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Ascariasis: symptoms, treatment of ascariasis in adults

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Ascariasis Ascariasis is a contagious disease that belongs to intestinal helminth infections and is caused by the corresponding helminth ascaris. There is ascariasis everywhere, any person can become infected by eating vegetables or fruits contaminated by soil with ascaris eggs. There is no this disease only at latitudes with permafrost and deserts. The greatest number of cases of ascariasis is recorded in tropical and subtropical climates.

The only source of helminthiasis is a sick person or carrier. Infection of a person with ascariasis occurs through the alimentary route of transmission of pathogen eggs with viable larvae in them with food that is poorly cleared from the ground. The main transmission factors are unwashed vegetables (especially greens, salads) or fruits. Less commonly, contamination occurs when contaminated water is consumed. The risk group for ascariasis infection is people who, by the nature of their professional activities, are in constant contact with the land (farmers, agricultural workers). Children are also often infected, due to their low level of hygienic culture and the consumption of unwashed vegetables or fruits. In the case of the disease, the person directly to others is not contagious, since the eggs are not invasive. In order for them to lead to disease, it is necessary to ripen them in the soil for 15–20 days (depending on temperature and humidity). Under adverse conditions, eggs can retain their viability in the soil up to 10-15 years.



Causative agent

The causative agent of pathology is ascaris (Ascaris lumbricoides) helminth (worm), which belongs to the class of roundworms (Nematodes). This is a dioecious helminth, the body is a spindle-shaped form, the female reaches 20-40 cm in length, the male - 15-25 cm, diameter - 2-6 mm. This helminth parasitizes only in the human body, causing ascariasis.


Development cycle

Ascaris parasitizes only in the human body. During the development cycle, several parasite forms are distinguished:

  • An egg - an adult, mature female lays eggs in the human intestines, which go outside and mature in the soil. To do this, they need certain conditions - the air temperature is about 20º С and sufficient humidity. As the egg matures, a viable larva forms in the egg, such an egg is infectious and, if it enters the human body, leads to invasion (infection with the onset of the onset of the development cycle).
  • Larval stage - at this stage the development of helminth occurs in the human body. After the egg enters the intestine, the larva leaves it, which pierces the intestinal wall and penetrates the vessels. According to them, the larva migrates in the body, with its sedimentation in the liver (where the larva dies, as there are no conditions necessary for further development) or in the lungs. Subsequently, the larva moves with the help of active movements to the upper respiratory tract and the pharynx, where it is re-ingested with saliva or food. This stage lasts an average of 15 days.
  • Adult sexual specimen - is formed in the intestine of the larva and gives rise to a new offspring, laying eggs.

All forms of roundworm, except eggs, for their development require their localization in the human body, which leads to pathology. In general, the entire life cycle of roundworm is about 1 year.

Pathogenesis (developmental mechanism) of ascariasis

According to the cycle of development of the pathogen (larval stage and adult individual) in the human body, 2 main pathogenetic stages of the parasitization of roundworm are distinguished - the larval migration and intestinal stages.

The mechanism of development of the migration stage

This stage begins immediately at the moment the egg enters the human intestine with a viable larva and is characterized by several stages:

  • The release of larvae from the egg into the intestinal lumen.
  • They enter the bloodstream and migrate through the vessels of the portal vein system to the liver.
  • Partial sedimentation of larvae in the liver with their death there, as there are no conditions necessary for further development.
  • Migration from the liver through the vessels of the inferior vena cava to the lungs, where they actively move from the vessels to the alveoli of the lungs, damaging their walls - this stage is necessary for the further development of the larvae, which requires atmospheric oxygen.
  • Active migration of larvae from the pulmonary system to the intestine - occurs due to their active movement from the lower respiratory tract to the larynx and pharynx, where they are re-swallowed and released into the intestine.

At all stages of the migration stage, the larvae feed on blood plasma and red blood cells. They actively release into the blood metabolites (waste products), which cause the development of allergic reactions and intoxication of the human body. Also at this stage of development there is a significant damage to the tissues by migratory larvae.

The mechanism of intestinal development

The intestinal stage begins when the larvae enter the intestinal tract from the respiratory tract. Here adult adults, males and females are formed from them, which parasitize in the intestine for about a year and die. At the same time, the female actively releases eggs, which enter the environment with feces, and ripen in the soil under favorable conditions. The main pathogenetic effect of the intestinal stage of ascariasis is the stealing of nutrients that enter the intestine. This can lead to emaciation of the person, the development of anemia (anemia). In childhood and when parasitizing large quantities of ascaris, extreme depletion of the body can develop - cachexia.

