Biseptol tablets instructions for use
The drug Biseptol is a combined antibacterial drug that has a wide spectrum of activity and activity against a large number of different bacteria of infectious diseases. In connection with a wide spectrum of action, Biseptol tablets are used in infectious diseases of different localization in the body.
Release form and composition
Biseptol tablets have a round shape and white color. In the middle of the pill there is a separation risk for a convenient fracture in half, if necessary, to reduce the dosage. In one tablet, the concentration of the active substance co-trimoxazole is 120 mg (sulfamethoxazole - 100 mg and trimethoprim - 20 mg) and 480 mg (sulfamethoxazole - 400 mg and trimethoprim - 80 mg). It also contains auxiliary substances, which include:
- Potato starch.
- Magnesium stearate.
- Polyvinyl alcohol.
- Aseptin P,
- Aseptin M,
- Propylene glycol.
Tablets are packaged in a blister pack of 20 pieces. One cardboard pack contains one blister pack with tablets and instructions for use.
The active ingredient of the tablets is co-trimoxazole. It is a combination of 2 compounds - sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. These substances have an antimicrobial effect by inhibiting the process of folic acid synthesis in a bacterial cell. Sulfamethoxazole blocks the formation of dihydrofolic acid, and trimethoprim, its subsequent transformation into tetrafolic acid. Folic acid is necessary for the normal course of the exchange of nucleotide bases in the bacterial cell that make up the genetic material (DNA and RNA). Due to this mechanism, Biseptol tablets in low concentration have a bacteriostatic effect (inhibit the growth and reproduction of bacteria), and with increasing concentration - a bactericidal effect (cause the death of bacterial cells). Co-trimoxazole has activity against a wide range of different types of bacteria:
- Gram-negative sticks (rod-shaped bacteria that turn pink when stained by Gram) - Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella spp., As a matter of reference, Iphone, Irene, Sint. Also Hafnia alvei, Serratia marcescens, Serratia liquefaciens, Serratia spp., Cinetobacter lwoffi, Acinetobacter anitratus, Aeromonas hydrophila.
- Gram-positive cocci (spherical bacteria, have purple color in a gram-stained smear) - Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant), Staphylococcus spp. (coagulase-negative), Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant).
The causative agents of infectious infectious diseases ( tuberculosis , syphilis ), Mycoplasma spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Treponema pallidum, possess resistance (resistance) to the active ingredient of the drug.
After taking the pill inside, the active substance is absorbed into the blood from the lumen of the small intestine. Therapeutic concentration in the blood is reached in 20-30 minutes after taking the pill, and the active substance is almost completely absorbed from the intestine (bioavailability above 90%). Co-trimoxazole well penetrates all tissues of the body from the blood, penetrates the blood-brain barrier, accumulates in the brain tissue. In a lower concentration, it accumulates in the body of the fetus during pregnancy (passes through the placental barrier) and breast milk during lactation. Almost half of the active substance is excreted in the urine by the kidneys in unchanged form. Partially, co-trimoxazole is processed in the liver to intermediate degradation products, which are excreted in the urine and bile.
Indications for use
The use of Biseptol tablets is indicated for various infectious processes in the body caused by bacteria sensitive to co-trimoxazole, these include:
- Upper respiratory tract infections - rhinitis (inflammation of the nasal mucosa), pharyngitis (bacterial process in the pharynx), laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx).
- Lower respiratory tract infections - tracheitis (inflammation of the trachea), bronchitis (lesion of the bronchi), pneumonia (inflammation of the lungs, including those caused by pneumocystis Pneumocystis carinii).
- Pathology of ENT organs - sinusitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the paranasal sinuses), tonsillitis (an infectious process in the tonsils) and otitis media (inflammation of the outer, middle or inner ear).
- Infections of the genitourinary system - prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland in men), a pathological infection process in the uterus of the uterus in women, kidney, bladder, ureter and urethral damage.
- Infections of the digestive system and the gastrointestinal tract - enterocolitis (inflammation of the small and large intestines), gastritis (bacterial damage of the stomach), pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), infectious-purulent processes in the liver and biliary tract. Also Biseptol tablets are used to treat especially dangerous infections with damage to the digestive system, in particular cholera.
- Some generalized specific bacterial infections caused by bacteria susceptible to co-trimoxazole are brucellosis, actinomycosis (if it is not caused by true fungi actinomycetes).
Biseptol is usually a second-line antibiotic, its use is advisable if bacteria are resistant to first-line antibiotics. Also Biseptol tablets can be used to treat osteomyelitis (purulent process in the bones) while confirming sensitivity to co-trimoxazole in bacteria of pathogens.
Biseptol tablets are contraindicated for use in a number of pathological and physiological conditions of the body, which include:
- Individual intolerance or hypersensitivity to co-trimoxazole or drug excipients.
- Parenchymal pathology of liver with severe damage or death of hepatocytes (liver cells).
