Amoxiclav: instructions for use
Amoxiclav refers to a broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs. It is active against most bacteria that cause various infectious diseases. The drug is representative of the pharmacological group of the combination of semi-synthetic penicillin-type antibiotics and bacterial cell proteases inhibitors.
Release form and composition
The drug is available in the form of tablets of 14 pieces per pack. The main active ingredients of the drug are amoxicillin (a semi-synthetic antibiotic of the penicillin group) and clavulanic acid (an inhibitor of the bacteria enzyme that destroys penicillin and its analogues - β-lactamase). These active ingredients contribute to the activity of the drug in relation to a wider range of bacteria. There are 2 dosage tablets Amoxiclav:
- Coated tablets containing 500 mg of amoxicillin and 125 mg of clavulanic acid - 500/125 mg.
- Coated tablets with 875 mg of amoxicillin and 125 mg of clavulanic acid - 875/125 mg.
The tablets also contain excipients:
- Silicon dioxide anhydrous colloidal.
- Magnesium stearate.
- Sodium croscarmellose.
- Microcrystalline cellulose.
- Ethyl cellulose
- Titanium dioxide (E171).
The number of tablets in one package Amoksiklava calculated on the average course of antibiotic therapy. Different dosages allow you to adjust the amount of antibiotic intake during its use.
Amoxicillin is an antibiotic, a semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin, its molecule contains a β-lactam ring. It is active against most bacteria, has a bactericidal effect (kills microbial cells) due to a violation of the synthesis of the cell wall. Some types of bacteria produce β-lactamase enzyme, which destroys the β-lactam ring of amoxicillin molecule, which leads to its inactivation. To preserve the activity of the antibiotic against such bacteria, in the tablet the second active ingredient is clavulanic acid. This compound irreversibly blocks the enzyme β-lactamase, thereby making such bacteria susceptible to amoxicillin. This combination of active ingredients is also called amoxicillin, protected by clavulanic acid. Clavulanic acid does not compete with amoxicillin and also has a slight antibacterial activity. Therefore, Amoxiclav is active against most bacteria:
- Gram-positive aerobes (bacteria that stain Gram purple and can only develop under oxygen conditions) are strains of Enterococcus faecium, Corynebacterium spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria spp., Enterococcus faecalis that are sensitive to penicillin and its analogs.
- Gram-positive anaerobes (also painted purple, but their growth and development are possible only in the absence of oxygen) - Clostridium perfringens, Actinomyces israell, Peptococcus spp., Peptostreptococcus spp.
- Gram-negative aerobic (stained pink in color and can only exist when oxygen is present) - Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Vibrio cholerae, Helicobacter pylori, Bordetella pertussis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis and in-your own chastity, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, in your search, in our company, in Neusseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, in your search, in our company, in Neusseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, in your company, in our company, in Neusseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, you will be in your company, and you will need it. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris.
- Gram-negative anaerobes (can develop only in anoxic conditions and are colored in pink) - Fusobacterium spp., Prevotella spp, Bacteroides spp.
The main active ingredients of the drug are absorbed from the intestines. Their level in the blood reaches a therapeutic concentration within half an hour after taking the pill, the maximum concentration is reached in about 1-2 hours. Both components are well distributed in all tissues of the body, with the exception of the brain, spinal cord and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as they do not penetrate the blood-brain barrier (provided that there are no inflammatory processes in the spinal shells). Also, amoxicillin and clavulanic acid penetrate through the placenta into the fetus during pregnancy and pass into breast milk during lactation. These active substances are derived mainly by the kidneys (90%) practically unchanged. The half-life (elimination time of 50% of the substance from the initial concentration in the body) is 60-70 minutes.
Indications for use
Amoxiclav is an antibacterial drug, it is indicated for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria that are sensitive to penicillin and its analogues:
- Infectious pathology of the upper respiratory tract - otitis media (inflammation of the middle ear), tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils), pharyngitis (inflammation of the pharynx) and laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx).
- Infectious pathology of the lower respiratory tract - bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi) and pneumonia (pneumonia).
- Infectious diseases of the urinary system - cystitis (inflammation of the bladder), urethritis (inflammation of the urethra), pyelonephritis (a bacterial process in the renal pelvis).
- Infections of the internal genital organs in a woman are postpartum abscess (the formation of a limited cavity filled with pus) of the uterus or tissue of the small pelvis.
- The infection process in the organs and tissue of the abdominal cavity - the intestines, peritoneum, liver and biliary tract.
- Infectious pathology of the skin and subcutaneous tissue - post-burn infection, furuncle (single purulent inflammation of sweat, sebaceous glands and their ducts), carbuncle (multiple purulent process of the same localization).
- Infections caused by infection of the structures of the jaw and teeth (odontogenic infections).
- Infectious pathology of the structures of the musculoskeletal system - bones ( osteomyelitis ) and joints (purulent arthritis).
- Preventive antibiotic therapy before or after performing any medical manipulations, accompanied by a violation of the integrity of the skin or mucous membranes.
Amoxicillin can also be used for combination therapy with several antibiotics of different therapeutic groups to increase the coverage of their spectrum of action.
The spectrum of contraindications to the use of Amoxiclav is not wide, it includes such states:
- Allergy to penicillins and their analogues is an absolute contraindication in which Amoxiclav is replaced with an antibiotic from another pharmacological group. Amoxicillin can cause a pronounced allergic reaction, which is manifested by a skin rash, itching, urticaria (rash on the background of edema of the skin, resembling a nettle burn), Quincke edema (angioedema of the skin and subcutaneous tissue), anaphylactic shock (severe allergic reaction, in which there is a progress and progressing subcutaneous tissue) decrease in systemic arterial pressure with the development of multiple organ failure).
