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Bronchial asthma: symptoms, treatment, prevention

Content:

Bronchial asthma Bronchial asthma is a chronic disease of the respiratory tract, in which there is a narrowing of the respiratory tract due to irritants, accompanied by attacks of breathlessness. Due to the excessive production of mucus in asthma, normal air circulation is disturbed, which complicates the respiratory process.



Who is affected?

Bronchial asthma is a common disease that occurs in people of any age and social group. Children are most susceptible to the disease, which later "outgrow" the problem (about half of the sick). In recent years, a steady increase in the incidence has been observed all over the world, because there is a huge number of programs, both global and national, to combat asthma.

Children of younger age - boys suffer from asthma more.

Adolescent children - the percentage of sick is equal.

Residents of cities - the leaders (more than seven percent). Villagers are sick much less - less than five percent.
In patients with asthma, working capacity decreases and disability often occurs, because the chronic inflammatory process forms sensitivity to allergens, various chemical stimuli, smoke, dust, etc. because of what puffiness and bronchospasm is formed, since at the moment of irritation there is an increased production of bronchial mucus.

Symptoms of bronchial asthma

The main symptoms of the disease include:

  • agonizing constant cough, worse at night, after exercise, in cold air;
  • severe shortness of breath, often accompanied by the fear that it will be impossible to exhale;
  • loud wheezing;
  • asthma attacks.

If asthma is severe, the patient is forced to breathe through the mouth during an attack, straining his shoulders, neck and torso. When a narrowing of the airway is inhaled, it is easier to inhale than exhale, since the inhale is easier for the body, the exhale hour and the chest muscles are better adapted to this movement. Exhalation is a passive movement, for exhalation a person does not need to exert effort, because the muscles are not adapted to remove air, especially if the airways are narrowed. When bronchospasm in the lungs air remains, and they swell. Therefore, a chronic symptom appears in chronic patients - “pigeon chest”. In severe forms of acute bronchial asthma, whistling is not observed during breathing, because a person can neither inhale with a full chest nor exhale.

Types of disease and causes

There are a large number of provoking factors that lead to the development of asthma.

The main trigger mechanism is an increase in bronchial reactivity, which develops due to an allergic reaction.

It is customary to separate the two main forms of the disease:

  • infectious-allergic;
  • atopic.

The initial stage of the disease in these two forms is different. Further steps are similar.

Atopic form

Formed against the background of an allergic reaction, when the immunity detects an allergen and the body begins to emit in response to substances that interact with the allergic component. The presence in the human body of these substances, which are antibodies, indicates sensitization. We all interact everywhere and everywhere with a huge number of very different allergens, but not every organism triggers an asthma defense mechanism.

The main factors for the formation of asthma atopic form

There are two such factors:

  • genetic predisposition;
  • physiological features.

Peculiarities of atopic asthma

This form of asthma is characterized by an almost instantaneous reaction to an allergen. In the absence of an annoying factor, there are no complaints.

Allergens are:

  • flat dust;
  • pollen;
  • pet hair;
  • chemicals;
  • some food.

Attention! The atopic form of asthma often affects young children, in whom it can be combined with eczema, urticaria and nutritional allergies. Parents should understand that the reason for this is a failure of the child’s immune system. Parents are required to pay attention to the characteristic symptoms and visit the doctor.

With a long course of the process and no treatment, changes occur in the bronchi, which cause disturbances in their work and contribute to a manifold increase in the risk of infection. Infectious-allergic form of asthma develops.

Doctor's recommendation . The diagnosis of "bronchial asthma" requires regular monitoring by a therapist and an allergist.

The tendency to allergic reactions and the presence of respiratory diseases, for example, chronic sinusitis, inflammation of the middle ear and nasal polyps have a close relationship with bronchial asthma. People suffering from various allergies and having a history of bronchial asthma often wake up at night due to asthma attacks, lose their working capacity and need more serious therapy with strong medications to reduce symptoms.

Infectious-allergic form

The mechanism for triggering the disease is a chronic infection of the respiratory system, because this form of the disease is diagnosed in adults, and much less often in children. Pathogenic microorganisms and inflammatory processes lead to the pathology of the bronchi, their anatomical structure and functions change, namely:

  • there is an increase in the amount of muscle tissue;
  • connective tissue;
  • there is a gradual decrease in the internal diameter of the bronchi;
  • pathological reaction to irritating factors increases.

All these changes lead to disruption of the respiratory process. After some time, allergic manifestations join, which are formed under the influence of changes in the work of local immunity. Asthma is characterized by the fact that the defense mechanism works separately from the whole organism and is not regulated by it. The disease lasts for many years, undulating, periods of remission are replaced by exacerbations, during which numerous pathologies of the respiratory organs join. The infectious-allergic form is often “paired” with chronic lung obstruction and chronic bronchitis.

Drug asthma

It has an exclusively allergic origin and is allocated by doctors in a special group - medical asthma. The reason for the development is the abuse of a certain group of drugs. Prolonged use of any drug, for example, ordinary aspirin, can change any functions of the body and lead to the development of the disease. How does this happen? The tissues of the body accumulate a certain substance, which over time provokes a decrease in the bronchial lumen. To clarify the diagnosis and determination of this substance, it is necessary to consult an experienced allergist. It would seem that everything is simple: the substance will cease to accumulate and the symptoms go away. But it becomes necessary to determine whether there is a hereditary form of the disease? Researchers have now established the genetic factor as fundamental for a person to develop an atopic form of the disease. If family members have asthma, the child’s illness can be prevented by taking timely measures.