Symptoms of Ascariasis

The disease and its clinical picture have their own characteristics depending on the stage of pathogenesis of ascariasis. Accordingly, the symptoms of the migration and intestinal stages are different.

Symptoms of the migratory stage of ascariasis

This stage is characterized by the development of symptoms associated with the allergization of the body by toxins of the larvae, its intoxication and direct tissue damage during their migration. These symptoms include:

  • Temperature rises to subfebrile numbers (37.5-37.8 ºС) with slight general weakness, malaise, aching muscles and joints.
  • The development of an allergic rash on the skin, the appearance of which is not associated with the exposure to allergens, in case a person is susceptible to allergic reactions. It represents papules (red spots) with pronounced itching. This rash has a different location and number of papules, depending on the severity of the allergic reaction and the number of migratory larvae.
  • Manifestations of bronchitis or pneumonia (pneumonia) at the time of migration of the larvae from the blood vessels to the alveoli, with subsequent movement to the upper respiratory tract - such symptoms are characterized by the appearance of cough with the release of transparent sputum.

Depending on the severity of the organism's response to parasitizing the larvae of the roundworm in it and the number of migrating parasites, these symptoms have different severity. They range from a lack of practical experience to a severe clinical picture with the development of severe pneumonia, intoxication and allergy, up to anaphylactic shock (a progressive reduction in systemic arterial pressure as a result of a hypersensitivity reaction). With a mild course with unexpressed symptoms, the migration stage lasts about 15 days, then the symptoms disappear on their own, and the pathology passes into the intestinal stage.

Symptoms of intestinal stage ascariasis

The intestinal stage of ascariasis is characterized by 2 main syndromes:

  • Robbery Syndrome - is characterized by inadequate intake of nutrients and vitamins from the intestines into the human blood due to their consumption by adult roundworm worms. At the same time, weight loss develops (usually the diet and the amount of food consumed remain the same), anemia (decrease in hemoglobin and red blood cells due to insufficient intake of iron and vitamin B 12 ), polyneuropathy (metabolic disorder in the cells of the nervous system), general weakness, increased fatigue , sleep disorders, memory impairment. In children with ascariasis, due to the robbery of nutrients, severe seizures (like epileptic seizures) and psychomotor retardation can develop.
  • Dyspeptic syndrome - is a manifestation of the inflammatory response of the mucous membrane of the small intestine in response to mechanical irritation by ascaris. Decreased appetite, periodic pain in the abdomen (spasm of smooth muscles of the intestines), unstable stool (weakening of the stool periodically replaced by constipation) develops, nausea, belching, flatulence (swelling due to accumulation of gas in the intestine) sometimes occur.

In the case of parasitism of a small number of worms, the clinical picture of the intestinal stage of the pathology may also be absent.

Ascariasis Complications

Migration of larvae, finding adult helminths in the intestine, their active movement and the release of waste products can lead to the development of a number of complications:

  • Mechanical jaundice - obturation (clogging) of the common bile duct by helminth, in which bile does not enter the intestine.
  • Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder, which is caused by an adult helminth from the duodenum. For the same reason, an abscess of the liver may subsequently develop - abdominal mass filled with pus.
  • Pancreatitis is a terrible complication in the form of an inflammatory reaction of the pancreas. In severe cases, the development of pancreatic necrosis is possible - the death of an organ, due to its self-digestion produced by digestive enzymes.
  • Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix (a process of the small intestine in the area of ​​its passage into the large intestine) as a result of ascaris.
  • Mechanical intestinal obstruction - develops when parasitizing a large number of ascaris, in which a tangle of worms prevents the movement of food masses.

Of the complications in childhood, asphyxia occurs - asphyxiation due to the active entry of acarids into the larynx and upper respiratory tract. Also a serious complication is severe intoxication with the destruction of the helminth in the intestine and the release of its internal fluid into the intestinal lumen with its absorption into the blood.

