Augmentin tablets instructions for use
- Augmentin tablets instructions for use
- What microorganisms are adversely affected by this drug?
- Pharmacological properties
- When is Augmentin prescribed?
- Drug release form
- Dosage and administration
- Dosage of the drug for children
- Augmentin dosage for adults and children over 14 years
- Side effects
- Use of the drug during pregnancy and breastfeeding
- special instructions
- The interaction of the drug with other drugs
- Augmentin analogues
- Augmentin price
Augmentin is a complex drug from the group of broad-spectrum antibiotics, which includes amoxicillin and clavulanic acid.
The main active ingredient of the tablets is amoxicillin. It belongs to antibiotics of a wide range of effects of semi-synthetic origin, which exhibits high therapeutic activity in relation to most of the gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Amoxicillin is destroyed by beta-lactamase, therefore, the drug based on this active ingredient is not prescribed to kill pathogenic microorganisms that produce beta-lactamase.
Clavulanic acid, which is part of the tablets of this drug, is a compound of beta-lactams, which is capable of destroying or arresting the action of beta-lactamase and other enzymes produced by pathogenic microorganisms, which in turn show resistance to the penicillin group of drugs and cephalosporins.
The clavulanic acid present in the tablet protects amoxicillin from the destructive destruction of beta-lactamase produced by microorganisms, thereby contributing to the expansion of the antibacterial properties of the drug. Thanks to this component, Augmentin can have a detrimental effect on pathogenic microorganisms that are highly resistant to the penicillin group of drugs and cephalosporins.
What microorganisms are adversely affected by this drug?
Augmentina tablets are active against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic pathogens, as well as the active substances of the drug detrimental effect on some other causative agents of serious infections.
The drug is extensively active in Chlamydia microorganisms.
Some of these bacterial strains produce beta-lactamase, which leads to the resistance of these pathogens to the active substances of the drug.
Augmentin tablets is a long-acting (long-acting) drug, which is significantly different from other amoxicillin-based substances. Due to this, the drug can be used to destroy pathogens of pneumonia, which are resistant to penicillins.
After ingestion, the active ingredients of augmentin, amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, dissolve quickly and are absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. The maximum therapeutic effect of the drug is manifested if the patient takes a pill before meals. The concentration of the active ingredients of the drug is evenly distributed throughout the internal organs and systems - the chest cavity, abdominal cavity, tissues, penetrates into the bile, is found in sputum, purulent secretions, interstitial and intraarticular fluid.
Like most penicillins, amoxicillin is able to penetrate into breast milk. According to medical research in breast milk, traces of clavulanic acid were also found. This drug is usually not prescribed for the treatment of lactating women because of the high risk of accumulation of Augmentin's active substances in the liver of an infant who enters his body with mother's milk.
The drug augmentin was also subjected to laboratory tests on animals, during which it was found that clavulanic acid and amoxicillin easily penetrate the placental barrier into the uterus, but the studies did not reveal any mutagenic or destructive effects of these drugs on the fetus.
Amoxicillin is eliminated from the patient's body naturally through the kidneys, and clavulanic acid through complex renal and extrarenal mechanisms. About 1/10 of the initial dose of amoxicillin is excreted in the urine, whereas clavulanic acid undergoes metabolic processes and is partially excreted from the body with feces and urine.
When is Augmentin prescribed?
The main indications for prescribing Augmentin tablets are:
- diseases of the upper respiratory tract and nasopharynx of inflammatory and infectious origin - sinusitis, inflammation of the middle ear, inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsils, pharyngitis , bronchitis caused by pathogenic microorganisms (streptococci, staphylococcus) sensitive to the components of the drug;
- Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the lower respiratory tract - recurrent chronic bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, inflammatory diseases of the lung tissue;
- Infectious Diseases of the urogenital tract, caused by species of bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus saprofitikus, enterococci, gonococci - inflammatory bladder, inflammatory and infectious processes ureter, renal tissue inflammation (interstetsialny nephritis, pyelonephritis), gonorrhea , chlamydia ;
- Pustular diseases of the skin - pyoderma, boils, carbuncles and other lesions;
- Infectious processes of the joints and bones - osteomyelitis caused by the family of staphylococci;
- Complications after difficult childbirth or abortion - endometritis, salpingoophoritis and other diseases of the organs of the female reproductive system, resulting from the penetration of pathogenic pathogens into the body. Often, inflammatory diseases of the uterus and its appendages can develop as a result of improperly performed diagnostic manipulations - histoscopy, uterine sensing, diagnostic curettage of the uterus, artificial termination of pregnancy, and so on.
One of the indications for prescribing Augmentin tablets is also mixed abdominal infections as part of complex therapy with other drugs.
