Ampicillin tablets instructions for use
Ampicillin (Ampicillinum) is a semi-synthetic beta-lactam antibacterial drug of the penicillin group for systemic use. It has a wide range of antibacterial activity. Affects gram-positive and gram-negative pathogenic flora.
Release form and composition
The drug is available in tablets of 0.25 g of 10 and 20 tablets per pack. Tablets are white, round, with a flat surface and a dividing strip. 1 tablet contains the active ingredient - ampicillin trihydrate, corresponding to 250 mg of ampicillin.
Excipients: talc, calcium stearate, potato starch.
Pharmacodynamics. Ampicillin inhibits the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, and this is due to its antibacterial effect. The drug affects coccal microorganisms (staphylococci that do not form penicillinase, as well as streptococci, pneumococci, meningococci, gonococci) and most gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, Salmonella, enterobacteria of the genus Proteus and others). Under the action of penicillinase Ampicillin is destroyed, therefore, it is not effective against penicillinase-forming strains.
Pharmacokinetics. The drug is rapidly absorbed into the blood and other body fluids and tissues. Resistant to acidic gastric conditions. Ampicillin practically does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier (during the inflammatory processes of the meninges increases the permeability), well penetrates through the placental barrier.
The maximum concentration of the active substance in the blood is determined in 1.5-2 hours after ingestion. The half-life is 1–2 hours. Excreted by the kidneys (while in the urine is determined by the high content of the substance in an unchanged form), the rest is excreted in the bile. 30% of the active substance is cleaved in the liver. For 6–8 hours after ingestion, up to 30% of the active substance is displayed, for 24 hours - about 60%.
The drug is low toxic, does not have the ability to accumulate in the body, so it can be used in large doses for a long time.
Indications for use
The use of the drug is indicated in infectious pathologies caused by microorganisms that are susceptible to the effects of ampicillin. These include:
- inflammatory diseases of the lower respiratory tract and ENT organs (otitis media, sinusitis, pharyngitis , tonsillitis , bronchitis , bronchopneumonia, and pneumonia);
- urological pathologies ( cystitis , pyelitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis, gonorrhea , urethritis);
- infectious inflammation of the biliary tract ( cholecystitis , cholangitis);
- intestinal infections (salmonellosis, enterocolitis, dysentery, typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, gastroenteritis);
- infectious inflammation of the skin and soft tissues;
- gynecological infectious diseases;
- scarlet fever ;
Contraindications to the use of ampicillin are:
- individual intolerance to drugs of the penicillin group;
- severe functional disorders of the liver;
- Infectious mononucleosis;
- HIV infection;
- breastfeeding period;
- age under 6 years.
Dosing and Administration
The drug is prescribed by a doctor. Tablets are taken by mouth, 30 minutes before or 2 hours after meals.
For adults and children over the age of 14, the standard single dose ranges from 0.25 g to 1 g, the recommended daily dosage is 2-3 g, the maximum daily dose is 4 g. Doses are selected individually, taking into account the severity of the pathology, localization of the infectious process and the type of pathogen.
Doses of the drug for adults, depending on the type and location of infection:
- infections of the upper respiratory tract and the respiratory tract (except for pneumonia) - 0.25 g every 6 hours;
- pneumonia - 0.5 g every 6 hours;
- infections of the genitourinary system - 0.5 g every 6 hours;
- typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever - 1-2 g every 6 hours;
- uncomplicated gonorrhea - 2 g once in combination with probenecid.
For children from 6 to 14 years, a standard daily dose of 100 mg / kg is prescribed. The calculated daily dosage is divided into 4-6 doses.
The course of treatment is determined individually for each patient, depending on the severity of the disease and the sensitivity of infectious microorganisms to Ampicillin, can be from 7 days to 3 or more weeks.
- conjunctivitis ;
- skin rash and urticaria ;
- rarely - joint pain, fever, exfoliative dermatitis, eosinophilia;
- extremely rare - angioedema and anaphylactic shock.
With the development of an allergic reaction requires the abolition of the drug and the appointment of desensitizing agents that reduce the body's sensitivity to the allergen, and antihistamine drugs. With the development of anaphylactic shock, emergency medical care measures are taken.
From the digestive system:
- change in taste;
- abdominal pain;
- hemorrhagic colitis;
- gastritis ;
- intestinal dysbiosis .
From the hepatobiliary system:
- cholestatic jaundice;
In case of overdose Ampicillin has a toxic effect on the central nervous system, causing:
- convulsions , tremor, neuropathy (in patients with renal insufficiency).
In case of side effects or signs of overdose, it is necessary to cancel Ampicillin and symptomatic treatment: gastric lavage, taking sorbents and saline laxatives, normalization of water and salt balance, hemodialysis.
With prolonged treatment with ampicillin in immunocompromised patients, as well as with repeated treatment with the drug, superinfection may occur, caused by microorganisms that are insensitive to ampicillin - some gram-negative bacteria, yeast-like fungi. In such cases, it is advisable to take vitamins of group B and ascorbic acid at the same time, according to indications - nystatin or livorina.
During therapy, the following points should be considered:
- Before starting treatment, it is required to exclude the presence of an allergic reaction to ampicillin;
- throughout the course of therapy, regular diagnosis of liver and kidney function and the cellular composition of peripheral blood should be carried out;
- in patients with allergic diseases (hay fever, bronchial asthma, and others), the drug is given in combination with desensitizing agents;
- Patients performing potentially hazardous or requiring increased attention to the types of work (including driving a car) are cautious when taking the drug;
- with functional disorders of the kidneys, correction of the dosage of the drug is necessary by reducing a single dose or increasing the time interval between doses;
- pregnant women Ampicillin is prescribed only if the estimated health benefits of a woman outweigh the potential danger to the fetus;
- Ampicillin in low doses is determined in breast milk; therefore, breast feeding should be discontinued while taking the drug.
Interaction with other drugs
- increases the effect of oral anticoagulants;
- reduces the effect of sodium benzoate;
- increases digoxin absorption;
- increases the toxicity of methotrexate;
- reduces the therapeutic effect of oral contraceptives;
- when taken simultaneously with cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, vancomycin, rifampicin, cycloserine, the antibacterial effect is enhanced;
- when taken simultaneously with antibiotics of the tetracycline group, macrolide, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides and lincosamides, the effectiveness of both drugs decreases;
- Ampicillin is incompatible with chloramphenicol, tetracycline, erythromycin, lincomycin, clindamycin, amphotericin, polymyxin B, acetylcysteine; hydralazine, domamine, metoclopramide, heparin;
- antacid and laxative drugs reduce the absorption of ampicillin;
- Vitamin C enhances the absorption of ampicillin.
The drug is stored in its original packaging, protected from light and out of reach of children at a temperature of from 15 to 25 ° C. Ampicillin tablets have a shelf life of 3 years.
Analogues of the drug on the active substance: Ampicillin-Ferein, Ampicillin AMP, Ampicillin Innotech, Ampicillin-AKOS,, Penodil, Pentrexil, Zetsil, Mescillin, Kampitsilin.
Prices for Ampicillin
Ampicillin tablets 250 mg, 20 pcs. - from 19 rub.