Bactrim suspension instructions for use
Suspension Bactrim is a representative of the pharmacological group of combined antibacterial drugs for systemic use. This drug contains an antibacterial agent of the sulfonamide group and trimethoprim. Due to the combination of antibacterial compounds, Bactrim suspension is active against a large number of pathogens of bacterial infections and has a wide spectrum of action. This drug is used for etiotropic (therapy aimed at the destruction of the pathogen) for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by various pathogenic (pathogenic) bacteria.
Release form and composition
The drug Bactrim is available in 2 dosage forms - tablets and suspension for oral ingestion. The active ingredients of the suspension are sulfamethoxazole (contained in the amount of 200 mg in 5 ml of suspension) and trimethoprim (content - 40 mg in 5 ml of suspension). In addition to the active ingredients in the suspension contains auxiliary components, which include:
- Dispersed cellulose.
- Methyl parahydroxybenzoate.
- Sorbitol (70% solution).
- Polysorbate 80.
- The corrector with a banana flavor and smell 85509 N.
- Correctant with vanilla flavor and smell 73690-36.
- Purified water.
Suspension is available in bottles of 5 and 100 ml. In one cardboard pack there is one bottle, a measuring spoon for 5 ml and instructions for the use of the drug.
The therapeutic effect of the drug is due to the pharmacological properties of the main active ingredients sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim (they are combined into one active ingredient, co-trimoxazole). They have a bactericidal effect (lead to the death of bacterial cells) by blocking bacterial intracellular enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of folic acid (it is necessary for the normal exchange of nucleotide bases, which are the basis of genetic material). In connection with the combination of active substances, their bactericidal effect is manifested at a lower concentration compared with the isolated administration of sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim. Also in combination, they have a wider spectrum of action against such groups of pathogenic microorganisms:
- Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria (when stained by Gram have a pink color) - Hetimophilus influenzae (β-lactamase-positive, β-lactamase-negative), Haemophilus parainfluenzae, E. coli, Citrobacter freundii, other Citrobacter spp. others Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Hafnia alvei, Serratia marcescens, Serratia liquefaciens, other Serratia spp., apes, apes, apes, apes, apes, Morganella morganii, Morganella morganii, Shigella spp., Yersinia morpheus faecalis, Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas pseudomallei. Also Haemophilus ducrei, Providencia rettgere, others Providencia spp., Salmonella typhi, Salmonella enteritidis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (former Xanthomonas maltophilia), Acinetobacter lwoffi, Acinetobacter anitratus, Aeromastierus maltophilia, Acinetobacter anitratius, Aeromastirotic maltophilia, Acinetobacter lwoffi
- Gram-positive cocci (when stained by Gram stain purple, have a spherical shape) - Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant), Staphylococcus spp. (coagulase-negative), Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant).
The causative agents of specific infections ( chlamydia , syphilis , tuberculosis ) Mycoplasma spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Treponema pallidum in most cases are resistant to the drug.
After ingestion of the suspension, the active ingredients of the Bactrim preparation are rapidly absorbed into the blood from the intestine, while the therapeutic concentration is reached already 20-30 minutes after administration. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim accumulate well in all tissues of the body. Penetrate the blood-brain barrier in the tissue of the brain or spinal cord. During pregnancy and lactation, these active substances can accumulate in the body of a growing fetus and pass into breast milk. They are metabolized mainly in the liver with the formation of intermediate decay products, which are excreted by the kidneys in the urine.
Indications for use
The main indication for the use of Bactrim suspension is an infectious process caused by microorganisms that are sensitive to sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. These pathological processes include:
- Infections of the upper respiratory tract - rhinitis (inflammation of the nasal mucosa), pharyngitis (infection of the pharynx), laryngitis (infection of the larynx), tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils). Also, the drug is used in the inflammatory or purulent process in the paranasal sinuses - sinusitis.
- Lower respiratory tract infections - tracheitis (inflammation of the tracheal mucosa), bronchitis (bacterial process in the bronchi), pneumonia (pneumonia).
- Infections of the digestive system organs are inflammatory bacterial processes in the intestines, stomach, liver, hepatobiliary system, including especially dangerous infections (cholera).
- Infections of the urinary and reproductive organs - bacterial damage to the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, uterine appendages in women and the prostate gland in men.
- Some generalized specific infections are brucellosis, actinomycosis (with the exception of diseases caused by a true fungus).
Suspension Bactrim is usually a second-line antibiotic, which is used in case of severe infection of the body or the presence of resistance (resistance) of bacteria to other first-line antibiotics.
The use of the drug is contraindicated in certain pathological or physiological conditions of the body, which include:
- Individual intolerance, hypersensitivity (hypersensitivity) to the main active ingredients or auxiliary components of the drug.
- Pathology of the liver, accompanied by the defeat of hepatocytes (cells of the liver parenchyma) and impaired functional activity of the organ.
- Severe violations of the functional activity of the kidneys with the development of their failure.
- Anemia (anemia), due to a deficiency of folic acid in the body.
