections, on the contrary, they are able to include a mechanism of protection against the disease.
Important! You can not take antibiotics for people of any age without the appointment of a qualified doctor with extensive experience in any disease and slightest rise in body temperature! Antibiotics for people who are predisposed to an allergic immune response and are at risk of developing bronchial asthma are not good, but evil. Changing the intestinal microflora, these drugs reduce the protective properties of the body.
In general, at present, despite the lack of medicines, completely eliminating the problem, there is no, the prognosis is favorable, thanks to modern drugs that alleviate the symptoms.