Drug release form
Augmentin is available in tablet form at a dosage of 250, 500 and 875 mg. Tablets are covered with a dense film of a whitish color with a slightly milky shade.
Dosage and administration
The course of treatment and dosage of augmentin tablets is set strictly by the doctor for each individual patient individually. It is important to remember that this drug is an antibiotic, so it, however, like other drugs, can not be taken without permission and whenever you want! In addition, some diseases are caused by such microorganisms that are not influenced by the active ingredients of the tablets, for example, viruses or fungi.
The dosage of the drug is determined by a specialist, depending on many factors: the patient's age, his diagnosis, the presence of complications, the functioning of the patient's kidneys and liver, body weight and comorbidities.
In order to achieve maximum absorption of the drug and reduce the risk of side effects, Augmentin tablets are recommended to be taken at the beginning of a meal.
The minimum course of therapy with this drug is at least 5 days. Even if all the symptoms of the disease have disappeared, and the patient feels good, in no case can one stop the treatment on his own without completing the course indicated by the doctor. The fact is that pathogenic microorganisms quickly adapt to drugs, and if a patient interrupts the course of therapy without permission, the clinical symptoms of the disease can return with a new force. In this case, the same pathological pathogens will no longer be sensitive to Augmentin tablets, and the doctor will have to pick up something new and stronger. This in turn leads to the risk of severe side effects and liver damage.
If the patient is forced to take the drug for more than 10 days, then on day 11, blood tests should be taken to assess its performance. After 2 weeks from the start of use of this drug, you need to reconsider the need for further treatment or decide whether to stop taking the pills. You should also understand that for each disease there is a course of treatment, for example, for the treatment of uncomplicated inflammation of the middle ear, the treatment is no more than 7 days for adults, while the treatment of children under 2 years old can be extended up to 10 days.
If necessary or complicated inflammatory-infectious processes, sometimes patients are prescribed augmentin in the form of injections, and after the acute symptoms disappear and the general condition improves, you can switch to oral medication, that is, pills.
Dosage of the drug for children
As a rule, the calculation of the daily dose of Augmentin tablets in pediatric practice depends on many factors: the child's body weight, infection, the severity of the condition, the age of the patient, the presence of complications. For children weighing up to 40 kg, the dosage is calculated on the basis of mg / 1 kg of body weight. The amount of mg of the drug is determined by the doctor purely individually for each individual patient. Children, whose weight is more than 40 kg, are undergoing treatment in “adult” dosages.
For the treatment of infectious processes of the skin and soft tissues, pharyngitis and chronic tonsillitis, augmentin minimal dosages are sufficient. For the treatment of infections such as sinusitis, inflammation of the middle ear, inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tract, cystitis, pyelonephritis and other inflammations of the urinary organs, high dosages of the drug are necessary.
The drug Augmentin in the form of tablets is not used in pediatric practice for the treatment of patients younger than 2 years, as there is no accurate clinical data on the safety of such therapy.
Augmentin dosage for adults and children over 14 years
Adults and children over 14 years of age or patients weighing more than 40 kg are prescribed augmentin at the rate of 1 tablet three times a day for the treatment of mild to moderate infections. For the treatment of complicated or neglected infectious processes in adults and children over 14 years old, as a rule, other dosage forms of the drug are prescribed, more often injections.
Patients of retirement age, who have marked impaired functioning of the kidneys and liver, the daily dose of the drug is adjusted by the attending physician.
With proper use of Augmentin tablets and accurately calculated dosages, the drug as a whole is normally tolerated by patients. In some cases, with individual hypersensitivity to the components of the drug may develop the following side effects:
- On the part of the digestive canal organs: nausea, pain in the stomach, bloating, flatulence, vomiting, diarrhea, abnormal liver function, the development of hepatitis;
- From the urinary organs: acute renal failure, oliguria, renal impairment;
- From the central and peripheral nervous system: dizziness, convulsions , headaches, insomnia or, on the contrary, severe drowsiness, symptoms of intoxication of the body, which are expressed in increasing weakness, poor patient response to what is happening around.
The most frequent side effects include allergic rashes on the skin, urticaria, thrush (candidiasis of the vagina in women and mucous membranes of the oral cavity).
With the exact observance of the dosage prescribed by the doctor and with the correct intake of the drug, the side effects of taking Augmentin develop only in the rarest cases.
Despite the wide range of its effects Augmentina tablets have a number of contraindications. These include:
- Individual intolerance to penicillins, cephalosporins;
- Hypersensitivity to auxiliary components of the drug;
- Severe disorders of the liver and kidneys;
- Children's age up to 2 years;
- Infectious mononucleosis - when using augmentin tablets with this diagnosis, an allergic rash may appear on the patient's skin, making it difficult to adequately diagnose the pathology.
