Male external genital organs due to their anatomical features are constantly in contact with the environment. The skin of the glans penis and the inner leaf of the prepuce are relatively sensitive to the influence of aggressive factors and relatively easily inflamed. Balanitis is an inflammation of the skin of the glans penis. Postitis - inflammation of the inner leaf of the prepuce. Since in the presence of the foreskin, the inner leaf always contacts the head, the inflammation extends to both elements. Therefore, postitis and balanitis in the overwhelming majority of cases develop simultaneously and are united under one term - balanoposthitis. Of course, this disease can develop only in uncircumcised men, since otherwise the foreskin is absent.
Types and symptoms of balanoposthitis
The disease is divided into many species depending on what became the cause of its development. In describing each subspecies of the disease, its most characteristic clinical manifestations will also be indicated.
Simple catarrhal balanoposthitis
It is one of the most common subspecies, which doctors often have to deal with. The patient develops such a balanoposthitis after contact with various stimuli (chemical, mechanical). Often, the cause of the disease is a man's non-compliance with basic rules of personal hygiene. Gradually, under the foreskin, the smegma accumulates, which is a good breeding ground for bacteria and fungi.
The man develops the following symptoms:
- painful sensations in the region of the glans penis;
- the foreskin turns red and swells;
- Between the head and the foreskin, the purulent contents accumulate;
- phimosis, urinary retention - all this threatens the patient in the absence of timely treatment.
Candidiasis balanoposthitis (erosive)
Not only women can get sick with candidiasis. Relatively often this disease affects men. In most cases, urogenital candidiasis manifests itself in the form of balanoposthitis.
- The head of the penis and the inner sheet of the prepuce swell and get a bright red color.
- Sometimes on the head there are separately located bright spots.
- Due to the life activity of fungi on the head there are always curdled extracts that have a rather unpleasant smell, provoke itching and burning.
- In the absence of radical and timely treatment, red spots can go to the stage of erosion or even ulcers, which are located on the skin of the head or foreskin.
This variant of the course of the disease develops in those cases of balanoposthitis, which are caused by pathogens of venereal diseases, the herpes virus, are a consequence of the progression of diabetes mellitus. Dangerous form is that there is a high probability of developing urethritis and prostatitis. The infection rises up the urinary tract and can reach the kidneys (pyelonephritis), because it has enough time for this. In cases where the pathogen penetrates the vas deferens, inflammation of the epididymis may develop, and in the most severe case, infertility may result.
- The head of the penis of a man is characterized by some dryness, slight reddening and soreness - this is the main manifestation of chronic balanoposthitis.
- In some cases, the symptoms are so insignificant that the man does not even suspect anything about the ongoing process.
Acute balanoposthitis is provoked by staphylococcal or streptococcal microflora. It is characterized by the following manifestations:
- everything begins with minor painful sensations in the area of the head of the penis and foreskin; in the course of time all this intensifies;
- the scalp becomes red, several swells and the patient begins to worry about severe itching.
If you do not conduct its timely treatment, then the disease with a high probability passes into a chronic stage.
This form is characterized by a change in the periods of remission and relapse. In those days, when the disease recedes, the patient does not bother, and he does not turn to the doctors. Periodically, there are exacerbations, and all symptoms come back. Symptoms are similar to those that develop in acute form, but are less pronounced. It turns out that a man always has a risk of developing complications of the disease.
Acute purulent balanoposthitis
This form of the disease is provoked by a pyogenic microflora: staphylococci, streptococci, yeast fungi. Particularly increases the likelihood of such a form in patients with diabetes mellitus, since bacteria can develop in better conditions.
- At the head of the penis and the inner leaf of the foreskin, deep foci of lesion of purulent-necrotic character appear.
- The head of the penis is edematic and has a bright red color, which indicates an active inflammatory process.
If you do not seek treatment in a timely manner, then the disease can go from the lighter stages and into the ulcer form.
- On the surface of the inflamed head a small, numerous sores appear. In this case, even walking makes a person unpleasant, urinating painful, and sexual intercourse is impossible.
- Violation of the integrity of the skin makes the body immune to many harmful factors. As a result, microorganisms are more likely to penetrate and provoke inflammation of the lymph nodes of the inguinal region.
Traumatic balanitis and balanoposthitis
In most cases, the cause of this form is not a trauma caused by a stroke or an accident. Wearing too tight lingerie - this is the main reason for the development of the disease. With insufficient rinsing of laundry after washing, large quantities of detergents can remain on it, which, upon contact, will cause a slight burn of the skin of the penis and cause a traumatic balanoposthitis.
- Redness and swelling of the glans penis may be observed both on the entire surface and locally, at the site of application of the adverse factor.
- If the effect was significant, then the trunk of the penis may change, where the skin is less sensitive and better protected.
Erythroplasia Keira and Balanitis Zuna
These are two outwardly similar diseases with a radically different prognosis. Balanitis Zuna has a benign prognosis, but erythroplasia is a disease with a malignant course, requiring immediate treatment by radical methods, since in the most severe case, the patient's life can be threatened.
- It looks all like the skin atrophy on the head of the penis. Gradually appear rose-colored plaques, with each other not merging.
- If we are talking about a very neglected case, then on the head can be found vegetation, erosion and ulcers.
- What is noteworthy, the patient practically does not bother anything, except for the altered appearance of the penis.