- Renal failure, especially in those cases if it is not possible to carry out laboratory monitoring of the functional state of the kidneys and the level of co-trimoxazole in the blood.
- Anemia (anemia) associated with an insufficient amount of folic acid in the body.
- Disruption of the functional state of the blood system, accompanied by changes in hematological parameters.
- Immunological reduction in the number of platelets in the past caused by the use of co-trimoxazole.
- Pregnancy at any stage of pregnancy and breastfeeding - co-trimoxazole can cause folic acid deficiency, which is necessary for the normal development of the fetus or infant.
The presence of possible contraindications is determined prior to the use of Biseptol tablets.
Dosage and administration
Biseptol tablets are taken orally after a meal and washed down with a sufficient amount of liquid. Their reception is held every 12 hours (2 times a day). The recommended therapeutic dose differs for people of different ages:
- Children aged 2 to 6 years - 240 mg 2 times a day.
- Children aged 6 to 12 years old - 480 mg 2 times a day.
- Children over 12 years old and adults - 960 mg 2 times a day.
Also, the dosages of the drug differ, depending on the type of pathogen and the severity of the infectious process in the body:
- In pneumonia, the dose administered is calculated on the basis of 100 mg per 1 kg of body weight.
- For gonorrhea (urinary and reproductive system infection caused by gonococcus) - 2 g of the drug 2 times a day.
The duration of the course of the drug is prescribed by the doctor individually. Usually it is 5-14 days.
Taking Biseptol tablets can lead to the development of negative reactions and side effects from various organs and systems, which include:
- The digestive system - nausea, vomiting, weakened stool, bile stasis in the biliary tract with the development of cholestatic hepatitis (inflammation of the liver), pseudomembranous colitis (specific inflammation of the intestine caused by folic acid deficiency).
- The hematopoietic system and blood are anemia (decrease in hemoglobin and red blood cells), leukopenia (decrease in the number of leukocytes in the blood) with neutropenia (decrease in neutrophils). It is also possible autoimmune decrease in the number of platelets in the blood (thrombocytopenia).
- The urinary system - hematuria (the appearance of blood in the urine), nephritis (specific inflammation of the kidneys).
- Central nervous system - headache, depression (decrease in mood, depression), intermittent dizziness.
- Allergic reactions - a rash on the skin, its itching, urticaria (characteristic swelling and rash that looks like a nettle burn), angioedema of the Quincke (pronounced swelling of the skin and subcutaneous tissue with predominant localization in the area of the face and external genital organs) can develop. Severe allergic reaction is characterized by the development of anaphylactic shock (multiple organ failure with a progressive decrease in systemic arterial pressure).
In the event of signs and symptoms of side effects, the drug should be stopped and seek medical help. Side effects are reversible and disappear after drug withdrawal.
Biseptol tablets can be used only after a doctor has been prescribed, a study has been carried out and an appropriate diagnosis has been made. With regard to their use, there are several special indications that are worth paying attention to:
- The drug is used with caution in patients with bronchial asthma, other types of allergies (provided that it has developed not to the components of the drug), acute or chronic hepatic or renal failure, the elderly.
- The simultaneous administration of Biseptol tablets with thiazide diuretics (diuretics) increases the risk of hypokalemia (decrease in the level of potassium ions in the blood) and bleeding.
- It is not advisable to simultaneously use Biseptol with salicylates, rifampicin, cyclosporine, warfarin.
- You can not combine Biseptol tablets and alcohol, as there is a high risk of developing toxic hepatitis.
- During the use of the drug it is necessary to ensure the ingestion of a sufficient amount of fluid.
- With prolonged use of Biseptol tablets, it is imperative to carry out laboratory monitoring of the functional state of the liver, kidneys and hematological blood parameters.
- The drug is contraindicated for use in pregnant and lactating women.
- Tablets do not have a direct impact on the speed of psychomotor reactions and concentration. However, when they are used, there is a risk of side effects from the central nervous system, therefore, it is advisable to refrain from driving vehicles or mechanisms during administration.
In pharmacies, Biseptol tablets are released by prescription. You can not use the drug alone or on the recommendations of third parties who are not specialists. If you have questions or doubts regarding the drug intake, you should consult with your doctor.
With a significant excess of the recommended therapeutic dose develop symptoms of acute poisoning - nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, impaired consciousness. In this case, the drug should be stopped and seek medical help. Detoxification therapy includes gastric and intestinal lavage and symptomatic therapy. Chronic overdose can lead to depression of blood formation with a significant decrease in the number of all blood cells.
Analogs of Biseptol Tablets
The active substance co-trimoxazole is included in the composition of such drugs, which are analogs of Biseptol - Grospetol, Berlotsid, Bactrim, Co-trimoxazole.
Terms and conditions of storage
The shelf life of Biseptol tablets since their manufacture is 5 years. The drug should be stored in a dry, inaccessible place with air temperature not higher than + 25 ° C.
Biseptol tablets 120 mg - from 27 to 37 rubles.
Biseptol tablets 480mg - from 83 to 109 rubles.