- Thrombocytopenia is a decrease in the number of platelets in the blood of immune origin.
- Pathological conditions of the blood system (hematological disorders), accompanied by marked changes in its laboratory parameters.
- Pregnancy at any time and breastfeeding - the active ingredients of the drug can lead to a deficiency of folic acid in the body of a developing fetus or infant, which can lead to the development of various disorders of the formation and functional activity of various organs and systems.
The presence of possible contraindications must be determined before the use of the Bactrim suspension.
Dosage and administration
Bactrim suspension is taken orally (oral administration) after a meal, drinking plenty of liquid. The dose of the drug depends on the pathogen and the severity of the infectious process. The frequency of receiving the suspension is 2 times a day (each dose after 12 hours). Depending on age, the recommended therapeutic doses are:
- Children aged 2 to 5 months - ½ scoop (2.5 ml) suspension 2 times a day.
- Age from 6 months to 6 years - 1 scoop (5 ml) of the suspension inside after 12 hours.
- Children aged 6 to 12 years - 2 scoops (10 ml) of suspension 2 times a day.
For adults, the average therapeutic dose of the drug is 2 times higher. Also, in case of severe infection, the dosage may be increased in children, regardless of age. In pneumonia, the causative agent of which is the bacterium Pneumocystis carinii, the dose is increased by taking the suspension 4 times a day (every 6 hours). With a slight violation of renal excretory function, the dose of the drug should be halved, with the development of renal failure, the drug is canceled.
Sometimes, the use of the drug in therapeutic dosages can lead to the development of negative reactions and side effects from various organs and systems, these include:
- The digestive system - nausea, vomiting, diarrhea (diarrhea), stomatitis (trophic inflammation of the oral mucosa), parenchymal toxic hepatitis (inflammation due to damage to the liver cells). Pseudomembranous enterocolitis (a specific inflammatory reaction of the mucous membrane of the small and large intestine) can very rarely develop.
- Allergic reactions that are manifested by a rash on the skin and itching. In rare cases, allergic infiltrates (lumps) may develop in the lungs. The development of anaphylactic shock (severe allergic reaction with multiple organ failure and a progressive decrease in systemic blood pressure) is extremely rare.
- Red bone marrow and blood - possible minor (rarely develop) changes in the hematological parameters of blood in the form of leukopenia (decrease in the number of leukocytes) primarily due to a decrease in neutrophils and thrombocytopenia (decrease in the number of platelets in the blood).
- The urinary system - a violation of the functional activity of the kidneys.
- Nervous system - rarely can neuropathy develop (an metabolic disorder in the cells of the nervous system and fibers).
- Musculoskeletal system - myalgia (muscle pain), arthralgia (pain in the joints) may very rarely occur.
In the case of side effects in most cases, the drug is canceled. With a significant need for its use in severe infectious diseases, reduce the dosage and conduct ongoing laboratory monitoring of the main indicators of the functional activity of the liver, kidneys and blood system.
Before using the drug Bactrim, it is necessary to carefully read the instructions and pay attention to such specific instructions for its use:
- The use of the drug in the elderly, against the background of folic acid deficiency in the body can lead to the development of changes in hematological parameters (leukopenia, thrombocytopenia). Therefore, in such categories of patients, the drug is prescribed with caution with periodic clinical blood analysis.
- Regardless of the general condition, with long-term use of the Bactrim suspension, periodic laboratory monitoring of the functional activity of the liver, kidneys, and hematological parameters is carried out.
- During treatment, the body’s water balance is monitored and a sufficient supply of fluid and mineral salts is ensured.
- The drug can interact with some drugs of other pharmacological groups (diuretic drugs, antibiotics, anticoagulants), so before you start using it, you must warn the doctor about taking other medicines.
- Suspension Bactrim is not used to treat pregnant women. During breastfeeding, for the entire period of treatment, the child is transferred to feeding with adapted milk formulas.
- The drug has no direct effect on the concentration of attention and the speed of psychomotor reactions. However, due to the possible development of side effects and negative reactions from other organs and systems, it is recommended during its reception to abandon activities requiring increased concentration of attention and speed of psychomotor reactions.
In pharmacies, the drug is released only by prescription. In case of any doubts, questions regarding his reception, it is necessary to consult with a doctor.
A significant excess of the recommended therapeutic dose of Bactrim suspension may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, impaired renal function, liver, and changes in blood counts. In such cases, the drug should be stopped. To reduce the severity of intoxication, gastric and intestinal lavages are performed, hemodialysis (hardware cleansing of blood plasma from the active ingredient of the drug) and symptomatic therapy.
For the main active ingredients and pharmacological effects, analogs of the Bactrim suspension are such preparations —Groseptol, Berlotsid, Biseptol, Co-trimoxazole.
Terms and conditions of storage
The shelf life of the drug since its manufacture is 5 years. It is necessary to keep it out of the reach of children, in a dark and dry place with an air temperature no higher than + 25 ° C.
Bactrim suspension for oral administration, a bottle of 100 ml. - from 154 rubles.