As a result of this disease, the glans penis can not be exposed, leaving the foreskin. At the same time, all tissues swell, become red and painful. Most often, this balanoposthitis develops in children, since their foreskin fits more tightly around the head, and many still have physiological phimosis.
With this form of the disease, doctors very often offer a surgical method of treatment - circumcision (circumcision).
Like all other allergic diseases, manifested after contact of the skin of the foreskin and the head of the penis with the allergen. Most often, allergies on the external genital organs are provoked by: latex condoms, other contraceptives, personal hygiene products with a lot of chemical additives, flavors and dyes. Relatively rarely affects the penis when ingestion of the allergen.
Symptoms of an allergic balanoposthitis:
- severe itching;
- an allergic rash;
- edema of the head and prepuce of the penis;
- blisters and small erosion.
It develops in most cases in patients with diabetes mellitus or abusing alcohol. A characteristic feature is that at the beginning of the disease the inflammation of the head is expressed slightly, but afterwards the process becomes so active that phimosis develops. Fluid pus is released from the patient's prepuce bag (the space between the head and the foreskin). Doctors always try to cure the patient before the head exposure becomes impossible. Otherwise, it is more difficult to follow the rules of personal hygiene and to conduct diagnosis of the disease.
With this form of the disease, a large number of foci of suppuration are formed on the affected skin. The general condition of the patient is also 10 times heavier than in other forms. The inguinal lymph nodes increase, and the body temperature reaches high enough digits. The gangrene head progresses very quickly, which necessitates timely treatment. Otherwise, in the early period, bleeding may develop, and in the late period - the deformation of the penis due to proliferation of connective tissue. In the most severe cases, complete destruction of the head is possible.
According to the mechanism of development, the form is close to traumatic. Inflammatory phenomena in patients arise in response to the constant and regular irritation of the scalp skin of the foreskin:
- non-observance of personal hygiene rules;
- very frequent masturbation;
- excessive use of cosmetics for cosmetics;
- lack of natural lubrication in the sexual partner;
- congenital narrowness of the flesh, etc.
Diagnosis of balanoposthitis
It all starts with a visit to the venereologist. The doctor conducts a general and local examination of the patient, collects a thorough medical history and listens to complaints. Many patients believe that this is all not so important and do not relate with due responsibility to this part of the diagnosis. In fact, patients are advised to prepare in advance to visit a doctor, think about hygiene and recall all the factors that could cause the disease or increase the likelihood of its development.
Categorically you can not withhold facts from the physician, even if you are ashamed to talk about them. The doctor does not go to tell everyone about them, as he keeps a medical secret. A hidden fact can lead physicians along the wrong path, and the patient himself and his body will suffer as a result. In addition to increasing the risk of side effects, it may be wasteful reception of a large number of unnecessary drugs.
- General clinical analysis of blood - there doctors can detect changes that indicate inflammatory phenomena in the body.
- A smear from the affected surface - allows you to take away some of the pathological material, and subsequently doctors with it can act differently:
- study under a microscope, which sometimes allows you to determine the type of pathogen;
- sowing the resulting material on a nutrient medium - there subsequently grows a colony of microbes, and doctors can easily determine its type;
- special nutrient media allows you to check the sensitivity of microbes to antibiotics, which allows you to immediately appoint the most appropriate treatment.
- PCR (polymerase chain reaction) - a modern diagnostic method that allows you to determine with high accuracy the pathogen of the disease, even for a small fragment of its genetic material, which are abundant in the detachable from the affected skin.
- Determining the level of sugar in the blood can confirm the patient's diabetes, which predisposes to the development of individual forms of balanoposthitis.
- Study for sexually transmitted diseases.
- If you suspect a malignant process - a cytological and histological study.
- An allergic test is most informative if the probable cause of inflammation is a hypersensitivity reaction.
Treatment of balanoposthitis
The tactics of doctors depend on what caused the development of the disease in each specific case.
- First of all, the patient must carefully observe all the rules of personal hygiene. Often the disease develops due to the fact that the man does not pay due attention to this aspect. As a result, the smegma accumulates under the foreskin, and bacteria begin to multiply there.
- Antibacterial drugs are used by doctors in cases where it is proved that the cause of inflammation are microorganisms. Ideally, doctors should conduct tests for the sensitivity of bacteria to the drugs used.
- Antifungal substances - are relevant for Candida balanoposthitis.
- Removing the foreskin is a fairly effective measure, which doctors sometimes have to resort to. Especially often this operation is performed with relapsing balanoposthitis, an adhesive form of the disease, when the probability of complications is high, and inflammation continues to form between the foreskin and the head of the penis.
- If the etiology of the disease is allergic, then limiting contact with an allergen is the most effective and indispensable condition for cure.
- Elimination of phimosis - this measure is often necessary for young children, who often have physiological phimosis. Modern drugs allow you to open the head conservatively, using special ointments and performing exercises. Doctors can perform surgery, also eliminating phimosis.
- For the period of treatment, the man uses a special device (silicone ring-retractor), which pushes the foreskin back and fixes it there. Due to this, the head is cleared more quickly and a peculiar bag is eliminated, in which everything was collected earlier.
If there is a desire to treat balanoposthitis with folk remedies, then you must first discuss all the details with your doctor. If he approves this measure, it is important to remember: folk remedies should supplement the basic methods, and not replace them completely. Only in this case it will be possible to achieve a good result.