Cardiac asthma

This group includes seizures that occur periodically in people suffering from heart failure with appropriate chronic diseases. Cardiac asthma does not belong to other types of the disease, it does not decrease the lumen of the bronchi. Breathing suffers from heart disease.

Important! There are provoking factors for the occurrence of attacks in any form of the disease, which many do not realize.

A worsening condition can:

  • changes in weather conditions (especially extreme changes in ambient temperature);
  • various flavorings used in the preparation of products (flavor enhancer - monosodium glutamate);
  • psycho-emotional experiences (laughter, tears, stress, joy, anxiety, singing, crying);
  • various cosmetics (perfumes, deodorants, soaps, gels, hair sprays, creams, etc.);
  • acid reflux (for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract).

Diagnostics

The disease is classified by the doctor on the basis of an external examination of the patient, anamnesis and research. At statement of the diagnosis it is necessary to consider:

  • frequency of seizures;
  • symptoms;
  • research results (forced expiratory volume in 1 second, maximum expiratory volumetric rate).

Attention! Self-treatment of such a serious disease is unacceptable! A person suffering from bronchial asthma should be constantly monitored by a doctor and undergo regular examinations. Adjustment of treatment is carried out by the attending physician depending on the state of health at a certain stage of life.

What studies are carried out in bronchial asthma and how are they carried out?

For accurate diagnosis tests are done:

. Spirometry Essential for breath analysis. The test person exhales the air with force in a special device - a spirometer that measures the maximum expiratory rate.

. Chest X-ray . Necessary research that is prescribed by a doctor in order to identify associated diseases. Many respiratory diseases have symptoms similar to asthma.

Treatment of bronchial asthma

Medical equipment is used to treat asthma. At present, special inhalers have been developed that relieve an asthma attack and a pill that suddenly occurred. In addition to medical devices, lifestyle correction is necessary, which can reduce the risk of an attack several times.

Anti-inflammatory asthma inhalers. These funds are intended for the treatment of inflammatory processes caused by asthma. The composition of inhalers include steroids, which have a minimum of side effects, provided proper use of funds. An inhaler is an indispensable “ambulance” for the patient, as it is capable, when released into the lungs, almost instantly affects the respiratory tract and stops the attack. It is necessary to ask the attending physician in detail how to use the inhaler correctly and always keep the product with you. Despite the achievements of modern medicine, a means for a complete cure for asthma has not yet been invented, but the leading pharmacologists of the world have developed high-quality asthmatic medicines that make life easier for the patient and allow him to lead a normal life and work. Around the world, various societies, clubs and support groups of people suffering from asthma are organized, in which the patient can receive advice, help and support.

Bronchial asthma and airfare

During the flight on the plane the possibility of an attack increases. This is due to the excitement, change in the situation, the dullness in the cabin.

In severe bronchial asthma, you should consult with your doctor about taking corticosteroid hormones a few days before the planned trip. Be sure to have with the inhaler for the "first aid".

If there are concomitant diseases, such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis, or pneumonia or an upper respiratory tract infection has recently been transferred, consultation with a doctor before the flight is mandatory. Otherwise, it is better to abstain from the flight. You can use oxygen, if recommended by your doctor (usually used in chronic lung diseases), the issue must be resolved in advance with the airline.

Attention! You can not fly on an airplane with suspected pneumothorax (air in the pleural cavity) and immediately after surgery on the lungs.

Hygiene and bronchial asthma

The constant growth of patients with bronchial asthma throughout the world gave rise to a theory about the cause of this serious problem. A modern person, already at birth, is fenced off from a large number of different pathogens, and is in an artificial environment that does not allow the immunity to “switch on” correctly.

Interesting results were learned by scientists in the course of research: some diseases of the lower respiratory tract weaken the manifestations of bronchial asthma and upper respiratory tract infections, on the contrary, they can activate the defense mechanism against the disease.

Important! You can not take antibiotics to people of any age without the appointment of a qualified doctor with extensive experience in any disease and the slightest increase in body temperature! Antibiotics for people who are predisposed to an allergic immune reaction and are at risk of developing asthma are not good, but evil. Changing the intestinal microflora, these drugs reduce the protective properties of the body.

Prevention

Effective preventive measures do not exist.

Forecast

In general, at the present time, despite the absence of medicines that completely eliminate the problem, there is no favorable prognosis, thanks to modern drugs that alleviate the symptoms.


| 23 May 2015 | | 1 449 | Uncategorized
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Vikas Maluja: Good evening everyone!! Very informative video. No doubt this can be proved as a chronic problem if not treated well. But it can be treated without any side effects caused by allopathy medication i.e. by Ayurvedic treatment. You can consult Dr. Vikram Chauhan, CEO of planet Ayurveda for better results, you can consult online also or you can order from our online store easily. All the products will be delivered to your houses and you will yourself see the results. Thank you.

yolo florence: i don’t think i have asthma but this week i had this sharp pain in my chest that lasted for hours, i went to the hospital and my heart was fine it went away and then after that my chest has been very tight and it’s been hard for me to breathe properly...💀 so my mum thinks i have it lol

*•* Daycore Audios *•*: my father has REALLY heavy asthma and i think i inherited it from him because my oldest brother has it to, i have a bird and 2 cats at my dads house, at my moms house we have a dog, my mom says i'm ok , my dad is starting to worry, so he's taking me to the doctors ;-; i hope i'm ok....i'm worried too

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