Treatment and removal of warts
- What are warts?
- Causes of the appearance of warts
- Varieties of warts
- Treatment of warts
- Surgical excision
- Radio wave surgery (or electrocoagulation)
- Laser method
- Cryotherapy (or cryodestruction)
- Ozone therapy
- Antiviral drugs
- Prevention of warts
Warts are not at all. Someone constantly has to fight with them, but someone so for all his life and does not know what it is. Warn warts is much easier than curing, like any other disease. Sometimes, in order to avoid illness, it is enough to observe several simple rules.
What are warts?
Warts are called infectious benign lesions on the skin, usually having the appearance of a papilla or a small nodule. Warts are caused by a strong growth of the upper layer of the epithelium, as well as the underlying papillary layer of the skin. Warts can have different sizes: from millet grains and more. Several warts, merged together, can form a large tumor.
At first the wart is almost invisible, since it has the same color as the skin. But over time, education begins to stand out, becoming dark or black. Warts change color due to their rough surface, which can accumulate pollution.
Causes of the appearance of warts
The reasons for the appearance of tumors on the skin can be very much. The most common virus is the human papillomavirus (HPV), transmitted by contact with infected people or through public objects. The incubation period can last up to several months.
The virus of the papilloma intensively multiplies on the skin, the upper layers of which grow considerably. The vector of the virus can not always be determined, because he himself may not have warts on his body.
Microtraumas of the skin make the skin more vulnerable, and the probability of infection increases many times. Skin on the face of men, for example, can get microcracks during shaving. Neoplasms on the feet often appear after visiting the pool. Warts spread very quickly.
One of the factors contributing to the emergence of warts, is the weakening of immunity. Researchers argue that the inhabitants of megacities are the most vulnerable to a decrease in immunity. The reason for this in most cases are constant stress.
Under the guise of warts, other diseases, such as epidermal nevus, molluscum contagiosum or squamous cell carcinoma, are often concealed. Symptoms of these diseases are often similar to the symptoms of warts. However, the papilloma can be distinguished by such features as color and shape. To make an accurate diagnosis, you need to see a doctor.
Varieties of warts
There are about fifty varieties of benign lesions on the skin. The most common of these are:
- The seniors. They occur in the elderly. They usually appear on the trunk and neck, less often on the hands and face. Star warts are the only type of neoplasm on the body that occurs not because of the virus.
- Genital warts (genital or venereal warts). These are genital warts transmitted sexually. As the name suggests, this type of neoplasm occurs on the genital organs of men and women. The same type includes anogenital warts (arising near the anus), as well as neoplasms arising in the inguinal folds. Venereal warts can be a sign of violence in children younger than three years old. If the mother is infected, she can infect her child during childbirth. Infection receives the respiratory tract of the newborn, which leads to the occurrence of juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomosis. Warts can also be on the oral mucosa, where they appear as small white or pink papules. Pointed condylomas have a "leg".
- Flat (otherwise - youthful). These are small nodules on the skin that do not differ from it in color or have a yellowish tinge. Juvenile warts are almost invisible, because they only protrude slightly above the skin. Most often they have a smooth and flat surface and a round shape. This type of warts can appear in adolescence. Neoplasms occur on the back of the hand or on the face.
- Plantar. Can appear only on the soles of the feet. When this type of neoplasm appears during walking, painful sensations arise. Most often this is due to the fact that the wart grows inside (endophytic growth). The central part of the plantar wart may have a slight depression. Neoplasms on the feet consist of bundles of threadlike papillae, around which a roller appears resembling corn.
- Ordinary (also called vulgar). These are small round dense nodules that have a rough surface. Such warts usually do not cause painful sensations. Neoplasms of this type usually appear on the scalp, on the hands and fingers. Ordinary warts can appear not only in adults, but also in children.
- Prigually. Hands are most prone to warts, as they come into contact with surrounding objects more than other parts of the body. Hands are most vulnerable because they often get micro-trauma. Priligital warts cause painful sensations due to their constant growth. Often, the nail plate falls into the affected area. There are also subungual formations, the main cause of which is the habit of gnawing the nails.
Treatment of warts
The method is considered obsolete and rarely used. One of its main drawbacks is the imposition of a seam leaving a noticeable scar behind it. In addition, the method involves the appearance of a significant wound on the skin, which can lead to repeated infection.
Radio wave surgery (or electrocoagulation)
When this method is used, the wart is removed by high-frequency current. The main advantage of this method of fighting neoplasms is its ability to coagulate skin around the wart, which completely prevents further movement of the virus. Radio wave surgery disinfects the skin. When using electrocoagulation, there is no bleeding. Radio wave surgery is one of the most modern and perfect methods of combating warts. The application of electrocoagulation practically leaves no traces on the skin.
Just like radio wave surgery, it is considered one of the most effective ways to treat warts. The laser procedure takes only a few minutes and is not traumatic. It takes 1-2 minutes to remove the lesion. After exposure to the laser, there are no scars or scars left. The procedure leaves a small indentation on the skin, which will disappear in two weeks.