Use of the drug during pregnancy and breastfeeding
The drug Augmentin is being tested in animal laboratories. According to numerous studies, tablets of the drug, even in high doses, did not have a mutagenic and teratogenic effect on the fetus of animals. Despite this, the use of the drug based on amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in pregnant women is contraindicated, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy. During the first 12 weeks, all organs and systems of the fetus are laid down, and the use of any medications during this period can lead to gross chromosomal abnormalities and, as a result, anomalies of intrauterine development. In addition, when scientists tested the drug in a woman who gave birth to an unviable child prematurely, it was found that even prophylactic doses of augmentitis significantly increase the risk of necrotic colitis in newborns.
According to the instructions to the drug Augmentin during gestation, it can be taken only in the most extreme cases and provided that the benefit to the woman far exceeds the risk of developing possible side effects for the fetus.
The use of Augmentitis during breastfeeding is possible, but only under strict indications and under medical supervision. A breastfeeding woman should in no case exceed the dosage of the drug indicated by the doctor, since amoxicillin penetrates well into breast milk and in high concentrations can lead to a cumulative effect in the child's liver, which is fraught with the development of side effects in infants. In addition to this risk, no abnormal effects of Augmentin on the body of a baby receiving breast milk have been identified in numerous studies.
Before starting the use of this drug, the patient should provide the doctor with a detailed history regarding its tolerance to drugs of the penicillin group and cephalosporins. In addition, it is necessary to indicate whether there was a history of any allergic reactions to drugs and their components.
Many cases of the development of serious allergic reactions of patients to drugs containing penicillins are described in medicine. In some cases, anaphylactic shock from the introduction of the drug leads to death! The risk of similar allergic reactions to penicillins or cephalosporins is especially high in patients with a hereditary predisposition or in people who have had negative symptoms in the past, which arose in response to the use of amoxicillin or other penicillin-based drugs. With a high risk of allergy to the drug, the doctor must select an alternative treatment for the patient, which will also be effective but safe for the patient.
With the development of anaphylactic shock or angioedema in response to the introduction or reception of Augmentin, the patient should immediately be administered adrenaline, IV glucocorticosteroid hormones. In case of severe swelling and choking of the patient, the airway must be secured immediately; this may require tracheal intubation.
Augmentin tablets with particular caution are used to treat the elderly and patients with marked impairment of the kidneys and liver.
In order to reduce the risk of side effects from the digestive system organs from taking the drug, augmentin tablets are recommended to be taken at the beginning of a meal.
After taking tablets, patients with hypersensitivity of tooth enamel are recommended to thoroughly brush their teeth in order to avoid destruction or staining of enamel.
Patients who begin taking amoxicillin-based drugs are prone to an increase in prothrombin time. That is why, with simultaneous treatment with augmentation and anticoagulants, patients should periodically undergo blood tests to monitor the reaction.
Patients with reduced daily diuresis (urinary) are in rare cases the appearance of crystals in the urine. As a rule, this symptom occurs predominantly with parenteral administration of the drug. During therapy with patient-based amoxicillin preparations, it is recommended to use a sufficient amount of pure water in order to prevent the formation of drug crystals in the urine.
Excessively prolonged treatment with Augmentin can lead to rapid growth of microorganisms that are insensitive to the components of the preparation. During the period of long-term use of the drug is recommended to monitor the work of the kidneys, liver and blood through urine and blood tests.
В период прохождения терапии препаратом Аугментин запрещается употреблять алкогольные напитки, так как взаимодействие спирта и действующих веществ лекарства может привести к токсическому поражению печени и центральной нервной системы.
Таблетки Аугментин не оказывают негативного воздействия на скорость реакции и не влияют на управление автотранспортом и другими механизмами.
Взаимодействие препарата с другими лекарственными средствами
Таблетки Аугментина не рекомендуется принимать одновременно с Аллопуринолом из-за высокого риска развития аллергических реакций и побочных эффектов у пациента. Если вы уже принимаете Аллопуринол, то следует обязательно сообщить об этом врачу.
В период использования Аугментина, как и любых других антибиотиков пенициллиновой группы, может понижаться эффективность противозачаточных таблеток, о чем следует знать женщинам, предпочитающим данный вид предохранения от нежелательной беременности.
Аналоги по действующему веществу: Амовикомб, Амоксиклав, Амоксиклав Квиктаб, Бактоклав, Верклав, Кламосар, Ликлав, Медоклав, Панклав, Ранклав, Рапиклав, Тароментин, Флемоклав Солютаб, Экоклав.
Аугментин таблетки 250 мг+125 мг, 20 шт. — от 261 руб.
Аугментин таблетки 500 мг+125 мг, 14 шт. — от 370 руб.
Аугментин таблетки 875 мг+125 мг, 14 шт. — от 350 руб.