Bactrim suspension instruction manual
Suspension Bactrim is the representative of the pharmacological group of combined antibacterial drugs for systemic use. This drug contains an antibacterial agent of the sulfonamide group and trimethoprim. Due to the combination of antibacterial compounds, the Bactrim suspension is active against a large number of pathogens of bacterial infections and has a wide spectrum of action. This drug is used for etiotropic (therapy aimed at destroying the pathogen) treatment of infectious diseases caused by various pathogenic (pathogenic) bacteria.
Form of issue and composition
The drug Bactrim is available in 2 dosage forms - tablets and suspension for oral ingestion. The active substances of the suspension are sulfamethoxazole (contained in an amount of 200 mg in 5 ml of suspension) and trimethoprim (content of 40 mg in 5 ml of suspension). In addition to the active ingredients, the suspension contains auxiliary components, which include:
- Dispersed cellulose.
- Propyl parahydroxybenzoate.
- Sorbitol (70% solution).
- Polysorbate 80.
- Correctant with banana flavor and smell 85509 N.
- Correctant with vanilla flavor and odor 73690-36.
- Purified water.
Suspension is available in 5 and 100 ml vials. In one cardboard box is one bottle, a measuring spoon for 5 ml and instructions for the use of the drug.
The therapeutic effect of the drug is due to the pharmacological properties of the main active substances sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim (they are combined into one active substance - co-trimoxazole). They have a bactericidal effect (lead to the death of bacterial cells) by blocking bacterial intracellular enzymes that catalyze the synthesis reaction of folic acid (it is necessary for the processes of normal exchange of nucleotide bases, which are the basis of genetic material). In connection with the combination of active substances, their bactericidal action is manifested at a lower concentration in comparison with the isolated administration of sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim. Also in combination, they have a broader spectrum of action against such groups of pathogenic microorganisms:
- Gram-negative bacillus bacteria (in Gram staining, they are pink) - Haemophilus influenzae (β-lactamazo-positive, β-lactamazo-negative), Haemophilus parainfluenzae, E. coli, Citrobacter freundii, others Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Other Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Hafnia alvei, Serratia marcescens, Serratia liquefaciens, other Serratia spp., Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Morganella morganii, Shigella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, other Yersinia spp., Vibrio cholerae, Alcaligenes Faecalis, Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas pseudomallei. Also Haemophilus ducrei, Providencia rettgere, other Providencia spp., Salmonella typhi, Salmonella enteritidis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (former Xanthomonas maltophilia), Acinetobacter lwoffi, Acinetobacter anitratus, Aeromonas hydrophilia.
- Gram-positive cocci (in Gram stain stained violet, have a spherical shape) - Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant), Staphylococcus spp. (Coagulase-negative), Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant).
The causative agents of specific infections ( chlamydia , syphilis , tuberculosis ) Mycoplasma spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Treponema pallidum are in most cases resistant to the drug.
After ingestion of the suspension, the active substances of the drug Bactrim quickly absorbed into the blood from the intestine, with the therapeutic concentration reached after 20-30 minutes after ingestion. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim well accumulate in all tissues of the body. Penetrate through the blood-brain barrier in the tissue of the brain or spinal cord. During pregnancy and lactation, these active substances can accumulate in the body of the growing fetus and enter the breast milk. They are metabolized mainly in the liver with the formation of intermediate decay products, which are excreted from the body by the kidneys with urine.
Indications for use
The main indication for the use of Bactrim suspension is the infectious process caused by microorganisms sensitive to sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Such pathological processes include:
- Infections of the upper respiratory tract - rhinitis (inflammation of the nasal mucosa), pharyngitis (infection in the pharynx), laryngitis (larynx infection), tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils). Also, the drug is used for inflammatory or purulent processes in the sinuses of the sinuses - sinusitis.
- Infections of the lower respiratory tract - tracheitis (inflammation of the mucosa of the trachea), bronchitis (bacterial process in the bronchi), pneumonia (pneumonia).
- Infections of the digestive system - inflammatory bacterial processes in the intestine, stomach, liver, hepatobiliary system, including especially dangerous infections (cholera).
- Infections of the urinary and genital system - bacterial damage of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, uterine appendages in women and the prostate gland in men.
- Some generalized specific infections - brucellosis, actinomycosis (with the exception of diseases caused by a true fungus).
Bactrim suspension is usually a second-line antibiotic that is used in cases of severe infection in the body or the presence of resistance (resistance) of bacteria to other first-line antibiotics.
Contraindications for use
The use of the drug is contraindicated in certain pathological or physiological conditions of the body, which include:
- Individual intolerance, hypersensitivity to the main active substances or auxiliary components of the drug.
- The pathology of the liver, accompanied by the defeat of hepatocytes (cells of the liver parenchyma) and a violation of the functional activity of the organ.
- Severe impairment of the functional activity of the kidneys with the development of their deficiency.
- Anemia (anemia), caused by a deficiency of folic acid in the body.
- Thrombocytopenia - a decrease in the number of platelets in the blood of the immune origin.