The main advantage of the method is that the laser destroys the wart not only on the surface. He gets into deeper layers. As a result, there is a deep cleansing of the skin from the papilloma virus. The laser method does not require additional disinfection. The use of the procedure provides a high degree of sterility, since the contact of the wart with the instrument is completely excluded. After using the laser, healing takes place after a few days. The method does not require any restrictions (in contact with water, in sports, etc.). After removal of the tumor, the material can be sent for examination to a histological laboratory.
Cryotherapy (or cryodestruction)
The word "cryo" means "cold" in Greek. This procedure is a "freezing" of the wart with liquid nitrogen. Due to the fact that during the procedure the neoplasm has no contact with blood, secondary infection is excluded. Just like using radio wave surgery, the skin around the neoplasm coagulates. An obstacle is created for the further spread of the virus.
However, cryotherapy has its own significant drawbacks. With this method of treatment, it is not possible to control the depth of exposure to nitrogen. In this case, the cryodestruction will be inferior to the laser method, in which the depth of penetration can be controlled with precision. If the depth was not calculated correctly, and the virus was not destroyed, it will remain in the patient's body. The procedure will have to be repeated more than once. If the freezing is too deep, a significant scar or scar appears on the patient's body. In addition, after the procedure, there is an epidermal bladder and swelling, which will disappear only a few days after the application of cryotherapy.
Despite the fact that laser therapy is quite effective, the virus of the papilloma often remains in the patient's body. Normal stress can provoke the recurrence of warts. After using laser therapy, the patient is prescribed to undergo ozone therapy, the main purpose of which is to strengthen immunity.
Ozone therapy is more likely to be prophylactic than to therapeutic procedures. Prevention helps to "conserve" the papilloma virus. Ozone therapy eliminates warts for up to 10 years. Ozone injections not only create a barrier to further spread of the virus, but also largely relieve stress, which often causes the return of the problem.
Unlike ozonotherapy, this method is not aimed at "preserving" the virus, but at completely destroying it. Among the huge number of drugs designed to eliminate the virus, we can note cidofovir. This drug is considered to be an analogue of the nucleoside of dioxycytidine monophosphate, whose actions are aimed at inhibiting the synthesis of DNA, which causes, therefore, its fragmentation. As a result, a disturbance of epithelialization begins. Cidofovir is usually used to treat genital warts in HIV-positive patients. Cases of significant improvement in immunity indices and complete disappearance of genital warts in HIV-infected patients have been noted.
Currently, this method is still developing. The essence of immunotherapy is to mobilize the defenses of the body and fight the virus from the inside. Immunity is stimulated with the help of special drugs that are administered orally or in the form of injections.
Fight warts with the help of immunotherapy begin in those cases when powerless methods such as cryotherapy and radio wave surgery turned out to be.
Immunotherapy has a number of contraindications. Usually, this method is not used during pregnancy and lactation, with vaginal infections, asthma, allergic reactions, urticaria, fever, influenza, taking drugs suppressing the immune system or beta-blockers, and after organ transplantation.
This method is not used too often. Chemodestruction is based on cauterization of warts with alkali or acid (usually trichloroacetic). In carrying out this procedure, necrosis of tissues treated with acid occurs and their subsequent dying out.
When using a chemodestruction, salicylic acid is often used. Preparations, which include salicylic acid, have the ability, softening the skin, dissolve the wart. But the treatment with such drugs is quite long and can take from several weeks to several months. The method is rather imperfect: with its help, only plantar or common warts can be cured. Preparations containing salicylic acid are available in the form of a patch, which must be applied to the affected area of the papilloma skin.
Widely used in the treatment of warts and formaldehyde, used as a preservative in products such as shampoos and lotions. Formaldehyde destroys the upper layer of the epidermal cells, which leads to damage to the virions. For the treatment of warts, the drug is usually released in the form of 0.7% or 3% gels. Before applying the drug, it is necessary to clear the wart from hyperkeratosis. Patients with a tendency to allergies formaldehyde is not recommended because it can cause dermatitis.
Formic acid is one of the most common means of combating warts. It is much stronger than salicylic, but it is not as strong as, for example, dichloroacetic. It got its name because it was found in red ants. Later it was found in some other insects. Formic acid can also be found in the leaves of the nettle. The method is effective by more than 90%. Like salicylic, formic acid has a destructive effect on the wart.
Prevention of warts
In order to avoid the appearance of warts, you should, first of all, avoid dampness. It is the dampness that is considered to be the most favorable environment for spreading neoplasms. Shoes and clothes on a man should always be dry. If any damage occurs on the body, they must be immediately disinfected. You can not leave the wound open. If the wart has already appeared, do not try to get rid of it yourself. This can lead to further spread of the virus throughout the body. You should immediately contact a specialist.
- Treatment of flat warts on the face
- Molluscum contagiosum in children
- Human papillomavirus (HPV)
- Molluscum contagiosum: photos and treatment