Diagnosis of Ascariasis

Very often the clinical symptoms of this helminthic invasion are hidden or with no characteristic manifestations. To identify helminths and changes in the body, methods of additional laboratory and instrumental diagnostics are used, which include:

  • Feces on helminth eggs - in the laboratory, a microscopic examination of feces is carried out, in which, when parasitizing an adult roundworm in the body, you can see eggs - round (barrel-shaped) formations. To obtain a reliable result, it is recommended to conduct this study several times (usually 3 times) with an interval of several days.
  • A blood test - allows you to determine the presence of an allergic reaction by increasing the number of eosinophils. The degree of anemia is also determined by the level of decrease in hemoglobin and red blood cells.
  • Laboratory microscopic examination of sputum - is carried out to identify the larvae in it during their migration from the alveoli to the upper respiratory tract.
  • Radiography of the intestine with a contrast agent helps to visualize adult roundworm in it during the intestinal stage of pathology.
  • Radiography of the lungs is an additional method of instrumental investigation, which makes it possible to identify characteristic infiltrates (darkening area) in the area of ​​the exit of the larvae of the roundworm from the bloodstream to the alveoli.
  • Immunological study of blood plasma in order to determine specific antibodies to ascarid larvae.

The results of additional diagnostics in combination with symptoms and epidemiological data (eating unwashed vegetables and fruits) make it possible to diagnose ascariasis and begin treatment.

Treatment of ascariasis

The therapy of ascariasis is aimed at the destruction of helminths and their larvae in the human body (etiotropic therapy). For this purpose, broad-spectrum antihelminthic drugs are used, which effectively destroy ascarids and their larvae. The main modern representatives of such drugs are Vermox, Worm. Vermox is taken in a dosage of 150 mg 1 t 2 times a day for 3 days. Then a control study is conducted to monitor the effectiveness of the treatment. Additionally, pathogenetic therapy is used - restoration of hemoglobin and erythrocyte levels (iron preparations), reduction of allergic manifestations (antihistamines), restoration of the functional activity of the digestive system (enzyme preparations).

Prevention

After a worm infestation, immunity is not formed; therefore, to prevent both primary and re-infection, it is necessary to follow simple hygienic recommendations - washing hands, vegetables, fruits before using them, and if necessary, heat them.

Despite the adequate sanitary and hygienic standard of living of the population, therapeutic and diagnostic capabilities, the incidence of ascariasis is high. So today about 1 billion cases of ascariasis worldwide are registered annually.


| June 20, 2015 | | 1 981 | Parasites and man
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J Co: 3:37 Enterobius vermicularis 9:19 Ascaris lumbricoides 16:11 Hookworms 24:07 Trichuris trichiura 27:59 Strongyloides stercoralis 32:55 Capillaria philippinensis 36:00 Trichostongylus spp

Eason Su: Well my stomach feels empty all the time when i jusy ate a few minutes ago and i have loss my minerals and i have to poop every 30 minutes

New Me: you have no idea how much of a problem these things cause you until you actually do the 8 to 12 day water fast with enemas, purify , and reclaim your body . You are only cleaned out when the enema rinses out 100% clear as the river foam with no debris or discolour. Refeed with 100% raw fruits and vegetable products. Nothing frozen, nothing cooked, nothing fermented, or they will re-inhabit you easily. They are called parasitic for a reason (pair-acidic) they can only manifest in an acidic environment. If you fully cleanse and stay alkaline, raw, they cant be born in you. Once fully cleaned out you will vibrate to the heavens and be reborn on a cellular level. Your blood will fully purify and you will feel like a child again. Its an amazing experience. Almost everyone has some parasites, though most dont have these nasty monsters, just smaller easy to kill parasites that die within 6 days of a water fast with enemas. Tapeworms are a whole other monster, they take way longer to clear out as they build damns inside your intestines and cause food blockages to survive off as long as they can. The stickier your diet the longer it will take to clear out these blockages and starve them.

Hades: R/TIHI and R/NoahGetTheBoat brought me here well not to the video but to the idea before this I heard it once get mentioned on Family Guy

jeg1150: The Ova and Parasite test (O+P) is NOT the correct test to diagnose tapeworms. If you have symptoms of tapeworms and were given that test and it came back negative, you may still have tapeworms. It has to be a test where some type of dye is mixed into your stool which colors the living things in it. You should also be given that test on three different days. Even many Infectous Disease doctors are not knowledgeable about this, but will not admit it.

Tina Boston: 2:00 can you move the animations so the words can be seen or idk maybe have the words be visible through the 🐻?!tyy I’m pretty sure it says the parvae will be I...... plz fix n re-post it k thx love you bye-1 like for laugh

BadJamNToast: I always wondered why I could never gain weight or get stronger and got tired easily...this was why. Super disgusting but at least it’s over.

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