- Severe violations of the functional activity of the liver and kidneys (insufficiency of these organs).
- Some viral diseases are infectious mononucleosis.
- The tumor process in the lymphocytic sprout of the red bone marrow is lymphocytic leukemia.
In the case of any allergic reactions to antibiotics of the penicillin series (these include amoxicillin), Amoxiclav also does not apply.
Dosing and Administration
Amoxiclav tablets are taken orally, preferably after a meal. The dosage depends on the severity of the infection process and the age of the patient. Recommended dosage for pills:
- Children from 6 to 12 years old - ½ tablet with a concentration of active ingredients 500/125 mg 2 times a day. In case of severe infection, ½ tablet is taken 3 times a day.
- Children over 12 years old and adults - with a moderate course of infection, one tablet of 500/125 mg is prescribed 2 times a day (the dose rate can be increased up to 3 times a day). In case of severe bacterial infection, tablets of 875/125 mg are used, the frequency of their administration 2 times a day.
The course and dosage of application of Amoxiclav is determined by the attending physician based on many factors - improvement of the condition, severity of the infectious process, its localization. It is also desirable to conduct laboratory monitoring of the effectiveness of therapy with the help of bacteriological research.
Taking Amoxiclav tablets may lead to the development of a number of side effects:
- Dyspeptic syndrome - loss of appetite, nausea, intermittent vomiting, diarrhea.
- Medicinal effects on the digestive system caused by taking Amoxiclav - darkening of the tooth enamel, inflammation of the gastric mucosa ( gastritis ), inflammation of the small (enteritis) and thick (colitis) intestines.
- Damage to hepatocytes (liver cells) with an increase in the level of their enzymes (AST, ALT) and bilirubin in the blood, a violation of bile (cholestatic jaundice).
- Allergic reactions that occur for the first time and may be accompanied by violations of varying severity - from skin rashes to the development of anaphylactic shock.
- Disorders in the hematopoietic system - decrease in the level of leukocytes (leukocytopenia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), decrease in blood clotting, hemolytic anemia, due to the destruction of a large number of erythrocytes.
- Changes in the functional activity of the central nervous system - dizziness, pain in the head, development of seizures.
- Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney (interstitial nephritis), the appearance of crystals (crystalluria) or blood (hematuria) in the urine.
- Dysbacteriosis - a violation of the normal microflora of the mucous membranes, due to the destruction of bacteria that inhabit them. Against the background of dysbacteriosis, a side effect may be the development of a fungal infection.
In the case of side effects, taking pills Amoxiclav stop.
The use of Amoxiclav tablets should be carried out only as prescribed by a doctor. It is also advisable to read the instructions to the drug. Be sure to take into account special instructions in relation to the reception of the drug:
- Before you start taking, make sure that there are no allergic reactions to antibiotics of the penicillin group and its analogues in the past. If necessary, it is desirable to test for the presence of allergies.
- The drug should be used only in the development of a bacterial infection caused by bacteria susceptible to amoxicillin. Amoxiclav is ineffective against viruses. Optimal before the start of antibiotic therapy is to conduct bacteriological research with the release of the culture of the pathogen of the pathological process and determine its sensitivity to Amoxiclav.
- If there is no effect from the start of Amoxiclav tablets use within 48-72 hours, it is replaced with another antibiotic or change therapeutic tactics.
- Very carefully, Amoxiclav is used in patients with concomitant dysfunction of the liver or kidneys, and their functional activity is monitored simultaneously.
- During the course of taking the drug (especially with a course of treatment exceeding 5 days), periodic clinical blood tests are necessary to control the number of its formed elements (erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets).
- There is no data on the damaging effect of Amoxiclav on the developing fetus. However, its use in the first trimester of pregnancy is undesirable. In late pregnancy and while breastfeeding, the drug is allowed to use, but the reception should be carried out only under the supervision of a physician.
- Amoxiclav tablets for young children do not apply, as it contains a high concentration of active substances, calculated on the age of 6 years.
- The combined reception with drugs of other medicinal groups should be very careful. You can not simultaneously use drugs that reduce blood clotting, which have a toxic effect on the liver or kidneys.
- Amoxiclav tablets do not adversely affect the rate of human reaction and the concentration of his attention.
All these specific instructions regarding the use of Amoxiclav are necessarily taken into account by the attending physician before his appointment.
A significant excess of the therapeutic dose when taking Amoxiclav tablets can be accompanied by changes in the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain), nervous system (headache, drowsiness, convulsions ). Sometimes an overdose of this drug can lead to hemolytic anemia, liver or kidney failure. In the event of overdose symptoms, it is necessary to immediately stop taking the drug and seek medical help. The drug is released in pharmacies by prescription.
Terms and conditions of storage
The storage time of the tablets Amoxiclav is 2 years. They must be stored in a dark place inaccessible to children at a temperature not exceeding 25 ° C.
Analogs of Amoxiclav Tablets
The drugs, the main active components of which are amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, are Amoksivan, Augmentin, Baktoklav, Medoklav, Panklav, Renklav, Flemoklav.
Price of amoxiclav
Amoxiclav tablets 250 mg + 125 mg, 15 pcs. - from 210 rubles.
Amoxiclav tablets 500 mg + 125 mg, 15 pcs. - from 335 rubles.
Amoxiclav tablets 875 mg + 125 mg, 14 pcs. - from 424 rubles.