- Pathological conditions of the blood system (hematological disorders), accompanied by pronounced changes in its laboratory parameters.
- Pregnancy at any time and breastfeeding - the active ingredients of the drug can lead to a deficiency of folic acid in the developing fetus or infant, which can lead to the development of various disorders in the formation and functional activity of various organs and systems.
The presence of possible contraindications is always determined before the application of the Bactrim suspension.
Dosing and Administration
Bactrim suspension is taken orally (oral intake) after eating, squeezed with enough liquid. The dose of the drug depends on the pathogen and the severity of the infection process. Multiplicity of reception of the suspension is 2 times a day (every reception after 12 hours). Depending on the age, the recommended therapeutic doses are:
- Children aged 2 to 5 months - ½ spoon (2.5 ml) of the suspension 2 times a day.
- Age from 6 months to 6 years - 1 measuring spoon (5 ml) of the suspension inside after 12 hours.
- Children aged 6 to 12 years - 2 measuring spoons (10 ml) of the suspension 2 times a day.
For adults, the average therapeutic dose of the drug is 2 times greater. Also, with a severe course of the infectious process, dosage can be increased in children regardless of age. With pneumonia, the causative agent of which is the bacterium Pneumocystis carinii, the dose is increased by taking the suspension 4 times a day (every 6 hours). With a slight violation of the excretory function of the kidneys, the dose of the drug should be halved, with the development of renal insufficiency, the drug is canceled.
Sometimes, the use of the drug in therapeutic dosages can lead to the development of negative reactions and side effects from various organs and systems, these include:
- The digestive system - nausea, vomiting, diarrhea (diarrhea), stomatitis (trophic inflammation of the oral mucosa), parenchymal toxic hepatitis (inflammation due to damage to the liver cells). It is very rare to develop pseudomembranous enterocolitis (a specific inflammatory reaction of the mucous membrane of the small and large intestine).
- Allergic reactions, which manifest a rash on the skin and its itching. In rare cases, it is possible to develop allergic infiltrates (seals) in the lungs. The development of anaphylactic shock (a severe allergic reaction with multiple organ failure and a progressive decrease in systemic blood pressure) is extremely rare.
- Red bone marrow and blood - minor changes in the hematological parameters of the blood in the form of leukopenia (decrease in the number of leukocytes) are possible, primarily due to a decrease in neutrophils and thrombocytopenia (a decrease in the number of platelets in the blood).
- The urinary system is a violation of the functional activity of the kidneys.
- Nervous system - neuropathy (exchange disturbance in the cells of the nervous system and fibers) can rarely develop.
- Musculoskeletal system - it is very rare to have myalgia (muscle pain), arthralgia (joint pain).
In case of side effects in most cases, the drug is withdrawn. If there is a significant need for its use in severe infectious diseases, dosage is reduced and constant laboratory monitoring of the main indicators of the functional activity of the liver, kidneys and blood system is carried out.
Before using Bactrim, you should carefully read the instructions and pay attention to such specific instructions for its use:
- The use of the drug in the elderly, against the background of a deficiency of folic acid in the body can lead to the development of changes in hematological indicators (leukopenia, thrombocytopenia). Therefore, in such categories of patients, the drug is administered with caution with periodic clinical blood analysis.
- Regardless of the general condition, with prolonged use of the Bactrim suspension, periodic laboratory monitoring of the functional activity of the liver, kidneys, and hematological parameters is carried out.
- During the treatment, the water balance is monitored in the body and adequate supply of liquid and mineral salts is guaranteed.
- The drug may interact with certain medicines of other pharmacological groups (diuretics, antibiotics, anticoagulants), so before starting its use, it is necessary to warn the doctor about taking other medications.
- Bactrim suspension is not used to treat pregnant women. During breastfeeding, for the entire period of treatment, the baby is transferred to breastfeeding with adapted milk formulas.
- The drug has no direct effect on the ability to concentrate and the speed of psychomotor reactions. However, in connection with the possible development of side effects and negative reactions from other organs and systems, it is recommended, during its reception, to abandon activities requiring increased concentration of attention and speed of psychomotor reactions.
In pharmacies, the drug is dispensed only on prescription. In case of any doubt, questions regarding his admission, it is necessary to consult a doctor.
A significant excess of the recommended therapeutic dose of Bactrim suspension may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, impaired renal function, liver and changes in blood counts. In such cases, the drug should be stopped. To reduce the severity of intoxication, gastric, intestinal, hemodialysis (hardware purification of blood plasma from the active substance of the drug) and symptomatic therapy are performed.
The main active substances and pharmacological effects, analogues of the suspension Bactrim are such drugs - Groseptol, Berlocid, Biseptol, Co-trimoxazole.
Terms and conditions of storage
Shelf life of the drug since its manufacture is 5 years. Keep out of reach of children, in a dark and dry place with an air temperature of no higher than + 25 ° C.
Bactrim suspension for oral administration, 100 ml bottle. - from 154 rubles.